<ul>1. Title 2. Index 3. Stony building materials 4. Binders building materials 5. Concrete 6. Ceramic materials 7. Other materials 8. Building phases - Preparation of the area 9. Foundation 10. Structure 11. Covers (roofs) 12. Closings 13. Flooring and cloisonne 14. Other instalations 15. Endings </ul>
<ul>Stony building materials </ul>They are materiales that come directly from the stone. The can be: -Compact rocks: they are blocks of stone of marble, granite, slate, etc. There are different types: -Ashlar, they are big rocks. -Rubles, they are rocks of half a side without being cut. -Cobbles, they are small blocks of stone used on paving. -Flagstone, they are flat, irregular and rectangular stones that are used on paving. Rubles Cobbles
Disgregated rocks: They are stone fragments of varying size. -Clays, or rocks very small grains, that are characterized by their great capacity of absorbing water. -Aggregates, or fragments from the disintegration of other rocks. They can be thin or thick.
They are all those materials which are generally soft, that when mixed with water become pasty and acquire rigidity. -Lime: It's obtained by decomposing the limestone subjecting them to heat. It's used to paint walls or to make bricks. It's aldo used as a protective finish. -Plaster: mineral powder,that when mixed with water, is used to cover walls. There are three types: -Black with impurities -White without impurities -Cast: It is a high quality plaster and it has a very fine grain. It is the most commonly used plaster in the costruction of buildings. -Cement: It is a hydraulic binder, that mixed with stone aggregates and water, creates a uniform, manageable and plastic mixture. There are various tipes of cement, but the most commonly used is the Portland cement, because it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most non-specialty grout. <ul>Binders building materials </ul>Lime Plaster
Concrete It is a mixture of aggregate, binder and water. Concrete is resistant to compression and tension. Its setting time is approximately two hours and has the ability of dilating. There are different types of concrete, but the most commonly used are: -Mass concrete: It's a type of concrete which hasn't got steel reinforcements inside . This concrete is only able to support compressive forces. -Reinforced concrete: It is a type of concrete that has steel reinforcement inside, properly calculated and located. This concrete is able to support tensile and compressive stress. It is the most common concrete.
-Cyclopean concrete: It is a type of concrete that has inside large stones of approximately 30 cm. -Cellular concrete: It is obtained by incorporating in the mixture air or other gasses from chemical reactions, resulting in a low density concrete. Concrete blocks are the base for the structure of walls that must be plaster later. The coating blocks heve mainly decorative use, with one side prepared for this purpose, having a huge variety of colors.
Ceramic materials Ceramic materials are obtained from firing clay (bricks and tiles). The process of ceramic materials elabroracion takes place in two stages: -Mixing and casting: a mixing machines mixe clay with water, then the dough is shaped by carrying it by different nozzles and then it is chopped with appropriate measures. -Baking continuous: the cut material circulates through chambers at different temperatures to prevent it from cracks and breaks.
The most commonly ceramic materials used are: -Bricks: Clay pieces which are perforated or solid. There are two types: -Thin brick, facing brick or view: Their color and appearance are attractive, they have good resistance to interperie and insulating properties. They are used in the construction of building facades -Bricks Regular of least resistance, more coarse and rough. They are used in walls and partitions. -Tile: clay pieces used on decks or roofs.
- Tiles: They are square or rectangular pieces composed of a layer of clay and a layer of vitreous enamel, which provides waterproofing and brightness. They are used to cover the walls of bathrooms or kitchens. -Sandstone: it's a mixture of clay, quartz and feldspar with which vitrified ceramics produced very resistant to wear. It is used to cover floors and walls. -Porcelain: It's a ceramic material coated with enamel, which gives it a glassy appearance. It is used in items for bathrooms, sinks and wash basins.
Other materials -Metals: the most commonly in construction include steel, aluminum and copper. -Timber: it is a common material in roofing doors, windows and in coverings of walls and floors. -Plastic:it is used in drains, electrical wiring, electrical equipment, in floor coverings, window enclosures, etc.. -Glass: it's used in windows, doors, fences, furniture and more.
Building phases 1 .Site preparation by demolition operations, earthmoving and leveling, which are made with heavy equipment. Tools or machinery: excavator, devasting, steamroller …
2.Foundation: It is the placement of the elements that form the foundation of the building. This part is located underground, and its shape and dimensions depend on the characteristics of the surrounding terrain. The foundation elements are the shoes, greedily or piles, and are usually of reinforced concrete. Machinery: mixers, pile drill, concrete pump, vibrators .
3.Structure: This phase will construct the pillars and plates that are to form the floors. Some are metal structures of steel beams, but most of the buildings are constructed by reinforced concrete. Machinery: tower cranes, serás, mixers.
4.Covers (roof): It involves the placement of the roof of the building, whose characteristics depend largely on the climate of the area. Well, in places where snowfall is frequent, the decks are constructed with a strong inclination for that snow does not accumulate and overload the building structure. The materials used in construction covered include: tiles, slabs of slate or zinc plates.
5.Closings: At this stage are built walls and partitions that enclose and divide the floors of the building in order to isolate it from abroad and distributing areas interiores.Se ordinary brick building covered with different materials and the interiors can also be prefabricated panels.
6.Flooring and cloisonne: plate on each floor of the building materials placed as marble, stoneware, wood, etc ... The wall is finished with plaster.
7.Other facilities: for the supply of water, gas and electricity, television and radio reception, air conditioning and air-conditioning, flat on computer networks, elevators, etc ... Each installation is conducted by a different team of specialized professionals.
8.Endings: in this final phase the building conforms to its final use (housing, offices, industry, etc..). For this, different teams of professionals (such as masons, carpenters and painters, etc) make use of the most diverse materials (paints, wood, ornamental stone materials and ceramics ...).