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COCOMO
Presented By -
Biswadeep Mukhopadhyay
biswadeep.mukhopadhyay00@gmail.com
B.Sc. Computer Science (Honours)
University of Burdwan
Serial No. Content Slide No.
1 Overview of COCOMO 3
2 Stages of COCOMO 4
3 Basic COCOMO 5 - 6
4 Person-Month (PMs) 7
5 Types of Software Development Project 8
6 Basic COCOMO – Organic Complexity 9 - 10
7 Basic COCOMO – Semidetached Complexity 11 - 12
8 Basic COCOMO – Embedded Complexity 13 - 14
9 Graphical Representation 15
10 Basic COCOMO - Example 16
11 Intermediate COCOMO 17 – 20
12 Complete COCOMO 21 - 22
13 COCOMO - II 23 – 24
14 Queries 25
INDEX
A Brief Overview on COCOMO
 Constructive Cost estimation Model (COCOMO)
 Proposed by Boehm in 1981
 Heuristic Project Estimation Technique
 Uses both Single and Multivariable estimation
Stages of COCOMO
According to Boehm, COCOMO prescribes a three stage
process estimation:
Basic COCOMO
 Used for quick and slightly rough calculations of
Software Costs.
 Its accuracy is somewhat restricted due to the
absence of sufficient factor considerations.
 Gives only an approximate estimation:
 Effort = a1*(KLOC)a2 PM
 Tdev = b1*(Effort)b2 months
Basic COCOMO
KLOC is the estimated Kilo Lines of Source Code.
a1, a2, b1, b2 are the constants for different categories
of software products.
Tdev is the estimated time to develop the software
products
Effort estimation is obtained in terms of person-month
(PMs)
Person- Month (Unit to measure Effort)
 Considered appropriate as developers are assigned for certain
months
 The effort an individual can put in a month.
 Productivity losses due to time lost are taken into account.
Types of Software
Development Project
According to Boehm, it is again classified into three
categories based on Development complexity-
 Organic
 Semidetached
 Embedded
Basic COCOMO
Organic Complexity:
Project should be well-defined application
program
Size of the development team is reasonably
small
Team was experienced in developing similar
type of projects
Basic COCOMO
Organic Complexity:
Formula for effort estimation :
 Effort = 2.4*(KLOC)1.05 PM
Formula for development time estimation :
 Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.38 months
Basic COCOMO
Semidetached Complexity:
Development team is comprised of both experienced
and in-experienced members
Team may have limited experience in developing
similar type of project and may be unfamiliar with
some aspects of the system.
Basic COCOMO
Semidetached Complexity:
Formula for effort estimation :
 Effort = 3.0*(KLOC)1.12 PM
Formula for development time estimation :
 Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.35 months
Basic COCOMO
Embedded Complexity:
Developed software is highly coupled to hardware.
Stringent regulations on the operational procedures
exist.
Team may have limited experience on related
systems and may be unfamiliar with some aspects
of the system.
Basic COCOMO
Embedded Complexity:
Formula for effort estimation :
 Effort = 3.6*(KLOC)1.20 PM
Formula for development time estimation :
 Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.32 months
Graphical Representation
Development Time vs Size Effort vs Size
Basic COCOMO
Example: Suppose a project was estimated to be 400 KLOC. Calculate the
effort and development time for each of the three model i.e., organic, semi-
detached & embedded.
Solution: The basic COCOMO equation takes the form:
Estimated Size of project= 400 KLOC
(i) Organic Mode
E = 2.4 * (400)1.05 = 1295.31 PM
T = 2.5 * (1295.31)0.38 = 38.07 months
(ii) Semidetached Mode
E = 3.0 * (400)1.12 = 2462.79 PM
T = 2.5 * (2462.79)0.35 = 38.45 months
(iii) Embedded Mode
E = 3.6 * (400)1.20 = 4772.81 PM
T = 2.5 * (4772.8)0.32 = 38 months
Intermediate COCOMO
 It refines the initial estimate obtained by using
the Basic COCOMO.
 Uses 15 cost drivers that are multiplied with the
initial cost and effort estimated by Basic
COCOMO.
 As per Boehm, the scale of cost drivers is in
between 0 and 3.
Intermediate COCOMO
The cost drivers can be classified as being
attributes of :-
Product
Computer
Personnel
Development Environment
Intermediate COCOMO
 Product-
 Required software
reliability extent
 Size of the application
database
 The complexity of the
product
Computer-
 Run-time performance
constraints
 Memory constraints
 The volatility of the
virtual machine
environment
 Required turn-about time
Intermediate COCOMO
 Development
Environment-
 Use of software tools
 Application of software
engineering methods
 Required development
schedule
 Personnel-
 Analyst capability
 Software engineering
capability
 Applications experience
 Virtual machine experience
 Programming language
experience
Complete COCOMO
 Incorporates all qualities of the standard version with
an assessment of the cost drivers.
 Consider software product as a bunch of sub-systems.
 The development team might have no experience on
similar type of projects.
 Development cost is estimated on the sub-systems.
Complete COCOMO
 Six phases of complete COCOMO are:
Planning and requirements
System structure
Complete structure
Module code and test
Integration and test
Cost Constructive model
COCOMO II
 COCOMO II incorporates a range of sub-models that
produce detailed software estimate.
 Provide accurate cost and schedule estimates.
 Provide careful, easy-to-understand definitions of the
Model’s input, output and assumptions.
 Provides a constructive, normative and evolving model.
COCOMO II
 There are four sub-models of COCOMO II.
o Application Composition Model- When software is
composed from existing parts.
o Early Design Model- When requirements are available
but design has not yet started.
o Reuse Model- Used to compute the effort of integrating
reusable components.
o Post-architecture Model- When system architecture is
ready and more information is available.
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COCOMO (Software Engineering)

  • 1. COCOMO Presented By - Biswadeep Mukhopadhyay biswadeep.mukhopadhyay00@gmail.com B.Sc. Computer Science (Honours) University of Burdwan
  • 2. Serial No. Content Slide No. 1 Overview of COCOMO 3 2 Stages of COCOMO 4 3 Basic COCOMO 5 - 6 4 Person-Month (PMs) 7 5 Types of Software Development Project 8 6 Basic COCOMO – Organic Complexity 9 - 10 7 Basic COCOMO – Semidetached Complexity 11 - 12 8 Basic COCOMO – Embedded Complexity 13 - 14 9 Graphical Representation 15 10 Basic COCOMO - Example 16 11 Intermediate COCOMO 17 – 20 12 Complete COCOMO 21 - 22 13 COCOMO - II 23 – 24 14 Queries 25 INDEX
  • 3. A Brief Overview on COCOMO  Constructive Cost estimation Model (COCOMO)  Proposed by Boehm in 1981  Heuristic Project Estimation Technique  Uses both Single and Multivariable estimation
  • 4. Stages of COCOMO According to Boehm, COCOMO prescribes a three stage process estimation:
  • 5. Basic COCOMO  Used for quick and slightly rough calculations of Software Costs.  Its accuracy is somewhat restricted due to the absence of sufficient factor considerations.  Gives only an approximate estimation:  Effort = a1*(KLOC)a2 PM  Tdev = b1*(Effort)b2 months
  • 6. Basic COCOMO KLOC is the estimated Kilo Lines of Source Code. a1, a2, b1, b2 are the constants for different categories of software products. Tdev is the estimated time to develop the software products Effort estimation is obtained in terms of person-month (PMs)
  • 7. Person- Month (Unit to measure Effort)  Considered appropriate as developers are assigned for certain months  The effort an individual can put in a month.  Productivity losses due to time lost are taken into account.
  • 8. Types of Software Development Project According to Boehm, it is again classified into three categories based on Development complexity-  Organic  Semidetached  Embedded
  • 9. Basic COCOMO Organic Complexity: Project should be well-defined application program Size of the development team is reasonably small Team was experienced in developing similar type of projects
  • 10. Basic COCOMO Organic Complexity: Formula for effort estimation :  Effort = 2.4*(KLOC)1.05 PM Formula for development time estimation :  Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.38 months
  • 11. Basic COCOMO Semidetached Complexity: Development team is comprised of both experienced and in-experienced members Team may have limited experience in developing similar type of project and may be unfamiliar with some aspects of the system.
  • 12. Basic COCOMO Semidetached Complexity: Formula for effort estimation :  Effort = 3.0*(KLOC)1.12 PM Formula for development time estimation :  Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.35 months
  • 13. Basic COCOMO Embedded Complexity: Developed software is highly coupled to hardware. Stringent regulations on the operational procedures exist. Team may have limited experience on related systems and may be unfamiliar with some aspects of the system.
  • 14. Basic COCOMO Embedded Complexity: Formula for effort estimation :  Effort = 3.6*(KLOC)1.20 PM Formula for development time estimation :  Tdev = 2.5*(Effort)0.32 months
  • 16. Basic COCOMO Example: Suppose a project was estimated to be 400 KLOC. Calculate the effort and development time for each of the three model i.e., organic, semi- detached & embedded. Solution: The basic COCOMO equation takes the form: Estimated Size of project= 400 KLOC (i) Organic Mode E = 2.4 * (400)1.05 = 1295.31 PM T = 2.5 * (1295.31)0.38 = 38.07 months (ii) Semidetached Mode E = 3.0 * (400)1.12 = 2462.79 PM T = 2.5 * (2462.79)0.35 = 38.45 months (iii) Embedded Mode E = 3.6 * (400)1.20 = 4772.81 PM T = 2.5 * (4772.8)0.32 = 38 months
  • 17. Intermediate COCOMO  It refines the initial estimate obtained by using the Basic COCOMO.  Uses 15 cost drivers that are multiplied with the initial cost and effort estimated by Basic COCOMO.  As per Boehm, the scale of cost drivers is in between 0 and 3.
  • 18. Intermediate COCOMO The cost drivers can be classified as being attributes of :- Product Computer Personnel Development Environment
  • 19. Intermediate COCOMO  Product-  Required software reliability extent  Size of the application database  The complexity of the product Computer-  Run-time performance constraints  Memory constraints  The volatility of the virtual machine environment  Required turn-about time
  • 20. Intermediate COCOMO  Development Environment-  Use of software tools  Application of software engineering methods  Required development schedule  Personnel-  Analyst capability  Software engineering capability  Applications experience  Virtual machine experience  Programming language experience
  • 21. Complete COCOMO  Incorporates all qualities of the standard version with an assessment of the cost drivers.  Consider software product as a bunch of sub-systems.  The development team might have no experience on similar type of projects.  Development cost is estimated on the sub-systems.
  • 22. Complete COCOMO  Six phases of complete COCOMO are: Planning and requirements System structure Complete structure Module code and test Integration and test Cost Constructive model
  • 23. COCOMO II  COCOMO II incorporates a range of sub-models that produce detailed software estimate.  Provide accurate cost and schedule estimates.  Provide careful, easy-to-understand definitions of the Model’s input, output and assumptions.  Provides a constructive, normative and evolving model.
  • 24. COCOMO II  There are four sub-models of COCOMO II. o Application Composition Model- When software is composed from existing parts. o Early Design Model- When requirements are available but design has not yet started. o Reuse Model- Used to compute the effort of integrating reusable components. o Post-architecture Model- When system architecture is ready and more information is available.