Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

BlueScape How to Create a CEQA Air Quality Analysis for Development Projects - Design for Success Webinar 042717

367 views

Published on

This webinar by James Westbrook, President of BlueScape Environmental, provides an overview of how to create a CEQA Air Quality Analysis. The first section of the webinar discusses when an Air Quality Analysis must be completed under CEQA; project types including construction and operation phases; air pollutant emission sources and applicable CEQA significance thresholds; how to construct a conservative analysis while filling in assumption “holes;” review of project alternatives and mitigation requirements; the role of air agencies in CEQA review and relationship to other actions such as air permitting; special analysis cases; and strategies to work with agencies and the public throughout the air quality impact review process. The webinar is presented from the standpoint of CEQA air quality guidelines provided by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD).

The second part of the webinar presents a technical discussion on methods and tools used to complete air quality studies, including CalEEMod emission modeling software, CARB EMFAC and OFFROAD databases, and AERMOD and HARP2 impact modeling software. A case example for completing an air quality study for a commercial development using CalEEMod is presented.

James Westbrook can be reached at training@bluescapeinc.com or 877-486-9257. Please contact us for questions and support for how to create a CEQA Air Quality Analysis.

Published in: Environment
  • Great presentation, James. -Kevin Moin
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

BlueScape How to Create a CEQA Air Quality Analysis for Development Projects - Design for Success Webinar 042717

  1. 1. How to Create a CEQA Air Quality Analysis for Development Projects Design for Success! April 27, 2017 James A. Westbrook, President jwestbrook@bluescapeinc.com 877-486-9257
  2. 2. Webinar Topics Section 1: CEQA Air Quality Analysis Process -  CEQA Air Quality Review Requirements and Process -  Air Quality Issues reviewed under CEQA -  5 Air Quality Analysis Process Steps: Identify Needs - Gather Info – Calculate Emissions – Impact Modeling - Report -  Significance Thresholds; Project and Cumulative Impacts -  Special Siting Cases -  Strategies for an Approvable Air Quality Analysis Report Section 2: Air Quality Impacts Technical Discussion -  Air Emission Calculations -  Localized Significance Thresholds (SCAQMD) -  Air Quality Modeling for Criteria Pollutants -  Health Risk Assessment for Diesel Particulate Emissions
  3. 3. CEQA Air Quality Impact Analysis Requirements
  4. 4. CEQA Regulation Overview •  Applies to development “projects” such as airports, freeways, office buildings, housing developments, etc. •  1970 – California Environmental Quality Act signed into legislation •  CEQA Statute: Public Resources Code Div 13, §21000 et seq –  Identify significant effects, mitigate or avoid significant effects where feasible, approve if infeasible to mitigate provided other laws met –  Project impacts, cumulatively considerable with other projects, adverse effects on human beings •  CEQA Guidelines CCR Title 14, Div. Chap 3, §15000 et seq •  Lead Agencies in charge of CEQA review •  Air Districts are Responsible Agencies, review and input
  5. 5. ref: h1p://resources.ca.gov/ ceqa/flowchart
  6. 6. When is an Air Quality Analysis Required under CEQA? •  Must have a “Project” •  Not exempt from CEQA or ministerial (non- discretionary) •  Lead Agency prepares Initial Study to determine a project’s environmental impact •  Possible Significant Impact? –  EIR or Negative Declaration (Neg Dec) prepared by Lead Agency •  Air Quality section of the EIR document, separate technical study report •  Public comment period on Draft EIR or Neg Dec •  Need an EIR to require air quality review?
  7. 7. Air Quality Issues Review under CEQA •  Criteria Pollutants - Regional and Localized Impacts –  Ozone (NOx and VOC precursors), Particulate Matter (PM), NO2, CO, SO2 –  Particulate Matter - PM10 or PM2.5 from combustion or fugitive dust –  Localized sensitive receptor impacts for NO2, PM, and CO –  Traffic-related CO roadway and intersection hotspots •  Greenhouse Gases (GHG or CO2e) –  Climate Change, California AB32 regulation •  Air Toxics –  Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) –  Other combustion toxics, operation-related toxics –  Asbestos from demolition –  Subsurface contamination releases •  Nuisance-Related Issues –  Odors –  Methane •  Hazardous Material Spills, Explosions?
  8. 8. CEQA Air Quality Analysis Steps
  9. 9. CEQA Air Quality Analysis Steps
  10. 10. Step 1: Identify Air Pollutants and Requirements •  What kind of Project and Location? –  Demo old/build new Commercial Office Building in mid-Wilshire District Los Angeles –  Expand berth facilities for a Port of San Diego tenant –  Build a new Power plant in South San Francisco •  Local Planning Agency and Air District Guidelines •  Identify Project Information: –  Preferred project alternative, and other alternatives including no action –  Equipment and activities that cause air emission impacts –  Identify project pollutants; Construction, Operation –  Identify significance thresholds –  Potential odors, methane, spills •  Locations of nearby sensitive receptors – schools, residences, day care •  Background monitoring data for setting, location of existing pollution “hot spots” •  Identify local regulations and emission reduction requirements •  Recently completed EIRs/Air Studies, agency and public comments •  Identify nearby projects for cumulative impacts with other projects
  11. 11. CEQA Significance Thresholds •  Criteria Pollutants – NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, CO, SOx –  Emission significance thresholds daily (peak lb/day), annual (tons/year) –  Published by Planning Agencies and Air Districts, or stated within a General Plan –  California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - concentrations •  GHG –  Not cumulatively considerable for Climate Change •  Health Risk Impacts for Air Toxic Issues (SCAQMD) –  Cases cancer per million at maximum exposed receptors –  Population-wide cancer burden –  Hazard index (HI) for noncancer chemicals •  Nuisance issues – generally can’t happen, must be mitigated
  12. 12. South Coast AQMD Significance Thresholds Pollutant Construc-on Opera-on NOx 100 lbs/day 55 lbs/day VOC 75 lbs/day 55 lbs/day PM10 150 lbs/day 150 lbs/day PM2.5 55 lbs/day 55 lbs/day SOx 150 lbs/day 150 lbs/day CO 550 lbs/day 550 lbs/day Lead 3 lbs/day 3 lbs/day Toxic Air Contaminants (TACs), Odor, and GHG Thresholds TACs MICR ≥ 10 in 1 million Cancer Burden > 0.5 Chronic & Acute HI ≥ 1.0 Odor Project Creates an Odor Nuisance Pursuant to SCAQMD Rule 402 GHG 10,000 MT/yr CO2e for Industrial Facili]es 3,000 MT/yr CO2e for Residen]al/Commercial Projects
  13. 13. GHG Significance Analysis •  California AB32 Regulation –  Reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020 –  SB32 signed 9/8/16; reduce 40% below 1990 levels by 2040 –  Focus on operational emissions; minimize construction emissions •  Starting to shape up like: –  Consistency with a qualified Climate Action Plan, or –  Significance thresholds Ref: Placer Co CEQA Thresholds of Significance Jus8fica8on Report
  14. 14. Step 2: Gather Information •  Site Plans and Activity Locations •  Project Phasing Details, by month and year –  Construction - demo, site prep, paving and painting –  Operation - when the project open for business •  Equipment Type and Activity –  Mobile Source Combustion Emissions - Onroad and Offroad –  Stationary Source Emissions - e.g. boiler, kiln, coating line –  Fugitive Dust - demo, grading, loading/hauling, road dust SHORTCUTS! District Screening tables; CalEEMod has pre-populated project types •  Required and voluntary emission controls – watering, diesel filters, solar panels, tinted windows •  Emission-Related Information – HP rating, load factor, usage factor, miles and hours travelled •  Operation schedule - hours per day, months, years •  “Holes” to fill in?
  15. 15. Equipment Information Construction Equipment Fuel Use Fuel Use Pieces of Equipment by Month Operation Equipment Type Fuel Rating (hp) Load Factor Usage Factor gal/hp-hr gal/hr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 (hr/day) 175 CFM AIR COMPRESSOR Diesel 80 0.48 0.50 0.050 1.0 1 1 1 1 1 9 BACKHOE -TRACK 1/2 CY Diesel 106 0.465 0.70 0.050 1.7 1 1 9 BOBCAT OR DITCH WITCH Diesel 58 0.465 0.75 0.050 1.0 2 2 2 2 2 9 70 TON MOBILE CRANE Diesel 250 0.43 0.90 0.050 4.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 5000# FORKLIFT Diesel 50 0.3 0.80 0.050 0.6 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 9 TRACTOR (TRUCK) Diesel 80 0.465 0.50 0.050 0.9 1 1 1 1 9 JLG MANLIFT W/ 80' BOOM Diesel 80 0.505 0.25 0.050 0.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 PERSONNEL LIFT Diesel 115 0.465 0.25 0.050 0.7 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 9 375 CFM AIR COMPRESSOR Diesel 145 0.48 0.50 0.050 1.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 Welding Machine Electric 20 0.45 1.00 0.050 0.5 1 1 1 1 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 2 9 Construction Vehicle Peak Daily Number by Month Vehicle Type Miles/ Veh.-Day Starts/ Veh.-Day Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 On-site pickup truck 5 5 1 1 1 3 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 On-site dump truck 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Off-site construction worker commute 22.5 2 18 34 55 82 119 166 197 186 191 190 174 110 Off-site delivery vehicle 22.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
  16. 16. Step 3: Calculate Emissions Compare to Thresholds •  Assess Level-of-Effort – go with screening tables, CalEEMod or spreadsheets? –  Conserva]ve and technically defensible –  CalEEMod socware facilitates agency review –  Spreadsheet provide more flexibility, control and transparency •  Throw calcula]ons into one project “Day”, or across phases that don’t overlap •  Pre-mi]ga]on and post-mi]ga]on –  Pre-mi]ga]on includes what project must do by rule or ordinance –  Post-mi]ga]on includes voluntary op]ons –  Decide whether to show separately or just as final project emissions •  Compare to Significance Thresholds – Done? Refine Assump]ons? •  Cumula]vely considerable with other nearby projects? •  Never submit an Air Quality Analysis with un-mi]gated significant impacts –  Be sure to address any cumula]ve impacts with other projects •  Expect feasible mi]ga]on to be required reduce impacts, whether significant or not
  17. 17. Step 4: Impact Modeling (if required) •  Criteria pollutant impacts exceed emission thresholds –  Option to complete dispersion modeling with screening tools or AERMOD, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO, SO2 –  Show impacts are less than the California or National Ambient Air Quality Standards –  Not an option for NOx or VOC as a precursor to ozone •  In South Coast AQMD, dispersion modeling for localized impacts (LST analysis) for parcels greater than 5 acres •  CO Hotspot Modeling, high increases in traffic volume or roadway level-of-service •  Health Risk Impacts – a quantitative Health Risk Assessment must be completed to assess significance –  Unless you can state qualitatively negligible diesel PM or other toxics –  Depending on proximity of sensitive receptors –  Calculate health risks using spreadsheets and screening tables or HARP2 software
  18. 18. Step 5: Air Quality Technical Report Submittal Technical Report Sec-on Contents Introduc]on Air Quality Technical Report Sec]on Introduc]on Environmental Sehng Project Loca]on and Descrip]on Health Effects of Criteria Pollutants Exis]ng Regional and Local Air Quality Exis]ng Project Site Emissions Federal, State, and Local Regula]ons Environmental Impacts Methodology Thresholds of Significance Project Impacts Cumula]ve Impacts Cumula]ve Construc]on Impacts Cumula]ve Opera]on Impacts Mi]ga]on Measures Mi]ga]on Measures Considered Conclusions Level of Significance Acer Mi]ga]on Summary of Findings
  19. 19. Special Cases – Siting Near Existing Pollution Sources •  Sensitive Land Use Projects located near existing pollution sources: freeways, rail line, ports, refineries, chromium operations, odor sources: –  See the CARB Air Quality and Land Use Handbook1 –  Buffers, HVAC filters, vegetation barriers, and solid walls •  Schools get special protection under state law Not generally required by CEQA, but prudent to consider what existing pollution source impacts will be on persons that will that will be located at your Project. •  What about subsurface contamination, vapor intrusion? 1Final Handbook, April 2005 Technical Advisory, April 2017 h1ps://www.arb.ca.gov/ch/landuse.htm
  20. 20. Summary - Strategies for an Air Quality Study •  Design the right air quality study appropriate for your type of project and the setting •  Homework - take time to gather all the information, make a solid strategy before you start the real work •  Work with the right CEQA land use attorney and consultants •  Prepare a conservative, defensible analysis; expect challenges on GHG and health risk impacts •  Leave room in your project for refinement and more mitigation •  Do not submit an air quality analysis with significant impacts if at all possible •  Leverage current guidance and precedent on recent projects •  Show your work, provide transparency in the work to avoid review delays •  Engage and involve agency staff and public stakeholders in solving problems and deciding on mitigation
  21. 21. CEQA Air Quality Analysis Technical Discussion
  22. 22. Technical Discussion Topics •  Air Emission Calculations: Criteria Pollutants and GHG •  Localized Significance Thresholds (South Coast AQMD) •  Criteria Pollutant Air Quality Modeling •  Health Risk Assessment for Diesel Particulate Emissions
  23. 23. Tools to Calculate Project Emissions •  CalEEMod – CA Emissions Estimation Model: –  For criteria pollutants, GHG, air toxic diesel PM –  Supersedes URBEMIS –  Construction and Operational phases –  Good for representative project types, commercial building, mall –  Emission factors from EMFAC, OFFROAD, EPA AP-42 automatically included, but can by over-written by the user –  Advantage - Reproducible by agencies •  vs Spreadsheet Calculations: –  More time to set up, but also more flexible and refined –  Good for detailed emissions calculations for larger projects –  Better customization of emissions calculations –  Provides transparency for detailed project phases, specific equipment types, and mitigation –  Mobile AND Point Source emission estimates –  Example: Roadway Construction Emissions Model (Sacramento Metropolitan AQMD’s spreadsheet model) Check with your local air district for more guidance on methods used to estimate emissions
  24. 24. What Does CalEEMod Estimate? •  Construction emissions: –  Fugitive dust – PM10 and PM2.5 –  Mobile source (Onroad and Offroad equipment) - combustion –  VOCs from painting and paving activities •  Operational emissions: –  Fugitive road dust - PM10 and PM2.5 –  Mobile source (Onroad traffic) - combustion –  VOCs from painting, consumer products, and cleaning supplies –  Emissions from landscaping equipment, wood stoves and hearths –  GHG Emissions from electricity, natural gas, water usage •  Mitigated and Unmitigated emissions Download CalEEMod here: h1p://www.caleemod.com/
  25. 25. Corporate Development Project •  Mid-Wilshire Los Angeles area •  Demolish old office buildings •  Build a five building corporate complex = 200,000 sq. ft. •  Underground parking = 100,000 sq. ft. •  Project Site = 4.5 acres •  Number of Employees = 500 •  Construction Timeframe = January 2018 – March 2019 (1.25 years) •  Enforcing Public Agency: L.A. City Planning Dept. •  Air District: SCAQMD
  26. 26. CalEEMod Home Page Enter Project loca]on, Start of Construc]on, Opera]onal Year, U]lity Company, and Select Pollutants to be Evaluated.
  27. 27. CalEEMod Land Use Page Enter Land Use Type and Subtype, and size of project site / buildings / parking garage. Yellow boxes are non-default values entered by the user and must be explained in the Remarks box.
  28. 28. CalEEMod Construc]on Schedule Page Enter construc]on schedule details
  29. 29. CalEEMod Dust from Material Movement Page Enter details about dirt removed for parking garage
  30. 30. CalEEMod Demoli]on Page Enter square footage of buildings to be demolished
  31. 31. CalEEMod Opera]onal - Mobile Page Defaults from EMFAC2014 for vehicle opera]ons can be customized, if the user has more accurate informa]on
  32. 32. CalEEMod Opera]onal – Sta]onary Sources Pages Enter any known opera]onal sta]onary sources
  33. 33. CalEEMod Opera]onal – Area: Architectural Coa]ngs Page Override defaults for VOC content of paint to be used, if the district has that restric]on.
  34. 34. CalEEMod Mi]ga]on Pages Enter any mi]ga]on measures to be taken for Construc]on phases, Traffic, Area, Energy, Water, and/or Solid Waste
  35. 35. OFFROAD2011 – Offroad Vehicle Emissions OFFROAD2011 Access Database:h1ps:// www.arb.ca.gov/msei/categories.htm
  36. 36. EMFAC2014 – Onroad Vehicle Emissions EMFAC2014: h1ps://www.arb.ca.gov/emfac/2014/
  37. 37. CalEEMod Reports •  Summer and Winter Reports: –  Unmitigated and Mitigated lbs/day for each Construction Phase and for Operational Phases for selected pollutants –  Results to be compared to Significance Thresholds •  Annual Report: –  Unmitigated and Mitigated tons/yr for each Construction Phase and for Operational Phases for selected pollutants –  GHG results to be compared to Significance Thresholds •  Summary Report: –  Summarizes lb/day for Criteria Pollutants and tons/yr for GHG –  Numbers followed by a “W” are Winter numbers; “S” are Summer numbers
  38. 38. CalEEMod Summary Report – Page 1 of 4
  39. 39. CalEEMod Summary Report – Page 2 of 4
  40. 40. CalEEMod Summary Report – Page 3 of 4
  41. 41. CalEEMod Summary Report – Page 4 of 4
  42. 42. Compare Mi]gated Peak Daily Emission Results to SCAQMD Significance Thresholds ROG (lb/day) NOx (lb/day) CO (lb/day) SO2 (lb/day) PM10 (lb/day) PM2.5 (lb/day) Construc]on CalEEMod Emissions 31.7 65.4 25.8 0.12 9.8 6.3 Threshold 75 100 550 150 150 55 Exceed Significance? No No No No No No Opera]on CalEEMod Emissions 8.7 22.9 57.8 0.20 15.3 4.3 Threshold 55 55 550 150 150 55 Exceed Significance? No No No No No No
  43. 43. Compare Mi]gated Annual GHG Emission Results to SCAQMD Significance Threshold Phase CO2e (MT/yr) Total Construc]on GHG 907 Amor]zed Construc]on GHG Emissions 30 Opera]onal GHG Emissions 4,898 Total GHG Emissions 4,928 Threshold 3,000 Exceeds Threshold? Yes GHG from Construc]on is amor]zed over 30 years, then added to Opera]onal GHG emissions for total project GHG emissions. Exceeds SCAQMD GHG Significance Threshold! Need to provide addi-onal mi-ga-on measures for opera-ons.
  44. 44. SCAQMD: Localized Significance Thresholds •  Mass Rate Lookup Tables developed by SCAQMD •  Localized impacts of NO2 (from NOx), CO, PM10, and PM2.5 •  Construction and Operation thresholds developed for: –  1-acre, 2-acre, and 5-acre sized projects –  Source-Receptor Areas located in SCAQMD’s jurisdiction –  Sensitive receptors located 25 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, or 500 m away from project site •  Tier 1 approach to determine localized impacts
  45. 45. Example: SCAQMD Localized Significance Thresholds Mass Rate Lookup Tables: h1p://www.aqmd.gov/docs/default-source/ceqa/handbook/localized- significance-thresholds/appendix-c-mass-rate-lst-look-up-tables.pdf?sfvrsn=2
  46. 46. Compare CalEEMod Results to Localized Significance Thresholds NOx (lb/day) CO (lb/day) PM10 (lb/day) PM2.5 (lb/day) Construc]on Phases CalEEMod Emissions 65.4 25.8 9.8 6.3 Threshold 143 1580 13.3 7 Exceed Significance? No No No No Opera]on Phase (Area + Energy) CalEEMod Emissions 0.56 0.50 0.04 0.04 Threshold 143 1580 3.3 2 Exceed Significance? No No No No SRA No. 1 Central LA, 25 m distance to receptor, extrapolated from 2 acre and 5 acre project site thresholds
  47. 47. Criteria Pollutant Modeling •  South Coast AQMD – projects larger than 5 acres •  Other Districts; NO2, PM, CO, or SO2 emissions significant •  CO hotspots modeling for traffic •  AERMOD dispersion model or AERSCREEN •  Refined modeling - use pre-processed meteorological data •  Model emission sources as point, volume, or area sources •  Concentration thresholds – CA and National ambient standards –  Includes background concentrations for attainment areas –  Significant impact threshold for non-attainment areas
  48. 48. Health Risk Assessment for Diesel PM •  Calculate Mitigated Diesel (PM) DPM Emissions (CalEEMod and/or Calculation Spreadsheets): –  Construction total DPM emissions; average operational DPM emissions over project life –  Calculate annual average DPM emissions in g/s •  Long-term Cancer and Chronic Noncancer risks per OEHHA Guidance –  Also may be required to consider acute (short-term) risk impacts •  Impacts on nearest sensitive receptors –  Residents –  Schools and Day Care Centers –  Hospitals and Adult Care Facilities –  Workers –  Recreation Areas •  Modeling tools: District risk screening tools, AERMOD, HARP2 OEHHA Air Toxics Hot Spots Risk Assessment Guidelines: h1ps://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/crnr/2015guidancemanual.pdf
  49. 49. Resident Cancer Risk Formula for DPM Cancer Risk = Cair * AF * DBR * EF * 10-6 * CPF * ASF * ED/AT * FAH where: Cair = Air concentra]on (µg/m3) AF = Annual concentra]on adjustment factor (1.0 for residents) DBR = Daily breathing rate over age bins and dura]on (wtd, L/kg-day) EF = Exposure frequency (unitless, days/365 days; 0.96 for SCAQMD) 10-6 = Conversion; µg to mg and L to m3 CPF = 70-year inhala]on cancer potency factor (1.1 mg/kg-day)-1 ASF = Age Sensi]vity Factor over age bins (wtd, unitless) ED = Exposure dura]on (30 years for SCAQMD) AT = Averaging ]me for life]me (70 years) FAH = Frac]on ]me at home over age bins (unitless) Note 1: Cancer risk is summed across diesel PM sources for each receptor loca]on Note 2: Cancer risk is expressed as in terms of per million persons South Coast AQMD Rule 1401 Guidance – (DBR * ED * ASF * FAH) * EF / AT = CEF = 677 for 30 yrs = 311 for 2 yrs
  50. 50. Age Sensi]vity Factors (ASFs) - Higher Residen]al Cancer Risks ASF, Breathing Rates, and Frac]on-at-Home higher for children. OEHHA recommends agencies review high short-term impacts of large projects over short periods; consider lower risk thresholds. See BlueScape webinar – new OEHHA guidelines
  51. 51. CEQA Air Quality Technical Guidance •  SCAQMD http://www.aqmd.gov/home/regulations/ceqa/air-quality- analysis-handbook •  California ARB Air Quality and Land Use Handbook https://www.arb.ca.gov/ch/landuse.htm •  CalEEMod User’s Guide http://www.aqmd.gov/caleemod/user's-guide •  OEHHA https://oehha.ca.gov/air/crnr/notice-adoption-air-toxics-hot- spots-program-guidance-manual-preparation-health-risk-0 •  EMFAC2014 (Onroad vehicles) https://www.arb.ca.gov/emfac/2014/ •  OFFROAD (Offroad vehicles) https://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/ categories.htm#offroad_motor_vehicles
  52. 52. Ques]ons? Contact Informa]on James A. Westbrook, President BlueScape Environmental 877-486-9257 jwestbrook@bluescapeinc.com www.bluescapeinc.com Connect with me on Linkedin! The webinar presentation will be posted on Slideshare and YouTube

×