Krashens Five Hypotheses

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Krashens Five Hypotheses

  1. 1. Stephen Krashen’s L2 Acquisition Theory Compiled by Doris Shih
  2. 2. Outline for Today <ul><li>The acquisition-learning hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The natural order hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The monitor hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The input hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The affective filter hypothesis </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What are the causative variables in second language acquisition? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>For you, does language teaching really help? When does it help and when does it NOT help? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effecting Variables <ul><li>Comprehensible input (causative) </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of the filter (causative) </li></ul><ul><li>Language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure variable </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis <ul><li>Acquisition = subconsciously picking up </li></ul><ul><li>Learning = conscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children acquire language better than adults </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Natural Order Hypothesis <ul><li>Grammar structures are acquired in a predictable order </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learning order is different from L1 order </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learning adults and children show similar order </li></ul>
  8. 9. ING (progressive) PLURAL COPULA (“to be”) AUXILIARY ARTICLE IRREGULAR PAST REGULAR PAST SINGULAR (-s) POSSESSIVE (-s) The order for L2 learners (Krashen, 1977)
  9. 10. The Monitor Hypothesis <ul><li>Acquisition has the central role </li></ul><ul><li>Learning functions as a Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>3 conditions needed to use Monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Monitor is not used, errors are natural </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogically: study of grammar has a place, but a limited one </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Input Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire by comprehensible input (i) + 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Input Hypothesis relates to acquisition, not learning </li></ul><ul><li>Focus not on structure but on understanding the message </li></ul><ul><li>Do not teach structure deliberately; i+1 is provided naturally when input is understood </li></ul><ul><li>Production ability emerges. It’s not taught directly </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Affective Filter Hypothesis <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Lower affective filter will go further </li></ul>
  12. 13. The affective filter Language Input Affective Filter Acquired Competence Language Acquisition Device
  13. 14. Reference <ul><li>Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 1987. </li></ul>

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