Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The pre civil war south ppt

1,466 views

Published on

Class PPT

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The pre civil war south ppt

  1. 1. BELL RINGER • Based on what you have learned, describe the differences between the North and the South during the 1800’s.
  2. 2. THE PRE-CIVIL WAR SOUTH ESSENTIAL QUESTION: HOW DID THE ECONOMY, CULTURE, AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE SOUTH INFLUENCE EVENTS PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR?
  3. 3. EXPANSION TO THE DEEP SOUTH • The South’s economy was almost entirely based on agriculture • By 1850, the population had spread inland into the Deep South (GA, SC, AL, MS, LA, and TX) • Slavery was growing in the South and eliminated in the North • The Upper South relied on tobacco, hemp, wheat, and vegetables • The Deep South relied on cotton, rice, and sugarcane
  4. 4. EXPANSION TO THE DEEP SOUTH- REVIEW • 1. What states make up the Deep South? • 2. Contrast the difference between agriculture in the Upper South and the Deep South.
  5. 5. COTTON IS KING • In colonial times, Southern planters grew rice, indigo, and tobacco • European textile mills were demanding more cotton • Cotton labor was difficult and tedious- workers had to remove seeds from the fibers • Slave labor was used for this difficult job
  6. 6. COTTON IS KING- REVIEW • 3. Explain how Europe influenced an increase in cotton production in the Deep South. • 4. Describe why plantation owners felt the need to use slave labor for cotton farming.
  7. 7. ELI WHITNEY AND THE COTTON GIN • In 1793, Whitney invented the cotton gin for the purpose of making removing seeds easier. • With this invention, productivity increased • Cotton farmer were able to harvest 50 times more cotton with the cotton gin • The cotton gin lead to an increase in the demand for slave labor • Slavery spread across a larger area of the South
  8. 8. ELI WHITNEY AND THE COTTON GIN- REVIEW • 5. What was the purpose of the cotton gin? • 6. What effect did the cotton gin have on the number of slaves in the South? • 7. Why did it have this effect?
  9. 9. THE DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE • “Domestic”- within the United States • Atlantic Slave Trade was banned in 1808, even though some illegal trading occurred after that • Slave trading within the U.S. became big business in the Deep South where cotton, rice, and sugarcane were the primary crops • Slaves were bought and sold at auctions and families were often split apart
  10. 10. DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE- REVIEW • 8. Describe the domestic slave trade.
  11. 11. INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTH • Industry never caught on in the South • Factories were expensive and farmers would have to sell slaves to build them • The majority of the Southern population was poor or enslaved, therefore they could not afford to buy manufactured goods • Successful industry in the South included textiles in GA and SC and iron in AL • Industry was still not very typical in the South
  12. 12. SOUTHERN INDUSTRY- REVIEW • 9. List some reasons why industry never really caught on in the South. • 10. What type of industry became successful in South Carolina and Georgia? • 11. What type of industry became successful in Alabama?
  13. 13. SOUTHERN TRANSPORTATION • Farmers and the few manufacturers used natural waterways to transport goods • Towns were located along rivers because canals were scarce and roads were poor • South had fewer railroads than the North therefore Southern cities grew more slowly
  14. 14. SOUTHERN TRANSPORTATION- REVIEW • 12. How were goods transported in the South? • 13. Why were towns located along natural waterways? • 14. What effect did the lack of railroads have on the South?
  15. 15. MEMPHIS: THE COTTON CAPITAL OF THE SOUTH • Memphis was an important commercial city in the cotton industry • Located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River • Close to fertile Mississippi River delta and flatlands- suitable for cotton farming • Farmers and planters would take cotton to Memphis where it could be sold and transported to textile manufacturers in the North and other parts of the world
  16. 16. MEMPHIS: THE COTTON CAPITAL OF THE SOUTH- REVIEW • 15. Why was Memphis considered the “cotton capital of the South?” • 16. Why did farmers send their cotton to Memphis?
  17. 17. SMALL FARMERS AND THE RURAL POOR • Most whites in the South were yeoman farmers- small farms of 50-200 acres • These farmers lived mostly in the Upper South and the hilly areas of the Deep South • They did not use plantation agriculture, instead they grew crops for themselves and local trade • Tenant farmers worked on rented land from landowners • The rural poor were stubborn, independent, and looked down upon by others. However, they were proud to be able to provide for their families. • Some free African-Americans owned slaves like plantation owners while others bought their own family members to free them
  18. 18. SMALL FARMERS AND THE RURAL POOR- REVIEW • 17. Most whites in the South were _______________ farmers who owned small farms. • 18. Explain the difference between small farming and plantation farming. • 19. Some whites were __________________ farmers who worked on rented land. • 20. Describe the rural poor of the South.
  19. 19. PLANTATION OWNERS • Plantation owners measured wealth by number of slaves • In 1860, only 4% of slaveowners had 20 or more slaves • Plantations had fixed costs year after year even though cotton prices changed • Changes in cotton prices meant the difference between a good and bad year • Owners traveled to do business while wives would look over the plantation and keep financial records • Some slaves on plantations would do household chores or specialized jobs while others were field hands • Overseers were in charge of supervising slave labor
  20. 20. PLANTATION OWNERS- REVIEW • 21. How did plantation owners measure wealth? • 22. What percentage of slaveowners owned 20 or more slaves in 1860? • 23. Why could changes in cotton prices result in the difference between a successful or unsuccessful year? • 24. Some slaves did household chores, while others were _____________________. • 25. Who was in charge of the day-to-day supervision of slave labor?
  21. 21. AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY LIFE • Laws did not recognize slave marriage • Slaves still married in their own ceremonies and raised families • Families were often separated • African-Americans relied on a network of extended relative members to take care of family members if families were separated
  22. 22. AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILY LIFE- REVIEW • 26. Why did slaves have their own marriage ceremonies? • 27. Why were extended family members important for enslaved African-Americans?
  23. 23. AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE • By 1860, most slaves had been born in the U.S. • African-Americans tried to preserve African customs • Traditional folk stories were passed down to children • African-American music was uniquely rhythmic with call-and- response • The beat of the music set the tempo of their work in the fields
  24. 24. AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE- REVIEW • 28. Even though most slaves had been born in the U.S. (by 1860), they still tried to preserve ________________________. • 29. What connection did African-American music have to slave labor?
  25. 25. AFRICAN-AMERICAN RELIGION • Some slaves kept traditional African religious practices • Others accepted Christianity • Slaves expressed themselves through spirituals, or religious folk songs
  26. 26. AFRICAN-AMERICAN RELIGION- REVIEW • 30. Which two religions were followed by most slaves? • 31. How did slaves express religious beliefs and emotions?
  27. 27. SLAVE CODES • Laws in Southern states aimed at controlling African-American slaves • Meant to prevent slave rebellions • Slaves could not meet in large groups, leave property without written permission, or learn how to read and write
  28. 28. SLAVE CODES- REVIEW • 32. What were slave codes? • 33. What were some examples of slave codes?
  29. 29. FIGHTING BACK • Some slaves, like Nat Turner, decided to rebel • Turner taught himself to read and write, led a group of followers on a brief rampage in Virginia, and ended up killing at least 55 whites • Turner was captured and hanged • Following Nat Turner’s rebellion, dozens of African-Americans were hanged by white mobs, even though most had nothing to do with Turner’s rebellion • Violent slave revolts were rare because slaves felt like they had no chance of winning • Slave resistance consisted of breaking tools, faking illness, working slowly, setting fires, etc.
  30. 30. FIGHTING BACK- REVIEW • 34. What happened during Nat Turner’s Rebellion? • 35. Why were slave revolts rare? • 36. How did slaves resist without rebelling?
  31. 31. SOUTHERN CITIES AND EDUCATION • Even though the South was primarily agricultural, major cities popped up along waterways and railroad crossings • Free African-Americans made their homes in these cities • Some states started public education by the mid-1800’s but the South still lagged behind in literacy • Southerners believed education was a private matter
  32. 32. SOUTHERN CITIES- REVIEW • 37. Where did major cities develop in the South? • 38. Who made their home in these cities? • 39. How did Southerners feel about education?

×