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Satellite Power Station

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Introduction to Satellite Power Station, Need for SPS, Basic Components of SPS and their description, Challenges, Present Status and future expectation.

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
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Satellite Power Station

  1. 1. Prepared by: Biswajit Acharya AEIE,M.Tech 1st Year Heritage Institute of Technology Satellite Power Station
  2. 2. Present Scenario…. 30% 1%34%5% 6% 24% World Energy Consumption By Source Coal Renewables Petroleum Nuclear Hydro Natural Gas Satellite Power Station
  3. 3. Satellite Power System Concept… Satellite Power Station
  4. 4. Why SPS ???  SPS collects solar power in space. It forms the heart of Space Based Solar Power (SBSP) concept.  SPS stores the solar energy in a low orbital satellite which can provide power to almost any point on earth continuously.  Higher collection rate;  More intense sun light can be captured due to absence of air in space;  They convert solar energy into microwaves and minimizes the losses due to reflection, absorption and other factors consisting of the rotation of the earth.  Environment is not heated because scattering of radiations takes place in space. Satellite Power Station
  5. 5. The Thought Process…  In 1941, science fiction writer Isaac Asimov published a science fiction short story “Reason”, in which a space station transmitted energy collected from the sun to various planets using microwave beams.  In 1968, the Satellite Solar Power System (SSPS) concept was first brought into limelight.  In 1973, Peter Glaser brought forward a method of transmitting power over long distances using microwaves from a very large antenna.  Between 1978 and 1981, Department of Energy (DoE) and NASA organized the Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Satellite Power Station
  6. 6. The Thought Process Continued..  In 1997 , NASA conducted a study to examine the modern state of SBSP feasibility.  In 1999, NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program (SERT) was initiated.  On Nov 2, 2012, China proposed space collaboration with India so that both can work for long term association with proper funding along with other willing space faring nations to bring space solar power to earth. Satellite Power Station
  7. 7. Basic Components… A huge solar collector typically made up of solar cells. D.C. to Microwave conversion through magnetron. Microwave transmitting antenna, aimed at earth where rectennas are placed. Satellite Power Station
  8. 8. Solar Cell… Satellite Power Station
  9. 9. Solar Cell I-V Characteristics… Satellite Power Station
  10. 10. Power Conversion… Generally electrical power is transmitted in the form of microwaves through a SPS. A magnetron is used for this purpose. A magnetron essentially consists of- A filament to act as the source of electrons; A permanent magnet to set a steady magnetic field; A cathode and anode assembly; A microwave transmitting antenna. Satellite Power Station
  11. 11. Construction of Magnetron… Satellite Power Station
  12. 12. Operation of Magnetron… Satellite Power Station
  13. 13. Waveguides & Launchers…  A waveguide is a hollow conducting tube, through which electromagnetic waves propagate. They are mainly of two types: -- Rectangular; -- Circular.  A launcher is an initial portion of the waveguide, which couples the microwave energy into the waveguide. Rectangular Waveguide Waveguide LauncherSatellite Power Station
  14. 14. Power Transmission…. Slotted Waveguide Antenna It has narrow slots on the waveguide . High Gain; Highly Directional; High Efficiency. Slotted Waveguide Antenna Satellite Power Station
  15. 15. Power Transmission Contd.…. Micro-Strip Antenna Mechanically Rugged; Inexpensive; Simple Geometry. Cross-section of Micro-strip Geometry. Micro-Strip Antenna Satellite Power Station
  16. 16. Phased Array Antenna…  Phased array is a directive antenna made with individual radiating sources.  Radiating elements are the slotted waveguides, micro-strip antennas and others.  They are of three types- Linear, Planar, Conformal. 4-Element Micro-strip Phased Array Antenna Satellite Power Station
  17. 17. The Rectenna… A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, that is used to convert microwave energy into DC electricity. It comprises of a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it by rectification into D.C. power. Satellite Power Station
  18. 18. Rectenna Schematic…. Satellite Power Station
  19. 19. Efficiency of the Rectenna Circuit…  DC-RF conversion efficiency, which includes losses caused by beam forming;  Beam collection efficiency which means ratio of all radiated power to collected power on a receiving antenna;  RF-DC conversion efficiency. Maximum conversion efficiencies anticipated so far are 91.4% at 2.45 GHz and 82% at 5.8 GHz . Satellite Power Station
  20. 20. Estimation… For the production of 1 GW power at the ground:  14 GW of power has to be produced at space.  Solar panel of 10 km2 area.  Transmitting antenna of length 2 km.  Rectennas of 4km diameter. Satellite Power Station
  21. 21. Challenges… It takes large area in space. The large cost of launching a satellite into space (about $100 to $200 per kg of payload). Microwave power radiation may interfere with communication line. Effect of microwave transmission on atmosphere, human being, ionosphere have to be investigated and evaluated. Maintenance of space system is a difficult and expensive task. The large size and corresponding cost of the receiving station on the ground. Satellite Power Station
  22. 22. 10MW Class SPS… Satellite Power Station
  23. 23. Conclusion… Satellite Power Station
  24. 24. References….  http://es.slideshare.net/niteshmishra05/wirelesspowertransmissionvia solarpowersatellite  Research paper on Wireless Power Transmission for Solar Power Satellite by T.S. Hasarmani.  Research Journal Radio Science Centre for Space and Atmosphere, Kyoto University, Japan  Micro-optical Sensors, A MEMS for electric power generation.  Energy Information Administration, EIA.  Microwaves, by K.C Gupta.  Conference paper by R. Trykozko on Principles of photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Satellite Power Station
  25. 25. Satellite Power Station

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