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Tactile sensors and their robotic applications

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This presentation discusses about artificial tactile sensors, it's comparison with human tactile senses. Further different types of tactile sensors are enlisted ,with a few given in more detail.
Robotic applications are also discussed and then finally future developments in this area is mentioned.

Published in: Engineering
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  • Thank you for sharing this. As an added resource, we have been developing tactile sensors to give robots the sense of touch for many years. You can see some of our robotic applications here: http://www.pressureprofile.com/oem-robotics
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Tactile sensors and their robotic applications

  1. 1. Tactile Sensors and their Robotic Applications Mentor : Prof. Himanshu Patel Prepared by : Aasheesh Tandon(12BIC044) Paxaj Shukla(12BIC056)
  2. 2. Welcome!
  3. 3. Overview :  What is Tactile Sensor?  Analogy with the Human Touch  Tactile Sensing : How?  A Case Study  Robotic Applications  Directions for Future Research
  4. 4. What is Tactile Sensor?
  5. 5.  A tactile sensor is a device that measures information arising from physical interaction with its environment. • What does it sense ? Deformation of bodies (strain) or fields (electric or magnetic).
  6. 6. Analogy with the Human Touch
  7. 7. Types of Human Touch  Cutaneous Sensations - Cutaneous sense receives sensory inputs from the receptors embedded in the skin.  Senses : temperature, pressure, pain  Kinesthetic Sensations - Kinesthetic sense receives sensory inputs from the receptors located within muscles, tendons and joints.  Senses : body position, movement, equilibrium  Tactile Sensor  Cutaneous Sensory Receptors
  8. 8. From a Designer’s Perspective (An Approach to develop Artificial Touch Sensing) Strengths of Human Touch Sensors :  Large number of Sensors  Anticipation Drawbacks :  Non-Linearity  Hysteresis  Low Frequency of Signals
  9. 9. Types of Signal in Human Touch Sensing Basis of Classification :  Type of Signal Frequency of Signal
  10. 10. Contd..  Cutaneous Touch(Internal Sensing) – Tactel grid  Kinesthetic Touch(External Sensing) - Force- Torque Sensor Strengths Weakness  Linearity No Anticipation  Low Hysteresis  High Frequency of Signals
  11. 11. A grid of Tactels
  12. 12. A Thermal Image formed by a Tactel
  13. 13. Force-Torque Sensor
  14. 14. Tactile Sensors : How?
  15. 15. Tactile sensing: Methods of transduction  Usually an array of discrete sensing elements.  Sensing elements can be many types:  Resistive: strain gauge, piezoresistive.  Capacitive  Piezoelectric  & others like (magnetic, optical, conductive rubber, ultrasonic)
  16. 16. Resistive Sensing Elements :  Strain gauge: a thin film having a metal pattern that changes resistance when strained.  Piezoresistive element : Pressure on the element causes the material to compress, changing it’s resistance  Advantages: very simple construction, durable, good dynamic range, easy readout  Disadvantages: non-linearity, hysteresis, low sensitivity Strain gauge
  17. 17. Capacitive Sensing Elements :  Mechanical deformation changes the capacitance of parallel conducting plates
  18. 18. Capacitive Sensing Elements :  Main application area: Touchscreens.  Advantages: good dynamic range, linearity  Disadvantages: noise, measuring capacitance is hard! (compared to measuring resistance)
  19. 19. Other sensing methods:  Piezoelectric: measures voltage created due to polarization under stress  Magnetic: uses Hall effect to measure change in flux density  List of other methods with their merits & demerits are as follows :
  20. 20. A Case Study
  21. 21. The Approach  MEA based Tactel + Force-Torque Sensor  First, a reference frame is defined  Force-Torque Sensor  Contact pin-pointed through Tactel
  22. 22. A Taxel
  23. 23. Electronic Circuit of a single Taxel
  24. 24. Robotic Applications
  25. 25. Applications :  Manipulation: Grasp force control; contact locations and kinematics; stability assessment.  Exploration: Surface texture, friction and hardness; thermal properties; local features.  Response: Detection and reaction to contacts from external agents.
  26. 26. Application: Nasa’s Robonaut 2  One of the examples directly related to planetary exploration.  NASA wants to use this on the International Space Station, helping humans with repairing/maintenance tasks in cluttered environments.  They tried many tactile sensors (initially Force- Sensitive-Resistors(FSR), now Quantum Tunneling
  27. 27. Application : Manipulation  Contact Detection  Moving a hand to grasp the desired object  Deciding the force required to grasp the object  Moving the object
  28. 28. Tactile Sensors as Manipulators
  29. 29. Proximity Sensors on Finger Tip
  30. 30. Tracking a Moving Object
  31. 31. Directions for Future Research  Flexible substrates for skin-like tactile sensors  Materials with different surface properties (long lasting materials, self cleaning)  Different display mediums (acoustic)  Improved dynamic tactile sensing
  32. 32. A Big Thank You!
  33. 33. References  Beebe, D. J., A. S. Hsieh, et al. (1995). "A Silicon Force Sensor for Robotics and Medicine."  Sensors and Actuators A 50: 55-65.  Berger, A. D. and P. K. Khosla (1991). "Using tactile data for real-time feedback." The  Bicchi, A., J. K. Salisbury, et al. (1990). Augmentation of grasp robustness using intrinsic  tactile sensing. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation.  Charlebois, M., K. Gupta, et al. (2000). "On Estimating Local Shape Using Contact Sensing."  Journal of Robotic Systems 17(12): 643-658.  Cheung, E. and V. L. Lumelsky (1992). "A Sensitive Skin System for Motion Control of Robot
  34. 34. References(contd.)  Arm Manipulators." Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems 10: 9-32.  Chu, Z., P. M. Sarro, et al. (1996). "Silicon Three-Axial Tactile Sensor." Sensors and Actuators  Cutkosky, M. R. and I. Kao (1989). "Computing and controlling the compliance of a robotic  hand." IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 5(2): 151-165.  Dahiya, R. S., G. Metta, et al. (2008). "Tactile Sensing: From Humans to Humanoids." IEEE  Transactions on Robotics (unpublished).  Dahiya, R. S., M. Valle, et al. (2008). Tactile Sensing Arrays for Humanoid Robots using  Piezo-Polymer-FET devices. 13th National Conference on Sensors .  www.southampton.ac.uk/~rmc1/robotics/artactile.htm  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactile_sensor

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