Our goal is to create college readiness systems that enable all young people in our country to be fully prepared for college, with a special focus on serving those young people who have been and continue to be underserved.
Have participants define rigor. Share out common difficulties in defining it and common elements. Hand out From Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement by Richard W. Strong, Harvey F. Silver and Matthew J. Perini, ASCD, 2001 and discuss.
Lots of research exists about the need for rigor and relevance in today’s educational experiences. In addition to our need for Rigor and Relevance, I suggest we also new a new “R”--
This video clip demonstrates that human beings are willing to work harder if the work or challenge presented is also fun. It’s time to take the stiffness out of Rigor!
http://highered.colorado.gov/Publications/General/NCHEMSNationalComparison/Student_Pipeline_Transition_Completion_2006.pdf National – not specific to a state.
For a number of years, Conley has been researching the problem so many students face once they are at their chosen school of higher education: that they are totally unprepared for the academic demands of their institutions. He recounts the preparation or lack thereof during the high school years of three college-bound students and makes it clear that there is a difference between college-eligible and college-ready. He lays out chapter by chapter what is wrong and how it can be remedied. Conley's findings include the fact that many of these students are first-generation college-bound so their parents don't know how to help them, and, due to budget cuts, many high schools don't have guidance counselors who can help teens plan their classes in proper preparation for college. Conley sees this problem being alleviated by strict course of study planning and by educated community volunteers who have the experience and vision to help teens wanting a higher education. College and Career Ready offers educators a blueprint for improving high school so that more students are able to excel in freshman-level college courses or entry-level jobs-laying a solid foundation for lifelong growth and success. The book is filled with detailed, practical guidelines and case descriptions of what the best high schools are doing. Includes clear guidelines for high school faculty to adapt their programs of instruction in the direction of enhanced college/career readiness Provides practical strategies for improving students' content knowledge and academic behaviors Offers examples of best practices and research-based recommendations for change The book considers the impact of behavioral issues-such as time management and study habits-as well as academic skills on college readiness.
This measure is based on three variables: high school graduation rate, HS transcript ( four years of English, three years of math, and two years each of natural science, social science, and foreign language), and NAEP Reading score of 265.
The concerns about education in this country are very real. Not only does the U.S. fail to measure up with other countries, but students are not adequately prepared to pursue higher education. Many students must take part in remedial courses in order to get up to speed. Others simply do not go on to college, or do not complete college after enrolling. Still others spend 5 or 6 years working toward a bachelor’s degree, which traditionally has taken 4 years to complete.
Hmmm – to include? Where to reference?
Hmmm – to include? Where to reference?
Hmmm – to include? Where to reference?
If time allows, take a quick look at the “five ways” and “youcango” sites.
Discuss various ways to survey school/district perceptions vs reality of advanced academic offerings. Next slide comes from AP Diagnostic that College Board offers.
If time allows, take a quick look at the “five ways” and “youcango” sites.
What is AP Potential? It is an easy-to-use web-based tool, available exclusively from The College Board, maker of the AP exams. AP Potential generates rosters of students likely to score a 3 or better on a given AP exam – in addition, it generates rosters for 25 different AP courses. AP Potential is free for all schools that administer the PSAT. AP Potential promotes equity because it is designed to ensure that no student with the potential to succeed is overlooked. Finally, AP Potential was created from research studies that found strong correlations between PSAT scores and AP exam results.
Note to presenter: Refer participants to the document included on the workshop CD, The Relationship Between PSAT/NMSQT Scores and AP Examination Grades: A Follow-up Study, College Board Report No. 2006-1, Maureen Ewing, Wayne J. Camara and Roger Millsap. This is the newest research that follows up on the original 1998 study.
An integrated college readiness and feedback system for grades 8 through 12 The College Readiness Pathway is a series of assessments that work together to help schools and districts identify and close achievement gaps to ensure all students graduate ready for the rigors of college . The tests are aligned to measure a vertical progression of academic standards and application of an appropriate set of knowledge and skills.
In the coming years, you may have students coming to you with data from the ReadiStep assessment, this is especially important for you to know if you’re going to be counseling incoming freshman in the next year. ReadiStep is the College Board’s new eighth grade assessment program. It is a low-stakes assessment that provides students, parents, and educators with early feedback that helps identify the skills students need in order to become college ready. It is a low-stakes assessment because it will not be used for decisions like entrance into scholarship programs. Instead, it is intended purely for classroom use as a tool for educators and students. Its content is based on the College Board Standards for College Success, a national model of rigorous academic content standards that define the knowledge and skills students need in English language arts and mathematics in order to be college ready by the time they graduate high school. Results enable educators to make informed decisions in the classroom, helping to produce a roadmap that encourages students and creates a college-going culture. Note to presenter: Should you be asked about standards alignment… State Standards – ReadiStep is aligned to the TX Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and to the TX College and Career Readiness standards The ReadiStep assessment is based on the College Board Standards for College Success which are aligned to state standards. We are also planning to conduct a new study aligning ReadiStep to state standards by July 2011. Common Core Standards – We are conducting a study to align ReadiStep to the Common Core Standards.
Mention that some schools/districts are replacing existing honors with AP/DE offerings where appropriate because AP courses have built in rigor and national measurement of what students have know and are able to do. The next slides may not be necessary if you survey the room and discover everyone is familiar with AP.
Taking AP courses also demonstrates to college admissions officers that students have sought out the most rigorous curriculum available to them. Each AP teacher’s syllabus is evaluated and approved by college faculty from some of the nation’s leading institutions, and AP exams are developed and scored by college faculty and experienced AP teachers. AP is accepted by more than 3,600 colleges and universities worldwide for college credit, advanced placement, or both on the basis of successful AP Exam grades. This includes over 90 percent of four-year institutions in the United States. In 2008, students representing over 17,000 schools around the world, both public and nonpublic, took AP Exams.
Often, AP courses ignite passion among high school students to pursue majors or further studies in that discipline. Unlike other advanced courses, AP employs several mechanisms to ensure standardization, so colleges can have a reasonable expectation of students’ abilities and performance based on their AP course and Exam grades. Because AP courses are college-level and not merely advanced high school courses, they allow students to have a better understanding of the challenges and benefits that college courses provide (ex. Increased amounts of homework and study time, critical thinking). For a student to succeed in AP, it is imperative that he/she has the background knowledge and skills necessary to participate in a college-level course. This requires that previous courses prepare students so that AP courses can be a capstone experience of all they have learned. Vertical teaming for grades 6-12, which is a way of aligning curricula so that each sequent course builds on the last, is one way to ensure student preparation for AP. AP courses prepare students for college, which gives them an advantage over students who have not taken AP. Because of their AP experiences, many students enter college with the knowledge and skills to adapt to their new academic environment. Consequently, they experience success in their courses and graduate sooner more often than their peers who did not participate in AP. Having the AP designation on a student’s transcripts shows colleges/universities that the student sought out the most challenging courses available in high school. Taking AP courses signals a student’s commitment to academics and a likelihood of success in higher education. It is mutually beneficial for students, who may have a competitive edge in admissions, and institutions, who can select students who are academically prepared and motivated. Many students take advantage of the credits and placement AP provides by choosing to enter upper-level courses earlier and/or double majoring. Having extra credits allows students more freedom and flexibility in selecting their courses and delving into them more deeply.
Source: Hargrove, Godin, and Dodd Students who participate in either AP or dual enrollment are more likely than other students to complete a bachelor’s degree within 4-years. However, AP score appears to be related time to degree – the higher a student scores on the AP exam, the more likely he/she is to earn a bachelor’s degree within 4-years. While students who participate in dual enrollment fare better than AP students who scored a 1 on the exam and students who took neither AP nor dual enrollment, they are still much less likely to complete a bachelor’s degree in 4-years than most AP students.
The College Board classifies low-income students as those who are eligible for an AP Exam fee reduction, which is based on the guidelines for receiving free or reduced price lunch. The USDA’s guidelines for receiving free or reduced price lunch “were obtained by multiplying the year 2008 Federal income poverty guidelines by 1.30 and 1.85, respectively, and by rounding the result upward to the next whole dollar.” In 2008-2009, a family of four would be eligible for reduced price lunch if their annual household income was between $27,560 and $39,220; a family of four would be eligible for free lunch if their annual household income was less than $27,560. For more information: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Governance/notices/iegs/IEGs08-09.pdf. Control variables in the model include the student’s 8th grade mathematics test score and economically disadvantaged (free and reduced price lunch) status , and the average test scores and percent economically disadvantaged students in the student’s school. College graduation probabilities were calculated at the average of each variable for the student group in question, e.g., African-American students. 5 year graduation rates In all categories, students who scored a 3 or higher on an AP Exam were more likely to graduate from college than their peers who did not take AP. The difference is most significant for low-income students, who were 32% more likely to graduate if they scored a 3+ on an AP Exam relative to their peers.
As many of you are likely aware, our colleagues at NACAC (National Association for College Admission Counseling) publish the results of an annual survey of college admission trends. The factors that admission officers weigh most heavily are the grades students receive, the academic rigor of the courses in which they received those grades, and the extent to which they can demonstrate both their knowledge and application of that content through assessments.
All willing and academically prepared students deserve the opportunity to succeed in rigorous, college-level experiences and the advantages they bring. For this reason, the AP Program shares educators’ mission to connect traditionally underserved minority and low-income students to Advanced Placement courses. AP encourages all educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their schools’ AP programs, and to make every effort to ensure that their AP classes reflect the racial, ethnic and socioeconomic diversity of their student body. In 2009, 53.2% of schools reported that their AP courses are open enrollment/based on student desire (up from 48.4% in 2006).
In 2008, the College Board formed the Commission on Access, Admissions and Success in Higher Education to study the educational pipeline as a single continuum and identify solutions to increase the number of students who graduate college and are prepared to succeed in the 21st Century. Led by Gaston Caperton and Brit Kirwan, Chancellor of the University System of Maryland, the Commission established 10 interdependent recommendations to reach its goal of ensuring that at least 55 percent of Americans hold a postsecondary degree by 2025. State legislators and policymakers will need to play a large part in advancing each of the recommendations. We committed to measure progress towards the goal and each recommendation
Comparisons are made with the 30 member countries of the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development; Data represent adults with an associate’s degree or higher It is interesting to note that two Asian countries, Korea and Japan, have dramatically increased their percentage of college graduates: Korea has increased from 25% to 53%; Japan from 35% to 54% Only Germany has decreased (24% to 22%), and the Czech Republic has also flatlined (14% for both groups); every other country has increased its percentage of college graduates.
THE PROGRESS REPORT We formed a team of researchers and psychometricians from R&D; and an advisory group THE STATE POLICY GUIDE The College Board and the National Conference of State Legislatures joined together to produce a practical policy guide for state legislators to advance each of the Commission’s recommendations
Avid summer 2011_ii
Curing 'Rigor' Mortis: from AVID to AP AVID Summer Institute 2011
Our Mission The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns.
<ul><li>is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations; </li></ul><ul><li>serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges; </li></ul><ul><li>provides major programs and services in college readiness, college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid and enrollment. </li></ul><ul><li>offers widely recognized </li></ul><ul><li>programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SAT® </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PSAT/NMSQT® </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Readistep® </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Placement (AP®) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SpringBoard® </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACCUPLACER®. </li></ul></ul></ul>Founded in 1900, the College Board…
SpringBoard ® ELA and Mathematics PSAT/NMSQT ® AP Potential ™ College Visits SAT ® AP ® Courses College Admission ReadiStep ™ CollegeEd ® Sixth Grade The Path to College Readiness
The world today isn't the same world as yesterday!
1900 Workplace Demands Highly skilled Low skilled <ul><li>Avg. age to enter work force </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. age to leave work force </li></ul>14 47 <ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul>47
2010 Workplace Demands Highly skilled Low skilled <ul><li>Avg. age to enter the workplace </li></ul>21 <ul><li>Number of times to change jobs </li></ul>5-8 <ul><li>Est. Life expectancy in 2100 </li></ul>>80
Career Challenges . . . <ul><li>Workers in the 21st century will average 5 - 8 different careers changes </li></ul><ul><li>Job longevity will average 5 to 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Academics required for success in the workplace are equal to or greater than academics required for success in college </li></ul><ul><li>Students need strong, integrated academics (Rigor) to be prepared for their future </li></ul>
College Eligible, Not College Ready <ul><li>Approximately 70% of all students in public high schools graduate, but only 32% of all students leave high school qualified to attend four-year colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>College readiness by ethnic group: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian American 38% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White 37% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African American 20% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanic 16% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Indian 14% </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, 9/03, Funded: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Jay P. Greene, Ph.D.; Greg Forster, Ph.D., Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.
Concerns about Student Preparation <ul><li>Lack of adequate college preparation among high school students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remediation rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to persist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to degree </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Key Cognitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Key Content Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual Skills </li></ul>The 4 Components of College Readiness College and Career Ready , David T. Conley
<ul><li>Intellectual openness </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning, argumentation, proof </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Precision and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul>1. Key Cognitive Strategies College and Career Ready , David T. Conley
<ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Core academic skills—English, math, science, social sciences, world languages, and the arts </li></ul>2. Key Content Knowledge College and Career Ready , David T. Conley
<ul><li>Self-monitoring skills—thinking about how one thinks </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills—time management, preparing for and taking tests, taking notes, communicating with teachers and advisors </li></ul>3. Academic Behaviors College and Career Ready , David T. Conley
<ul><li>A systemic understanding of the postsecondary educational system combined with specific knowledge of the norms, values, and conventions of interactions in the college context, and the human relations skills necessary to cope with and adapt to this system, even if it is radically different from the community in which a particular student was raised. </li></ul><ul><li>“ College knowledge”--formal and informal, stated and unstated, necessary for gaining admission to, and navigating within, the postsecondary system. </li></ul>4. Contextual Skills Redefining College Readiness , David T. Conley
Increasing Academic Rigor: 6-point plan Description Implementation Suggestions 1 Announce a major commitment to academic rigor for all students. Launch high-profile public campaigns to increase student access to and success in academically rigorous courses, and increase parent awareness and understanding of need for academic rigor. PR collateral, parent information nights, http://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/gcsd/news/release/1102/ap.asp 2 Conduct an inventory of current advanced academic offerings and capacity. Determine extent and rigor of advanced academic offerings in high schools as well as effectiveness of teacher training for Pre-AP® and AP courses. Survey schools 3 Support professional development for teachers, counselors, and administrators. Offer year-round training for AP and Pre-AP teachers and hands-on professional development for school and district leaders. One-day workshops, APSI, APSIA, Fall Counselor Workshop 4 Align middle and high school curricula. Incorporate state, local and College Board standards to ensure that students have the opportunity to be prepared for success in AP/DE courses through their previous course work. Develop student skills for college knowledge and success. SpringBoard http://springboardprogram.collegeboard.org/ ) ; vertical teaming; curriculum mapping; AVID 5 Use data to inform curriculum/instructional decisions and to identify prospective AP/DE students. Administer ReadiStep to all 8th graders and the PSAT/NMSQT® to all 9th-11th graders; use the free AP Potential program to identify those students likely to succeed on AP Exams, based on those scores (www.collegeboard.com/appotential). ReadiStep, PSAT, SAT, AP 6 Offer a fully aligned and articulated College Readiness System to prepare students for college success and beyond. Offer AP courses in at least the four core areas: Mathematics, Science, English, and Social Studies. Replace existing honors with AP/DE offerings where appropriate
Step One: Announce a major commitment to academic rigor for all students. Launch high-profile public campaigns to increase student access to and success in academically rigorous courses, and increase parent awareness and understanding of need for academic rigor. PR collateral, parent information nights, http://www.greenville.k12.sc.us/gcsd/news/release/1102/ap.asp ; http://www.cb-apc.com/fivewaysedpays ; http://youcango.collegeboard.org/
Step Two: Conduct an inventory of current advanced academic offerings and capacity. Determine extent and rigor of advanced academic offerings in high schools as well as effectiveness of teacher training for Pre-AP® and AP courses.
Survey Extent and Current Academic Rigor AP Foundation: What is your pipeline for preparing students for AP? Describe your vertical teaming process. Data that Informs: How are students identified and recruited to the AP program? Instructional Support for Teachers: How are teachers (new and veteran) prepared to offer Advanced Placement courses? What process is used in your school/district for instructional leaders to observe AP classes and provide feedback to teachers. Support for Students and Families: What kind of feedback regarding progress towards the AP course objectives is provided to both students and parents throughout the school year? What kind of support is available to students outside of the school day? How is information about the AP Program shared with the school community? How do you engage stakeholders in supporting AP participation and expansion?
Step Three: Support professional development for teachers, counselors, and administrators. Offer year-round training for AP and Pre-AP teachers and hands-on professional development for school and district leaders. AP One-day workshops AP Summer Institutes Pre-AP/Vertical Teaming
Pre-AP/Vertical Teaming-- Pre-AP workshops equip educators with the strategies and tools needed to engage students in active, high-level learning. • Setting the Cornerstones™: a toolkit of concrete applications, including strategies and hands-on activities to build AP Vertical Teams® and to develop district action plan. • Vertical Teaming: instructional strategies and curriculum alignment • Strategies: subject-specific strategies for analyzing student work and enhancing instructional practices. • Interdisciplinary: strategies to integrate different subject areas. • Instructional Leadership (for administrators): strategies to integrate professional development into a system-wide process for improving instructional practices and student learning.
Step Four: Align middle and high school curricula. Incorporate state, local and College Board standards to ensure that students have the opportunity to be prepared for success in AP/DE courses through their previous course work. Develop student skills for college knowledge and success. SpringBoard http://springboardprogram.collegeboard.org/ ) ; vertical teaming; curriculum mapping; AVID
Step Five: Use data to inform curriculum/instructional decisions and to identify prospective AP/DE students. Administer ReadiStep to all 8th graders and the PSAT/NMSQT® to all 9th-11th graders; use the free AP Potential program to identify those students likely to succeed on AP Exams, based on those scores ( www.collegeboard.com/appotential ).
What is AP Potential? <ul><li>A web-based tool </li></ul><ul><li>Free for schools that administer the PSAT/NMSQT </li></ul><ul><li>Provided by the maker of the AP Exams </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to ensure that no student is overlooked </li></ul><ul><li>Based on proven research </li></ul>
The PSAT/NMSQT and AP Connection <ul><li>Research shows a strong relationship between PSAT/NMSQT and AP </li></ul><ul><li>Studies conducted in 1998 and 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed performance of more than a million students </li></ul><ul><li>Showed strong correlations between PSAT/NMSQT scores and AP Exam results </li></ul><ul><li>Download the research reports at www.collegeboard.com/appotential </li></ul>
AP Potential <ul><li>Identifies “diamond-in-the-rough” students </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps identify students who initially might have been overlooked for AP courses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a useful tool for principals, teachers, and counselors to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand AP programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase enrollment in current AP courses </li></ul></ul>
Use data to inform curriculum/instructional decisions and to identify prospective AP/DE students. <ul><ul><li>Includes an integrated series of assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures a vertical progression of academic standards and application of an appropriate set of knowledge and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides insight and feedback at critical points in students’ academic careers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers tools that help educators guide student progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps schools and districts meet and exceed their college and career readiness goals for every student </li></ul></ul>
What Is the ReadiStep ™ Assessment? Low-stakes assessment for eighth-graders Content based on the College Board Standards for College Success™ Provides early feedback on students’ academic progress Helps students identify and improve the skills they need to be college ready
Step Six: Offer a fully aligned and articulated College Readiness System to prepare students for college success and beyond. Offer AP courses in at least the four core areas: Mathematics, Science, English, and Social Studies.
AP Mission <ul><li>The College Board’s Advanced Placement Program® (AP®) enables students to pursue college-level studies while still in high school. Through more than 30 college-level courses, each culminating in a rigorous exam, AP provides willing and academically prepared students with the opportunity to earn college credit and/or advanced placement . </li></ul>
Key Benefits of AP <ul><li>AP courses establish a college-level standard in secondary schools that is measured through a national assessment designed and scored by college faculty. </li></ul><ul><li>AP courses expose college-bound students to the amounts of homework, study skills, and habits of mind essential for success in college courses. </li></ul><ul><li>AP provides leverage for aligning and strengthening the grades 6-12 curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who take AP Exams and score a 3 or higher typically experience greater academic success and college graduation rates than non-AP students. </li></ul><ul><li>The AP course is typically the most rigorous curriculum offered in secondary schools and is designated on the student transcript. </li></ul><ul><li>Because AP is widely used for college credit and/or placement, it attracts motivated students eager to double major, or engage in deeper, upper-division courses at college. </li></ul>
Time to Degree: AP vs. Dual Enrollment and Non-AP Source: Hargrove, Godin & Dodd (2008) Students who scored a 2 or higher on an AP Exam were more likely than other students to earn a bachelor’s degree within 4 years.
Source: Dougherty, Mellor & Jian, 2006 AP Participation and Likelihood of College Graduation College Graduation Rate differences between “matched” AP and non-AP students* * Matched students are those who have similar family backgrounds and standardized test scores Student Demographic AP Exam Grade of 3 or higher African-American 28% higher Hispanic 28% higher White 33% higher Low-Income 26% higher Not Low-Income 34% higher
The College Readiness Pathway Source: Admission Trends Survey 2008 , NACAC
Guidelines: Access to AP <ul><li>AP courses should be open to all willing and academically prepared students </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should work to eliminate barriers due to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>Schools should make efforts to ensure that AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population </li></ul>
College Completion Agenda http://completionagenda.collegeboard.org A call for action: What is the College Board doing?
Commission on Access, Admissions & Success in Higher Education
Many countries have increased their percentage of college graduates, while the U.S. has flat lined Source: Measuring Up, 2008, National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education; OECD, 2003 The U.S. and Germany are the only OECD countries that have not increased the percentage of college graduates
The Reports 2010 Progress Report The commission’s goal of 55 percent of young adults receiving a postsecondary credential by 2025 can be measured on a regular basis. The 2010 Progress Report identifies measures that give some indication of the current status and future changes that impact the goal and recommendations, and illustrates the degree to which the nation is moving toward – or away from – the necessary steps for ensuring an educated and enlightened citizenry. State Policy Guide The College Board and the National Conference of State Legislatures joined together to produce a practical policy guide to help state legislators to pursue each of the commission’s recommendations. The State Policy Guide offers a road map toward increasing the number of Americans who attain a postsecondary degree, and empowers legislators to be an even more positive and active force in education reform.