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Blake Lapthorn green breakfast 14 December 2011 with Mike Mason and Mark Lynas

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Blake Lapthorn's Climate Change team were delighted to welcome Mike Mason and Mark Lynas to its final green breakfast of the Autumn 2011 series.

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Blake Lapthorn green breakfast 14 December 2011 with Mike Mason and Mark Lynas

  1. 1. Decarbonising the Maldives Lessons for everyone
  2. 2. What are our electricity choices?Ocean  Uneconomic Seasonal, expensive and move to different  places with the different monsoonsCurrentsOcean  Uneconomic Unproved, expensive, and may never workThermalBiomass $0.20cts/kWh Proved, simple, sustainable, 24 hrs/day, long  term fuel contracts available at fixed price.Wind $0.18 ‐ Unreliable, seasonal, needs massive backup or  $0.25cts/kWh storage when used alone.  No good data.Solar $0.20cts/kWh Daytime only, slightly seasonal, small storage  requirement
  3. 3. Biomass for Malé• Fuel Cost – 50% of diesel• Contract – fixed price 7 years• Sustainability – high with care• Reliability – high40MW Malé power station saves $25M/yr. in foreign exchange
  4. 4. Outer Islands ‐ Wind or Solar?Intermittent Renewables 24 G1 O u a 3 u t i a3 tp kW 16. 0 14. 4•Wind 12. 8 u y 18 11. 2 HD o a 9. 6 of 8. 0 r 12 6. 4 4. 8 3. 2 6 1. 6 0. 0 0 Ja n Fe b M ar Ap r May Ju n Ju l Au g Sep Oct No v De c•Solar – Choosing the cheapest first can cause real problems•Batteries – very expensive – Night time electricity 2.5x cost of daytime electricity
  5. 5. With even 25% solar energy the With even 25% solar energy the generators have to operate between generators have to operate between zero and full power – which is zero and full power – which is inefficient.inefficient.They must also turn on and reach full They must also turn on and reach full power in seconds – which is not possiblepower in seconds – which is not possible
  6. 6. AVERAGE SOLAR COST EFFECT OF  TARGET SOLAR COSTNIGHT TIME SOLAR COST BATTERIES DAYTIME SOLAR COST
  7. 7. Grid Stability Challenges
  8. 8. Solutions• Drive down night time consumption – Street lights – Fridges – Air conditioners – Equipment left on unnecessarily• Cold water storage – Oxford University Collaboration• BETTER BATTERIES – Ultra‐capacitors
  9. 9. The Bigger Problems – Sea Transport
  10. 10. No Easy Solutions• 22% of total national emissions from marine  transport.• Composite solution needed – Better hulls – Better skin friction – Diesel electric hybrids – Solar and wind assist – BETTER BATTERIES
  11. 11. THE BIG ISSUES• Politics• Planning• Grid Stability• Batteries• Batteries• Batteries

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