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Electric power plants
Index
1.1Energy sources(Uses,Definition and Classification)
2.1Electricity
2.2Electric power plant(How an electric power plant work)
2.3 Transport and distribution of electric energy.
3.1Conventional electric power plant.
3.2 Nuclear power plant
3.3 Fossil fuel thermal power plant(Combined cycle power
plant)
3.4 Hydroelectric power plants
4.1Non-conventional electric power plants
4.2Wind power plants and wind farms
4.3Solar power plants(Photo-thermal power plants and
photovoltaic power plant)
4.4Georthermal power plants
4.5Biomass thermal power plants
4.6Ocean power plants
5.1 Environmental impacts assesment
5.2(Extraction of natural resources, fuel transport,Electricity
generation and final energy use).
6.Investigation of wind turbine.
Energy Sources:

-Are natural resources from which we
 obtain different forms of energy that
can be transformed for a specific use.

 -The energy we consume has many
     different uses, for example:
   Household energy and Industrial
                energy
Examples of uses of energy sources
Household uses: The
 operating of
 electrical
 appliances, heating
 systems, hot water
 systems, heats for
 cooking and for
 means of transport.
Industrial energy:
  The operating of
  factories and
  companies,
  construction,
  agriculture and so
  on.
We can classify energy sources in
              several ways:
By availability in nature and capacity for
 regeneration: Renewable or Non-
 Renewable.
RENEWABLE: Abundant and inexhaustive
 for example: Trees, the sun, water, the
 wind...
NON-RENEWABLE: May or may not be
 abundant,depleted when we used them up,
 cannot be renewed in a short period of
By use in each country:

CONVENTIONAL: Most commonly used
CONVENTIONAL
 in industrialized countries, for example:
 energy that comes from fossil fuels.

NON CONVENTIONAL: Alternative energy
source, In early stages of the technological
development, solar and wind power belong to
Conventional energy
     sources
Alternative energy sources
By enviromental impact:

Clean or non polluting: Low enviromental
 impact, do not generate by-products that
 pollute the enviroment.
Pollutants: Sources that have negative
 effects on the enviroment, for example:
 they might generate by-products that
 severely pollute the enviroment.
                      enviroment
By origin:
Primary: The energy is obtained        directly
 from nature, examples:            crude oil,
 natural gas ,coal,            nuclear energy
 and renewable energies
Secondary: Resulting from
Secondary                        transformation
 of primary sources,        examples: electricity
 and some           petroleum derivatives
Electricity
It's the most widely used form of energy in
   inductrialised societies for two reasons:
-It can be easily transformed into other
   forms of energy.
-It can be transported easily long distances
Humans have an intimate relationship with
   electricity, to the point that it's virtually
   impossible to separate your life from it.
Even at the loneliest corners of the world,
 electricity exists. If it's not lighting up the
 storm clouds overhead or crackling in a
 static spark at your fingertips, then it's
 moving through the human nervous
 system, animating the brain's will in every
 flourish, breath and unthinking heartbeat.
How and electric power plant works.
1.)Some fuel source, such as coal, oil, natural
 gas, or nuclear energy produces heat.
2.)The heat is used to boil water to create steam.
 3)The steam under high pressure is used to
 spin a turbine.
4.)The spinning turbine interacts with a system
 of magnets to produce electricity.
5.)The electricity is transmitted as moving
 electrons through a series of wires to homes
 and business.
Transport and distribution of electric energy.
Electric power plants are usually located far away from
  the points where the energy is used for safety
  reasons.
Electricity can't be stored so it have to be transported to
  consumption centres. This transport involves several
  processes:
1) Incrising the voltage to 220.000V or 4000.000V to
  prevent significant energy loss.
2)Transporting it by high voltage cables attached to
  towers
3)Decreaing the voltage at the electricity substations to
  3-30 kV.
4)Distribution reducing the voltage to 230-400V
Nuclear power plants
This type of plant includes a nuclear
 fission reactor that produces the
 pressurised steam needed to move the
 turbine motor. Uranium is the main fuel
 used. Electricity is created by the
 uranium fission …
How does a nuclear power plant work.
Fossil fuel thermal power plants
At this type of power plant water is eated in
 a boiler by the heat generated from the
 combustion of a fossil fuel, usually natural
 gas or oil .The steam that is generated
 moves the turbine connected to the
 generator
Combined cycle of thermal power plants
Electricity is generated as a result of two combined
  cycles:
During the fist cycle gas turbine is used, including a
 compressor(Machine used to increase or
 decrease the pressure of a gas)
The combustion gases are transported to a boiler
  where they transfer the energy to the water during
  the second cycle.
Hydroelectric power plants
This type of power plant uses the potential
 energy provovided by the height of the
 store water in a dam, converting it into
 kinetic energy. This energy moves the
 blades of the turbine. Depending on the
 destination of the water it can be divided
 into two types:Gravity or pump.
Gravity-driven hydraulic power plants
Water used follows the course of a river and will not
 be reused.
Pump-driven hydraulic power plants


                              Water
                               descends
                               into a
                               reservoir
                               located at
                               lower
                               height, then
                               pumped to a
                               higher
                               reservoir to
                               reuse it.
Sizes of hydroelectric power plants

Large power
 plants


Small power
 plants

Micro-power
 plants
Non-conventional electric
     power plants.
Types of non-conventional
     energy power plants.
Wind power plants.
Solar power plants: Photo-thermal power
 plants and Photovoltaic power plants.
Geothermal power plants.
Biomass thermal power plants.
Ocean power plants.
Wind Power Plants

These power plants use the kinetic energy of
 the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the
 top of a tower; know as the wind turbine.
Wind power plants are a clean form of
 generating electricity. However, they can only
 be installed in places with appropiate wind
 conditions.
Parts of a Wind power plant
ADVANTAGES
  1 . W in d is R e n e w a b le a n d fre e o f c o s t
  2 . P o llu tio n fre e
  3 . C a n b e i n s t a l l e d i n r e m o t e v i l la g e s , t h u s r e d u c i n g c o s t l y t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s

D IS A D V A N T A G E S
     1 . C a p ita l c o s t is v e ry h ig h
     2 . L a rg e a re a o f la n d is re q u ire d
     3 . M a in te n a n c e c o s t is v e ry h ig h
Solar Power Plants

These plants use the energy from the sun
 to produce power.
There are two main types of installations:
 Photo-Thermal and Photovoltaic power
 plants.
Photovoltaic power plants
Photo-thermal power plants

In this type of power plants, the heat
  generated by solar radiation produces
  steam that is used to move the rotor in the
  generator.
To do this, they use special mirrors, called
  heliostats, that reflect sunlight and
  concentrate it at one point, where it
  reaches a high temperature.
Renewable source of energy    Capital cost is very high
                              Large area of land is
Pollution free                required
After the capital cost, the   Large number of solar
cost of power generation       panels are required
                              Affected by seasons.
is quite low.
Wide range of applications,
powering street lights to
satellites
Geothermal Power Plants
These plants use the heat found at deep
 levels in the earth. This heat may reach the
 surface in the form of steam, gases or hot
 water.
Geothermal energy may be used directly
 (for hot water and heating industrial use
 and so on) and indirectly (the heat
 generates steam, which produces
 electricity)
How does a geothermal power plant
              work
Biomass Thermal Power Plants
Biomass consists of all organic compounds that are
  produced through natural processes. They may
  come from the following sources:
Forestry and agricultural waste .
Specific crops, such as sunflowers and sugar beet.
Waste from agri-food industries.
Biomass is subjected to different physycal and
  chemical processes in order to produce fuel such as
  characoal, alcohol or biogas.
Ocean Power Plants
These type of power plants use the energy
 from the seas and the oceans, they use
 three types of energy from the sea:
The mechanical energy from the tides.
The mechanical energy from the waves.
The energy from the ocean's thermal
 gradient.
 gradient
Enviromental Impact
The building and operating of
an electrical power plant results
in an ecological change in that
region. This is due to the
construction of the necessary
infrastructure and the waste that
this activity generates
Enviromental impact assessement

An environmental impact assessment are
 the possible positive or negative impact
 that a proposed project may have on the
 environment.
The main characteristics of each type of
 power plant and the impact that they have
 on the enviroment are shown in the next
 slide:
Types of enviromental impact
Extraction of natural resources.
Fuel transport.
Electricity generation.
Final energy source.
Extraction of natural resources
The explotation of fossil fuels and nuclear power
  means the depletion of resources, which makes it
  necessary to find new ones.
Fuel extraction processes are sometimes harmful to
  the enviroment. In particular, timber (wood
  processed from trees harvested from forests)
  extraction has led to the disappearance of large
  areas of forests, a process that is continuing even
  today.
Fuel transport
Oil is transported by means of oil pipelines and oil
  tankers . Oil pipelines can suffer accidents caused by
  nature or human error, which result in uncontrolled
  spills. Oil tankers can suffer accidents at sea, with the
  risk of oil spills. Some spills have caused oil slicks (a
  film of crude oil leaked from ships which floats on top
  of sea water) that have taken years to clean up and
  dissipate, and have affected the lives of many plants
  and animals species.
Electricity generation
Large hidroelectric power plants require water
  reservoirs convering large areas, which profundly
  change the natural cycle of rivers, flood (area of land
  covered by water) large land areas and destroy
  ecosystems, in addition to increaing the risk of
  accidents.
Electricity generation
Conventional thermal power plants:
-They produce air pollution .
-They emit large amount of CO2, which increases the
  greenhouse effect.
-They emit sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide that
  cause acid rain.
-The water used in the cooling system is returned to the
  enviroment while it's still warm, which can affect both
  animal and plant life
Electricity generation
Nuclear thermal power plants are accompained by the
 risk of nuclear accidents and the problem of nuclear
 waste, some of which, remain dangerous for
 thousand of years.
Final energy use
The fuels we use in vehicles and heating systems emit
  gases and particles similar to those generated by
  conventional thermal power plants.
When we turn on an electric appliance, we are
 consuming energy that has already caused several
 enviromental prolems during its extraction, generation
 and transportation.
Brief comment about wind turbines that create water
                  from the air.

After we read the article we have realised that is a
  very innovative idea that will be very useful for arid
  countries where there aren't any posibilities of finding
  potable water. It's a very good idea because it won't
  cause any pollution although large extension of land will
  be required. We think that all of this water produced
  in the future will reach places where many adults,
  children and old people die because of deshidratation
  so we hope that it's the beginning of a huge change in
  our world.
By: Manuel Folgado
 and Blanca Bañas
 3ºA

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Electric Power Plants( Manuel and Blanca)

  • 2. Index 1.1Energy sources(Uses,Definition and Classification) 2.1Electricity 2.2Electric power plant(How an electric power plant work) 2.3 Transport and distribution of electric energy. 3.1Conventional electric power plant. 3.2 Nuclear power plant 3.3 Fossil fuel thermal power plant(Combined cycle power plant) 3.4 Hydroelectric power plants 4.1Non-conventional electric power plants 4.2Wind power plants and wind farms 4.3Solar power plants(Photo-thermal power plants and photovoltaic power plant) 4.4Georthermal power plants 4.5Biomass thermal power plants 4.6Ocean power plants 5.1 Environmental impacts assesment 5.2(Extraction of natural resources, fuel transport,Electricity generation and final energy use). 6.Investigation of wind turbine.
  • 3. Energy Sources: -Are natural resources from which we obtain different forms of energy that can be transformed for a specific use. -The energy we consume has many different uses, for example: Household energy and Industrial energy
  • 4. Examples of uses of energy sources Household uses: The operating of electrical appliances, heating systems, hot water systems, heats for cooking and for means of transport.
  • 5. Industrial energy: The operating of factories and companies, construction, agriculture and so on.
  • 6. We can classify energy sources in several ways: By availability in nature and capacity for regeneration: Renewable or Non- Renewable. RENEWABLE: Abundant and inexhaustive for example: Trees, the sun, water, the wind... NON-RENEWABLE: May or may not be abundant,depleted when we used them up, cannot be renewed in a short period of
  • 7.
  • 8. By use in each country: CONVENTIONAL: Most commonly used CONVENTIONAL in industrialized countries, for example: energy that comes from fossil fuels. NON CONVENTIONAL: Alternative energy source, In early stages of the technological development, solar and wind power belong to
  • 11. By enviromental impact: Clean or non polluting: Low enviromental impact, do not generate by-products that pollute the enviroment. Pollutants: Sources that have negative effects on the enviroment, for example: they might generate by-products that severely pollute the enviroment. enviroment
  • 12. By origin: Primary: The energy is obtained directly from nature, examples: crude oil, natural gas ,coal, nuclear energy and renewable energies Secondary: Resulting from Secondary transformation of primary sources, examples: electricity and some petroleum derivatives
  • 13. Electricity It's the most widely used form of energy in inductrialised societies for two reasons: -It can be easily transformed into other forms of energy. -It can be transported easily long distances Humans have an intimate relationship with electricity, to the point that it's virtually impossible to separate your life from it.
  • 14. Even at the loneliest corners of the world, electricity exists. If it's not lighting up the storm clouds overhead or crackling in a static spark at your fingertips, then it's moving through the human nervous system, animating the brain's will in every flourish, breath and unthinking heartbeat.
  • 15.
  • 16. How and electric power plant works. 1.)Some fuel source, such as coal, oil, natural gas, or nuclear energy produces heat. 2.)The heat is used to boil water to create steam. 3)The steam under high pressure is used to spin a turbine. 4.)The spinning turbine interacts with a system of magnets to produce electricity. 5.)The electricity is transmitted as moving electrons through a series of wires to homes and business.
  • 17.
  • 18. Transport and distribution of electric energy. Electric power plants are usually located far away from the points where the energy is used for safety reasons. Electricity can't be stored so it have to be transported to consumption centres. This transport involves several processes: 1) Incrising the voltage to 220.000V or 4000.000V to prevent significant energy loss. 2)Transporting it by high voltage cables attached to towers 3)Decreaing the voltage at the electricity substations to 3-30 kV. 4)Distribution reducing the voltage to 230-400V
  • 19.
  • 20. Nuclear power plants This type of plant includes a nuclear fission reactor that produces the pressurised steam needed to move the turbine motor. Uranium is the main fuel used. Electricity is created by the uranium fission …
  • 21.
  • 22. How does a nuclear power plant work.
  • 23. Fossil fuel thermal power plants At this type of power plant water is eated in a boiler by the heat generated from the combustion of a fossil fuel, usually natural gas or oil .The steam that is generated moves the turbine connected to the generator
  • 24.
  • 25. Combined cycle of thermal power plants Electricity is generated as a result of two combined cycles: During the fist cycle gas turbine is used, including a compressor(Machine used to increase or decrease the pressure of a gas) The combustion gases are transported to a boiler where they transfer the energy to the water during the second cycle.
  • 26. Hydroelectric power plants This type of power plant uses the potential energy provovided by the height of the store water in a dam, converting it into kinetic energy. This energy moves the blades of the turbine. Depending on the destination of the water it can be divided into two types:Gravity or pump.
  • 27. Gravity-driven hydraulic power plants Water used follows the course of a river and will not be reused.
  • 28. Pump-driven hydraulic power plants Water descends into a reservoir located at lower height, then pumped to a higher reservoir to reuse it.
  • 29. Sizes of hydroelectric power plants Large power plants Small power plants Micro-power plants
  • 30. Non-conventional electric power plants.
  • 31. Types of non-conventional energy power plants. Wind power plants. Solar power plants: Photo-thermal power plants and Photovoltaic power plants. Geothermal power plants. Biomass thermal power plants. Ocean power plants.
  • 32. Wind Power Plants These power plants use the kinetic energy of the wind to move the blades of a rotor at the top of a tower; know as the wind turbine. Wind power plants are a clean form of generating electricity. However, they can only be installed in places with appropiate wind conditions.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. Parts of a Wind power plant
  • 36. ADVANTAGES 1 . W in d is R e n e w a b le a n d fre e o f c o s t 2 . P o llu tio n fre e 3 . C a n b e i n s t a l l e d i n r e m o t e v i l la g e s , t h u s r e d u c i n g c o s t l y t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s D IS A D V A N T A G E S 1 . C a p ita l c o s t is v e ry h ig h 2 . L a rg e a re a o f la n d is re q u ire d 3 . M a in te n a n c e c o s t is v e ry h ig h
  • 37. Solar Power Plants These plants use the energy from the sun to produce power. There are two main types of installations: Photo-Thermal and Photovoltaic power plants.
  • 38.
  • 40. Photo-thermal power plants In this type of power plants, the heat generated by solar radiation produces steam that is used to move the rotor in the generator. To do this, they use special mirrors, called heliostats, that reflect sunlight and concentrate it at one point, where it reaches a high temperature.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44. Renewable source of energy Capital cost is very high Large area of land is Pollution free required After the capital cost, the Large number of solar cost of power generation panels are required Affected by seasons. is quite low. Wide range of applications, powering street lights to satellites
  • 45. Geothermal Power Plants These plants use the heat found at deep levels in the earth. This heat may reach the surface in the form of steam, gases or hot water. Geothermal energy may be used directly (for hot water and heating industrial use and so on) and indirectly (the heat generates steam, which produces electricity)
  • 46. How does a geothermal power plant work
  • 47. Biomass Thermal Power Plants Biomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced through natural processes. They may come from the following sources: Forestry and agricultural waste . Specific crops, such as sunflowers and sugar beet. Waste from agri-food industries. Biomass is subjected to different physycal and chemical processes in order to produce fuel such as characoal, alcohol or biogas.
  • 48.
  • 49. Ocean Power Plants These type of power plants use the energy from the seas and the oceans, they use three types of energy from the sea: The mechanical energy from the tides. The mechanical energy from the waves. The energy from the ocean's thermal gradient. gradient
  • 50. Enviromental Impact The building and operating of an electrical power plant results in an ecological change in that region. This is due to the construction of the necessary infrastructure and the waste that this activity generates
  • 51. Enviromental impact assessement An environmental impact assessment are the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment. The main characteristics of each type of power plant and the impact that they have on the enviroment are shown in the next slide:
  • 52.
  • 53. Types of enviromental impact Extraction of natural resources. Fuel transport. Electricity generation. Final energy source.
  • 54.
  • 55. Extraction of natural resources The explotation of fossil fuels and nuclear power means the depletion of resources, which makes it necessary to find new ones. Fuel extraction processes are sometimes harmful to the enviroment. In particular, timber (wood processed from trees harvested from forests) extraction has led to the disappearance of large areas of forests, a process that is continuing even today.
  • 56. Fuel transport Oil is transported by means of oil pipelines and oil tankers . Oil pipelines can suffer accidents caused by nature or human error, which result in uncontrolled spills. Oil tankers can suffer accidents at sea, with the risk of oil spills. Some spills have caused oil slicks (a film of crude oil leaked from ships which floats on top of sea water) that have taken years to clean up and dissipate, and have affected the lives of many plants and animals species.
  • 57. Electricity generation Large hidroelectric power plants require water reservoirs convering large areas, which profundly change the natural cycle of rivers, flood (area of land covered by water) large land areas and destroy ecosystems, in addition to increaing the risk of accidents.
  • 58. Electricity generation Conventional thermal power plants: -They produce air pollution . -They emit large amount of CO2, which increases the greenhouse effect. -They emit sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide that cause acid rain. -The water used in the cooling system is returned to the enviroment while it's still warm, which can affect both animal and plant life
  • 59. Electricity generation Nuclear thermal power plants are accompained by the risk of nuclear accidents and the problem of nuclear waste, some of which, remain dangerous for thousand of years.
  • 60. Final energy use The fuels we use in vehicles and heating systems emit gases and particles similar to those generated by conventional thermal power plants. When we turn on an electric appliance, we are consuming energy that has already caused several enviromental prolems during its extraction, generation and transportation.
  • 61. Brief comment about wind turbines that create water from the air. After we read the article we have realised that is a very innovative idea that will be very useful for arid countries where there aren't any posibilities of finding potable water. It's a very good idea because it won't cause any pollution although large extension of land will be required. We think that all of this water produced in the future will reach places where many adults, children and old people die because of deshidratation so we hope that it's the beginning of a huge change in our world.
  • 62. By: Manuel Folgado and Blanca Bañas 3ºA