UX Research & Marketing An odd couple
WUD Slovenia 2013
Bjoern Stockleben
Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg & University of
Appl...
Alan Cooper - Bridging the Gap

This does not only look old. This is from About Face 3 (p.18) by Alan Cooper,
the frist ed...
Today:

Usability Research
User Experience Design
Interaction Design

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slove...
Gap bridged – Problem solved.
Note to self: End presentation here if already talked too much.

Björn Stockleben
UX Researc...
New Problems, but on a higher level
• UX research is filling a gap, not replacing market
research
• Both claim expertise a...
Symptoms of UX vs. Market research
Your research gets questioned.
They ask why you do test with just a few users.
They say...
Your Reaction
• You find yourself in permanent justification of
your work
• You develop a latent aggression against market...
Market Research

UX Research

Large samples

Small samples and single users

Focus on quantitative methods

Focus on quali...
Episode 1: Rigid
Representativeness!
Just warming myself up. Let‘s see whether I can make a point in 1 slide.

Björn Stock...
About Representativeness
• What fails twice will likely fail again. For user research large test
groups in early design st...
Episode 2: Bloated Benchmarks!
In case you wonder: This text is deliberately printed small.

Björn Stockleben
UX Research ...
Your product here

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
Critizism of Benchmarking
• It tries to define your service/product as an intersection
of existing services. This is close...
Episode 3: The Survey Curse
Note to self: End presentation here if already talked too much.

Björn Stockleben
UX Research ...
In Q4/2011 47% of German TV
Viewers used their tablet PC while
watching TV (Nielsen 2012)
Björn Stockleben
UX Research & M...
In the UK this number is at 64%

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
And in the US already at 69% !!!

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
Conclusion
.. if we provide a tablet app for our TV programme
.. 47% of our viewers will use it
.. with a likely growth to...
Another Reality
.. according to IfD Allensbach only 6,3 Mio Germans
(about 8%) had access to a tablet PC in their
househol...
Problems with Numbers
• It is very tempting to just mash up single attributes that show
spectacular numbers, ignoring whet...
Statistics Mashup yields
Mashup User

Copyright links

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013

Upper...
Surveys yield Stereotype Target
Groups
Target Group 1: Elderly Men

Target Group 2: Young Women

Surveys tend to sort by r...
Target Group: „People who cannot read“
Test of a subtitling application in HBB-NEXT

Hard-of-Hearing
Björn Stockleben
UX R...
Could this have been predicted from the pre-test?
Task execution
time in seconds

Technical skill*
*Technical skill was in...
„The best way to successfully
accomodate a variety of users is to
design for specific types of
individuals with specific n...
Personas from User Interviews
Persona A:
Frequent, structured users

Persona B:
Occassional, browsing users

In User Inter...
Criticism of Surveys

• Surveys can only measure what is previously known.
•
•
•

So they tell you what might be relevant ...
So, what are surveys good for?

• Screen for possible candidates for your qualitative
•
•

research (interviews, tests). T...
Episode 4: Nifty Needs
Just for the record: Although this sounds conciliable, I still mean what I said before.

Björn Stoc...
Uses & Gratification Research
•

The Uses & Gratification Approach is a research paradigm from
mass media research introdu...
Motivations for subscribing to music services
(UK,2012)

To access an unlimited music collection
To listen to music I alre...
Wrong approach to using these numbers

• Take 3 most important needs as design requirements
• Confuse this table for a com...
A smarter approach

• Compare those needs with the findings from qualitative
•
•
•

research, e.g. user interviews. A coin...
Comparison of needs satisfied by TV, Facebook and Twitter.
Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
How to use this visualization
•

It combines the findings from three different Uses & Gratification
studies for TV, Facebo...
AttrakDiff2
(Marc Hassenzahl et al.)

AttrakDiff uses semantic differentials
to assess the user experience of a
product ac...
Convergence with market research

• Standardized tests like AttrakDiff are a good tool to
•
•

communicate the quality of ...
Again, but in a Nutshell.
Yes, I know you did take notes and don‘t need me to sum it up for you.
But let‘s assume for a se...
User research and market research have different perspectives
on the customer/user.
This may lead to conflicts or may be a...
Additional References
• Alan Cooper: About Face 3
• Marc Hassenzahl: www.attrakdiff.de

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Mar...
Interdisciplinary Conference on Cross Media

Interaction Design // Journalism // Media Management

20.-22.03.2014

Univers...
Thank you!
Questions?
Now or @stockleben

Björn Stockleben
UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
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Ux Research & Marketing - an odd couple

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Presentation @ World Usability Day Slovenia 2013 on the relation between market research and user research.

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Ux Research & Marketing - an odd couple

  1. 1. UX Research & Marketing An odd couple WUD Slovenia 2013 Bjoern Stockleben Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg & University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  2. 2. Alan Cooper - Bridging the Gap This does not only look old. This is from About Face 3 (p.18) by Alan Cooper, the frist edition dates back to 1995. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  3. 3. Today: Usability Research User Experience Design Interaction Design Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013 User Experience Research Interface Design Service Design Thinking
  4. 4. Gap bridged – Problem solved. Note to self: End presentation here if already talked too much. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  5. 5. New Problems, but on a higher level • UX research is filling a gap, not replacing market research • Both claim expertise about the user / customer • Market research produces powerful, as seemingly evident numbers & statistics, which are read by your customers, bosses and co-workers. • Often it is not the market research that causes hassle for UX researchers and designers, but people that superficially quote their reports. • A lot of publicly available market data is actually rather PR than research. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  6. 6. Symptoms of UX vs. Market research Your research gets questioned. They ask why you do test with just a few users. They say your research was not representative. They say your work is fuzzy and inexact „but the latest report by market-monsterresearch-corp says 70% of our users would like to …“ • „Our average customer is 62 years old“ • • • • • Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  7. 7. Your Reaction • You find yourself in permanent justification of your work • You develop a latent aggression against market research • After all, UX research can produce some decent numbers as well, so bring ‘em on … Well, the good news is: Coexistence is possible, even meaningful and might lead to productive collaboration. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  8. 8. Market Research UX Research Large samples Small samples and single users Focus on quantitative methods Focus on qualitative methods Creation of target groups as abstraction of a group of individuals Creation of personas as abstraction of individuals Focus on what members of target group have in common Focus on what members of target group have in common and where they differ Inform Marketing Inform Design A phenomenon observed with a single customer will be ignored Any finding can inspire design, regardless of occurence People are customers People are users Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  9. 9. Episode 1: Rigid Representativeness! Just warming myself up. Let‘s see whether I can make a point in 1 slide. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  10. 10. About Representativeness • What fails twice will likely fail again. For user research large test groups in early design stages are inefficient. • It is not of too much relevance whether a usability problem affects 20 or 80% of your users. They all are your users. • The magic number of 30 participants refers to the normal distribution in statistics. But there is no single attribute that would allow to predict a particular usability problem for a particular user. • (Applied) user experience research wants to know about the particular problems of a particular design and not whether this problem can be generalized. • That said, be sure you cast your test persons out of the prospective target user group of your product/service. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  11. 11. Episode 2: Bloated Benchmarks! In case you wonder: This text is deliberately printed small. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  12. 12. Your product here Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  13. 13. Critizism of Benchmarking • It tries to define your service/product as an intersection of existing services. This is close to a negative description of your service and eventually you just have to go for that black hole / white spot in the center. • Mashing up interaction concepts from different services does not result in a coherent service. • It biases your design towards copying features instead of deriving them from actual user needs. • While it is always good to have an overview of existing solutions, benchmarking is not a user research method. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  14. 14. Episode 3: The Survey Curse Note to self: End presentation here if already talked too much. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  15. 15. In Q4/2011 47% of German TV Viewers used their tablet PC while watching TV (Nielsen 2012) Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  16. 16. In the UK this number is at 64% Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  17. 17. And in the US already at 69% !!! Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  18. 18. Conclusion .. if we provide a tablet app for our TV programme .. 47% of our viewers will use it .. with a likely growth to 69% within 1-2 years Well, yes – now I am exaggerating. But it is to make a point, okay? Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  19. 19. Another Reality .. according to IfD Allensbach only 6,3 Mio Germans (about 8%) had access to a tablet PC in their household. .. RTL‘s 2nd screen service RTL Inside reached 4% of the audience of Who wants to be a Millionaire? Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  20. 20. Problems with Numbers • It is very tempting to just mash up single attributes that show spectacular numbers, ignoring whether the contexts of those attributes are compatible. • The early second screen hype was fueled by ignorance of the usage context behind the phenomenon: It was just asked, whether people used their tablet, not whether what they did was in any way related to the running TV programme. • Statisticians address this by correlation analysis, but this is not practicable with all dimensions that play a role in user research. • In general, constant numbers are boring. They either have to skyrocket or to disappoint expectations spectacularly. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  21. 21. Statistics Mashup yields Mashup User Copyright links Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013 Upper left Lower right Lower left Upper right
  22. 22. Surveys yield Stereotype Target Groups Target Group 1: Elderly Men Target Group 2: Young Women Surveys tend to sort by rather coarse criteria, which have a tendency to become stereotypical. Although, the survey questions usually do not relate to the actual product/service and its particular usage context. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  23. 23. Target Group: „People who cannot read“ Test of a subtitling application in HBB-NEXT Hard-of-Hearing Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013 Deaf
  24. 24. Could this have been predicted from the pre-test? Task execution time in seconds Technical skill* *Technical skill was indirectly assessed by „How often do you ask others for assistance in technical matters regarding iTV and internet?“ from 0=very often to 4=never. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  25. 25. „The best way to successfully accomodate a variety of users is to design for specific types of individuals with specific needs.“ (Alan Cooper, About Face 3, p.77) Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  26. 26. Personas from User Interviews Persona A: Frequent, structured users Persona B: Occassional, browsing users In User Interviews identify what individuals have in common with regard to the use of the service/product and its context. Generic criteria, especially demographic info like age or gender are usually irrelevant. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  27. 27. Criticism of Surveys • Surveys can only measure what is previously known. • • • So they tell you what might be relevant out of the things you think could be relevant. You won‘t discover new relevant phenomenons. Surveys proliferate stereotypes and force answers to possibly irrelevant questions (i.e. questions the user has never asked herself). Temptation to just combine majority attributes to an ideal user that has no reflection in reality. Surveys are uninspiring. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  28. 28. So, what are surveys good for? • Screen for possible candidates for your qualitative • • research (interviews, tests). Target groups are not your users, but your users are member your product‘s target group. Surveys can be an instrument in market research preceding the design process and come into play again at the end of the design phase during pilots and beta testing. Survey results can point your attention to opportunities as a starting point for your qualitative research. (After all, I did not say that second screen was a bad idea in general.) Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  29. 29. Episode 4: Nifty Needs Just for the record: Although this sounds conciliable, I still mean what I said before. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  30. 30. Uses & Gratification Research • The Uses & Gratification Approach is a research paradigm from mass media research introduced by Elihu Katz in 1959. • It does ask the question „What do people to with media?“ and assumes that 1) people do conciously choose media to satisfy needs 2) people can talk about those needs and satisfactions gained • This approach reflects the assumptions behind the thinking aloud method and its variations (although we sometimes also infer implicit needs from the test results). • Thus studies following the Uses & Gratification Approach (or in general studies that ask why rather than what) can deliver useful insights for user research / user experience design. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  31. 31. Motivations for subscribing to music services (UK,2012) To access an unlimited music collection To listen to music I already know To discover new music before I buy it To use it on my phone No advertisements Not to be limited by free music service restrictions As a complete music experience To use it when not connected to the internet To listen to music before it's out for sale To get access to friends' playlists or share music To subscribe to playlists Digital Music Nation 2013 / EMI Insight Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013 Share of respondents in % 40,00 36,00 35,00 33,00 30,00 24,00 22,00 22,00 20,00 17,00 17,00
  32. 32. Wrong approach to using these numbers • Take 3 most important needs as design requirements • Confuse this table for a complete table of requirements • Combine arbitrary needs as long as they add up to 100% Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  33. 33. A smarter approach • Compare those needs with the findings from qualitative • • • research, e.g. user interviews. A coincidence could hint on relevance. Use qualitative research to find out how those needs correlate (i.e. correspond to the same persona). Use as inspiration for design and address some of those needs in the first prototypes to see how it resonates in user tests. Take into account that not all of those needs can be solved in interaction design (e.g. „no advertising“). Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  34. 34. Comparison of needs satisfied by TV, Facebook and Twitter. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  35. 35. How to use this visualization • It combines the findings from three different Uses & Gratification studies for TV, Facebook & Twitter in a useful, but scientifically inexact way. (So this is something like a scientific disclaimer in case you wanted to cite that in your thesis. Sorry.) • It can be used as an initial guidance on the choice of platform and functional distribution in social TV services. • It may help you to design connected TV services that are functional complementary to what happens on the screen. • It helps you to not design against the formal nature of a platform (or medium). The visualization is based on the following studies. Note that the TV study is very old and that the three studies differed quite a lot in methodology! Greenberg, Bradley S. "Gratifications of television viewing and their correlates for British children." The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (1974): 71-92. Joinson, Adam N. "Looking at, looking up or keeping up with people?: motives and use of facebook." Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2008. Johnson, Philip R., and S. Yang. "Uses and gratifications of Twitter: An examination of user motives and satisfaction of Twitter use." Communication Technology Division of the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication in Boston, MA. 2009. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  36. 36. AttrakDiff2 (Marc Hassenzahl et al.) AttrakDiff uses semantic differentials to assess the user experience of a product according to 4 categories: Pragmatic Quality – Clarity of interaction model, usability Attractivity – General aesthetic quality Hedonic Quality (Identity) – Resonation between self-perception of user and product Hedonic Quality (Stimulation) – Potential for reaching individual goals as perceived by the user (missing in the example to the right) Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  37. 37. Convergence with market research • Standardized tests like AttrakDiff are a good tool to • • communicate the quality of the potential user experience of the product to the customer or your marketing department. AttrakDiff can as well be used to commonly define evaluation goals for the design with market research (instead of having the design itself defined by marketing). Testing with standardized user experience tests makes usually sense starting from interactive mockups that convey a look & feel similar to the final product/service. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  38. 38. Again, but in a Nutshell. Yes, I know you did take notes and don‘t need me to sum it up for you. But let‘s assume for a second you didn‘t. Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  39. 39. User research and market research have different perspectives on the customer/user. This may lead to conflicts or may be a perfectly complementary. Surveys and other market studies can be a great inspiration for design, but the designs have to be verified with actual users at some point in the design process. The closer you come to the final product, the more convergence there is between market research and user research methods. Marketing should agree on evaluation goals with User Experience Design instead of imposing design guidelines (with exception of general CD guidelines on Visual Design). Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  40. 40. Additional References • Alan Cooper: About Face 3 • Marc Hassenzahl: www.attrakdiff.de Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  41. 41. Interdisciplinary Conference on Cross Media Interaction Design // Journalism // Media Management 20.-22.03.2014 University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal www.crossmedia-konferenz.de Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013
  42. 42. Thank you! Questions? Now or @stockleben Björn Stockleben UX Research & Marketing @ WUD Slovenia 2013

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