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Lillehammer 2016
Winter Youth Olympic Games
System- Oriented design course
Fall 2013
Sajedeh Ahi
Contents
About the project 	 4
GIGA-maps	 6
Mediator maps (Flow maps)	 16
Magnets	 36
Magnet 1	 38
Magnet 2	 40
Magnet 3	 ...
Lillehammer 2016 youth Olympic Games
In 2007 the idea of Youth Olympic Games (YOG) became a reality by IOC (International
...
The project started with the first
iteration of GIGA-map. After the
Lillehammer Olympic committee’s
presentation in the cl...
The main idea in the second map was to
bring all the information from previous
map and Internet search into a time-line.
T...
After the first meeting with Lillehemmer
Olympic Committee, a new research phase
started by new references like event manu...
GIGA-map IV
This map brought all the different layers of
information together in one map.
The map contains:
On the left si...
GIGA-map V
The last GIGA-map revealed 4 design
fields. These are areas need more focus and
design in this specific project...
whole point is the use of what we already have in the city and to consider this place in the
OL network.
3. Accommodation
...
Mediator maps (Flow maps)
Graph information document from Lillehammer Committee.
In this stage, first information of day
s...
Olympic Network
Day 1- Flow maps
Following flow maps are drawn for day 1
and the active network.
For situations need flow management,
the ...
To reduce the queue, main entrance
should be open and ice-sculpture with
music and light will attract the flow.
To make balance in all entrance doors
of the venue and slow down the athletes
ingress to the venue. This will be done by
m...
After the competition athletes will come
to Håkon hall. For avoiding the queue
outside, check points step back inside
Håko...
For having a gentle egress
flow from Håkon hall to
medal plaza. CEP activities
finish time should be set.
On the way it is...
In designing the magnets the following
factors are important:
Informal experiences (referring to the
intensive competition...
Magnets plan
Magnet 1
Place: Olympic park
Purpose: Attractor
Form: A collection of Mascot Ice- sculpture
Kristin Hall Entrances Håkon H...
In this magnet we need an attraction to
balance the ingress flow between all the
existing doors of the venue (Kristin hall...
Place: Olympic park
Purpose: CEP Outdoor Square
Form: Tent
Responsile: LYOGOC
Possible Sponsor: P&G
Magnet 2
entrance to avoid queue. For this purpose a
little expansion of magnet 1 can work, but
there are some other points that de...
Morning peak - Ice-sculpture attraction and working of Triad
2.	 There is no enough suitable space
for workshops in håkon ...
Day 1, 06:00- 07:30
Normal time
Day 1, 07:30- 08:00
Peak breakfast- do nothing
Day 1, 08:30- 09:00
Peak ingress for compet...
- CEP organizer in LYOGOC
- Sponsors for tent
- Local youth to know what they like to
experience in this event
- Local art...
Magnet 3
Place: A parking lot in the city
Purpose: Lead athletes to right path
Make delay
Form: Exhibition stands
Responsi...
In this spot, we need a magnet to first
and for most guide pedestrians to the
right path to avoid the trap. In this area,
...
Considering CO2 emissions and all these
tents and materials.
The new row of trees can turn to an
Olympic memory for the ci...
Day 1,
17:00-18:00
Leading to right
path
Day 1,
17:00-18:00
Do nothing
Sponsors
stands
School
stands
time to the medal pla...
one hour or some days less than that in
this magnet. Therefore their stay does
not have a high importance. Their choice
of...
The propose operational plan for the
Olympic park is a result of flow maps
analysis and necessities that come form the
GIG...
Next Step
The project could reach the above
achievements within the semester time.
Relating the mediator maps - flow maps-...
mapped, to be able to place them in the
best way.
I started the working in this venue by
breaking the existing picture tha...
floor. The only problem with this place is
the distance from the kitchen, although
it looks easier to manage 20 staff in t...
www.olympic.org
www.olympic.org/ioc
www.lillehammer2016.no
http://www.systemsorienteddesign.net/
References
Youth Olympic ...
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project
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Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project

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This is a project that developed concepts and ideas for the committee of the Lillehammer Youth Olympics to be held in Lillehammer, Norway in 2016. The project uses Systems Oriented Design on an Urban planning level.
Project by Sajedeh Ali, Oslo School of Architecture and Design

Published in: Design
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Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympics concept project

  1. 1. Lillehammer 2016 Winter Youth Olympic Games System- Oriented design course Fall 2013 Sajedeh Ahi
  2. 2. Contents About the project 4 GIGA-maps 6 Mediator maps (Flow maps) 16 Magnets 36 Magnet 1 38 Magnet 2 40 Magnet 3 46 Olympic Park Operational Plan 52 Next Step 53 References 56
  3. 3. Lillehammer 2016 youth Olympic Games In 2007 the idea of Youth Olympic Games (YOG) became a reality by IOC (International Olympic Committee). In these games in addition to the sport competitions program, YOG features an extensive Culture and Education Program (CEP), which aims to introduce young athletes to Olympism and Olympic values in a fun and festive spirit and to raise the awareness of important issues such as the benefit of a healthy life, the fight against doping, global challenges and their role as sport ambassadors in their communities. CEP is based on five themes that form different activities. These themes are: Olympism, healthy life, skill development, social responsibility and expression. (1) 2016 winter games is going to be held in Lillehammer and 1713 athletes – age: between 14-18 – are going to share, care and create under the CEP umbrella in a 10 days period of OL with the vision of “ go beyond, create tomorrow.” Venues are in Lillehammer, Gjøvik and Hamar although the main Olympic village is in Lillehammer. Due to the lack of accommodation around 300 athletes and officials will stay in Hamar where is in 60 km of Lillehammer. (2) In this project, the process started with making the GIGA-map of the project, which was created through different iterations. GIGA-map is a central tool for registering, analyzing and mapping complexity in System- oriented design. It deals with relations playing out in structure over time. (Sevaldson, lectures at system- oriented course, 2013) The general aim of the GIGA-map is ultimately to develop a “feel” for the overall complexity, an overview and expert intuition of the theme explored and to develop the detailed knowledge of the entities, filaments and interconnections in the field where needed and to reach a state of generative design, finding points of interventions and potentials for innovation. (3) About the project 1. facsheet, youth Olympic games, update-July 2012, official website of Olympic. 2. Document from Lillehammer Committee. 3. Sevaldson, Birger, System-oriented design for built environment article, design innovative for the built environment book. 4. Picture: Lillehammer Committee presentation, 22. August 2013, by Kristin Nilseng Chief of Staff and Coordination.
  4. 4. The project started with the first iteration of GIGA-map. After the Lillehammer Olympic committee’s presentation in the clients presentation session, this map was produced by all the students. Each student brought all the information he or she got from the presentation, into the table. In the next step, I started to read the map and tried to make connection between information and categorized them. In this map there are five main categories: Organizations Places (venues) Activities and sports Programs and goals Previous experiences. The connection between these categories shows a hierarchical system of decision making, programs, activities and places, although they are all interconnected. GIGA-map I Maps information from Lillehammer Committee presentation, 22. August 2013, by Kristin Nilseng Chief of Staff and Coordination. GIGA-maps
  5. 5. The main idea in the second map was to bring all the information from previous map and Internet search into a time-line. Therefore time-line is a structural part of the map. Game experiences from 2010 onwards, cultural and educational program’s themes (CEP), organizations in more detail, were general information from Internet search. The information about the venues from the Internet were vague and after site visit turned more accurate and precise. This map was used for the first meeting with client (Lillehammer Committee). There were some vague and incorrect information on the map that was corrected by client, and a lot of new information was added. GIGA-map II PDF documents from www.olympic.org
  6. 6. After the first meeting with Lillehemmer Olympic Committee, a new research phase started by new references like event manual and some venues’ documents. New information added to the map as two new layers: 1. Zoning necessities and accreditation roles, relating operational plan of the venues and venues connections. GIGA-map III PDF documents from www.olympic.org Manuals from Lillehammer committee. 2. Connection (time and distance information) between cities and also the connection between venues inside the city of Lillehammer.
  7. 7. GIGA-map IV This map brought all the different layers of information together in one map. The map contains: On the left side: Basic information from previous games and CEP activities. And from bottom to top on the right site of the map: 10 days time-line and each day schedule. (As we knew at the project time) Important places and venues in the city and their connection’s information. Zoning and accreditation roles and necessities. All the activities (sport competitions, CEP and place necessities) related to each place. Programs consists of: CEP, Sport and ceremonies. Organizations and participants.
  8. 8. GIGA-map V The last GIGA-map revealed 4 design fields. These are areas need more focus and design in this specific project. This map is a revision that tries to review the previous maps and set their information in the form of these 4 fields. 1. Flow Management: There are different venues in different parts of the city and also different cities. The main focal point here is how we can manage the crowd inside and in between venues. How to lead them in the best way and how to make delay? (Relating the streets’ capacity and high number of people move at the same time.) Steepness and slippery roads, signage, ticket and queue, accreditation roles and temporary paths are factors should be considered. The idea of OL network and designing magnets for this network emerged in this stage. 2. Venues development: A.StampeslettaorOlympicparklandscape needs reorganization to be adopted for usage in this event. Temporary paths, activate some paths, storage area, welcome center, taxi drop-off and transportation mall areas, etc. B. Håkon hall is a sport venue inside the park that will be changed to use as a living room for athletes and officials to gather and mingle and take part in CEP activities. In addition welcome ceremony will be held in this building. The main questions are: How can we make this building a living space, and change the boring atmosphere of concrete? There are new functions that should feed in this building. There are Dining hall, Living room, CEP workshops, Storage, Media center, Gym & training facilities, Amphitheater space and arranging welcome ceremony. The main question here is: How can we organize the new functions in this building in its best way. The challenge is that the building is designedasasportvenueanditisimportant how make space for all these new functions. C.Maihaugenisaculturaltouristattraction in the city with high potential to introduce the Norwegian culture to the guests. there is an idea to have world cultural village (CEP part). it is controversial to move a part of CEP to another place, although the
  9. 9. whole point is the use of what we already have in the city and to consider this place in the OL network. 3. Accommodation How to deal with the lack of accommodation? 4. 2YOVs connection How can we connect athletes in two different YOVs? How can athletes in Hamar be involved in CEP as much as athletes in Lillehammer? Between these fields, flow management has a higher importance and affect the other fields especially venue development. Referring to the map V, movement, activities and zoning are three factors that affect connect flow management and venue development. Therefore I started with flow management and made the flow maps. These maps act as a mediator for design fields. Mediator maps that bring the GIGA-map information to design.
  10. 10. Mediator maps (Flow maps) Graph information document from Lillehammer Committee. In this stage, first information of day schedule turned to a graph and the graph translated to a flow map between venues. Graphs’ information are for sport competitions schedule and medal ceremony. In the first place they show the intense competition timetable, that there is not much time for CEP especially for ice hockey and curling athletes. Second they show the best time we can use for other activities (CEP). in the third place they propose the time and the need of magnets. The Olympic network map shows the active (daily use) and passive network. The Olympic network generally is the shortest way from one venue to the other. Venue usage’ s rate during time
  11. 11. Olympic Network
  12. 12. Day 1- Flow maps Following flow maps are drawn for day 1 and the active network. For situations need flow management, the revision map is shown in front of the existing situation. These maps considering only pedestrians flow. For having a better understanding of the situation and a more precise design and also for the operational plan of the Olympic park, vehicles and media flow map should be added. OL network boundary Day One Venue usage Active Flow
  13. 13. To reduce the queue, main entrance should be open and ice-sculpture with music and light will attract the flow.
  14. 14. To make balance in all entrance doors of the venue and slow down the athletes ingress to the venue. This will be done by magnet 1 (ice sculpture ) and magnet 2 CEP tent for parents, coaches and athletes.
  15. 15. After the competition athletes will come to Håkon hall. For avoiding the queue outside, check points step back inside Håkon hall. This provide indoor space for seating area (in cafe area) where they can seat and wait.
  16. 16. For having a gentle egress flow from Håkon hall to medal plaza. CEP activities finish time should be set. On the way it is necessary to lead and make delay. This will be done in the city square by magnets.
  17. 17. In designing the magnets the following factors are important: Informal experiences (referring to the intensive competition schedule) Free experiences (enough CEP activities, from previous experiences) Interaction of Triad (locals, athletes, parents)( referring the gap between participants in GIGA-map) Be a teammate not an athlete M1: Attracter (Light+ Music+ Ice sculptures of Mascot) To attract spectators’ attention and bring them a little closer. To balance the door usage of Kristin Hall. M2: CEP Outdoor square (CEP helper) Makeameetingpoint.Triadmeetingpoint (locals, parents, athletes and coaches). CEP workshops with local contribution. It has a back yard for informal experiences and local artist contributions. Gathering place at night. After medal ceremony, athletes can gather around the fire and drink coffee and mingle before going to YOV. M3: Guide and Delay (City square) Guidance will be done by lighting and delay by stands. Introduce the right path and avoid the trap. Stands for food, technology and school students. Enhance the spot life by adding trees for guiding pedestrians. M4: Activate the Street By lighting and adding trees to the previous magnet, the continues feeling is created to invite athletes to use this street. Lighting will continue to the whole street and signify the exit streets to the medal plaza. M5: Performances after Medal ceremony When Medal ceremony is over, two groups of local artists do a performance in shown areas to delay the crowd exit of the area. By the flow maps the best place for the stage is visible too. M6: Activate in case of need This is a small enclosed area in Storgata which can be activated in case of need and be added to the OL network. Magnets
  18. 18. Magnets plan
  19. 19. Magnet 1 Place: Olympic park Purpose: Attractor Form: A collection of Mascot Ice- sculpture Kristin Hall Entrances Håkon Hall
  20. 20. In this magnet we need an attraction to balance the ingress flow between all the existing doors of the venue (Kristin hall, for ice hockey competition). Therefore a collection of mascot ice sculpture in combination with light and music, start working at the necessary time to just attracts the attention. We do not want long stay. It is enough that people come a little closer and say: “A it is just an ice sculpture”. And turn to the entrance. Ice sculptures are in different size to attract people from far and also people can hug them and take pictures. Ice-sculptures of mascot prefer due to stainability. Flow maps show a need of an attractor in this place for bringing athletes to the main Time-line
  21. 21. Place: Olympic park Purpose: CEP Outdoor Square Form: Tent Responsile: LYOGOC Possible Sponsor: P&G Magnet 2
  22. 22. entrance to avoid queue. For this purpose a little expansion of magnet 1 can work, but there are some other points that define this magnet. 1. Håkon hall is a living room for athletes and all the officials, to relax, mingle, take park in CEP workshops and eat. But parents and locals are not allowed to this place (accreditation roles- GIGA map). Furthermore referring the GIGA- map again, there is a gap between (parents, athletes, and local). it means that they are a partofthiseventbuttheyarenotinteracting sufficiently together. No youth Olympic game before has seen them all together as one OL family. Furthermore we should not forget the importance of supporting role of parents. In conclusion with all accreditation roles and zone necessities, there should be a place for all these group to meet and to interact. Therefore an square inside the park seems necessary. Time-line Morning normal time
  23. 23. Morning peak - Ice-sculpture attraction and working of Triad 2. There is no enough suitable space for workshops in håkon hall. This building is a sport venue and should place a lot of “irrelevant” functions in itself. therefore an outdoor tent for CEP is a good idea that also can bring CEP to the local contribution. Back to the magnet the main question is that : How does it work? As a Meeting point: Place and form of this square is defined by flow maps. A place in the middle of OL Park that connects different functions together. (Transportationmall,dormitoryandhotels, Håkon hall, Kristin hall and training hall.) If a group of people wants to go to a tour, this is a point they gather first and move to transportation mall afterwards. This place makes a meeting point for the triad. Before each competition this tent gathers athletes, coaches and parents of that specific competition to reduce the stress of athletes by parents support and final coach speech, next to the fireplace with coffee. In any other free times,this tent is a Triad tent. They know that there is a place they are free to visit their children also local parents. IFs (international federations) can take it for their own athletes and parents for this purpose too. The goal is to connect athletes, parents and officials and coaches together. This is something new that Lillehammer Olympic committee will bring to the youth Olympic. The information desk here works all day mostly to help local and parents. At night – after medal ceremony- it turns to a gathering place around fire with hot drink that athletes can hang out before go to their rooms in YOV.
  24. 24. Day 1, 06:00- 07:30 Normal time Day 1, 07:30- 08:00 Peak breakfast- do nothing Day 1, 08:30- 09:00 Peak ingress for competition Ice-sculpture is working Day 1, 15:00-16:00 CEP Day 1, 08:30- 09:00 Peak ingress for competition- do nothing Day 1, 07:30- 08:00 Peak breakfast Day 1, 08:00- 08:30 Gentle ingress to the venue Tent is working for Triad before competition. Day 1, 13:00-14:00 Peak egress for competition Ice-sculpture is working For CEP: In the CEP tent, activities for locals, athletes and parents will take place .the content is something that is attractive for all of them like food work shop (the importance of healthy food ) or dance workshop (getting to know about other cultures) . In the backyard, outdoor activities i.e ice sculpture workshop with local artist contributions will take place (With the theme of being teammate not athlete and experience it freely) Or just make a snowman together. People can freely enter OL park and meet theathletesandtakepartinworkshopswith them and Håkon hall can work specifically for athletes and officials. Whom to contact for take this idea further? Day 1, 21:00-24:00 Gathering place
  25. 25. - CEP organizer in LYOGOC - Sponsors for tent - Local youth to know what they like to experience in this event - Local artists Who can be the sponsor of the tent? P&G, is one of the “BIG” sponsors of the games that has a focus on families and specially the importance of mothers. they have the “thank you mum campaign”.
  26. 26. Magnet 3 Place: A parking lot in the city Purpose: Lead athletes to right path Make delay Form: Exhibition stands Responsible: sponsors / schools Probable sponsors: Panasonic, Samsung, TINE Narrow path Covered pathway From Storgata to parking lot
  27. 27. In this spot, we need a magnet to first and for most guide pedestrians to the right path to avoid the trap. In this area, people tend to use narrower path because it is nicer and the other choice is part of a parking lot and not a defined pathway. Lighting on the trees and putting some activities in the right place will attract people to use this path. from the other side, considering the city itself, this area is a parking spot and pedestrians rarely choose this spot as a path. If it turns to an active square in the city it can even work better during the Olympic. Existing situation of the parking lot Time-line
  28. 28. Considering CO2 emissions and all these tents and materials. The new row of trees can turn to an Olympic memory for the city afterward. Second is the need to delay the crowd movement. Because almost all the athletes move from Håkon hall around the same This area is next to storgata, the pedestrian street. To bring the feeling of storgata (pedestrian dominant) to this spot and to guide them towards this square, new rows of trees are added. These trees connect the trees of storgata to the very old existing trees at the end of this site. They make a significant and interesting path for pedestrians. furtheremore to emphasise of the direction, ground cover plants and pergolas- in the tent places - are designed to provide seating place during normal time and stands for tents during exhibition or temporary bazars. Moreover, the place can still live as a parking spot if the municipality does not have any plan for upgrading this part of the city. Considering the city and its life after Olympic is a matter of stainability which is one of the IOC themes for this event. What will happen after Olympic to this magnet? How does Olympic affect its life? Does it come back to its boring parking spot after all this excitement? How the design here can be sustainable? Existing situation Design Idea
  29. 29. Day 1, 17:00-18:00 Leading to right path Day 1, 17:00-18:00 Do nothing Sponsors stands School stands time to the medal plaza.To balance and ease the flow 1. Delay will take place in this magnet. 2. CEP time will manage in a way that athletes leave Håkon hall with delay in smaller groups. How does it work? This magnet is working as a city square. Stands will be set in this square for spongers and school students to make delay. The activities should be interesting activities for all users, like free food, technology and computer and cultural diversities. Technology stands: Selected Sponsors are Samsung and Panasonic for technology stands. They have a small spot to set a game each day at 17:00 for locals and guests (athletes who are not athletes in this place anymore) to play together and win a Galaxy phone or a Panasonic camera each day. Food stands: There is also food stand for local sponsors like TINE to bring the importance of the healthy life from Olympic themes to normal people. Culture: school students will make Sami tents and each day they give the day “matpakke” to athletes. The important thing is that athletes have
  30. 30. one hour or some days less than that in this magnet. Therefore their stay does not have a high importance. Their choice of path and being delayed is important. The tents are set back to provide enough space either for those who want to pass and those who stay to check. With the intensive competition schedule, it is important to even plan their walking path to have more fun and experience the city and it culture to its fullest. Whom to contact for take this idea further? Municipality Sponsors (Panasonic, Samsung, TINE) Schools
  31. 31. The propose operational plan for the Olympic park is a result of flow maps analysis and necessities that come form the GIGA-map. The advantage of using flow maps as a reference for design is that in this case there is one proposed map which Olympic Park Operational Plan is the most relevant to the games needs, instead of having many master plans from different people.
  32. 32. Next Step The project could reach the above achievements within the semester time. Relating the mediator maps - flow maps- as mentioned before, they focused on the pedestrians’ flow. For a more precise and more accurate design, vehicle and media flows should be considered. In that case, different magnets might needed or a change in the operational plan. The next step for this project is designing each venue, most importantly Håkon Hall. The new functions in this venue are as following: Dining hall Living room Works for 24 hours Noisy area Not hang- out area CEP workshops Different types of workshops Seminars Storage Media center Gym & training facilities Amphitheater space Welcome ceremony Flow relating to new functions inside this venues is important and show be Alternative 1Alternative 2 Kitchen Level 0- existing Dining hall suggestions Level 1- semi open area (security)- seating area Level 2- CEP workshops Level 3- proposed Dining hall place
  33. 33. mapped, to be able to place them in the best way. I started the working in this venue by breaking the existing picture that the organizers of the venue have already had. Dining hall is a place that should work all day long and it is a noisy place. In addition it should not be a place, users want to hang out there. They should be encouraged to explore the other areas with CEP content. The existing alternatives suggest the side areas of the play field for dining hall. They are both very close to the kitchen and easily accessible for staff. Furthermore, there are enough rooms for all the users in these areas and most importantly, the organizers have the experience of helding up ceremonies in that spots. The first alternative has a separate entrance from outside (same level as second floor) and the second one is next to the track entrance of the venue. The problem with this suggestion is that they occupy the best part of the building for a noisy and not concentrated function. in this way it is really hard to avoid gathering and long stays. Another place that has enough capacity and is a hidden and not a very nice place in the venue, is behind seats in the third The proposed plans are not complete and do not consider all the important factors related to designing of this building. Level 3 Level 1
  34. 34. floor. The only problem with this place is the distance from the kitchen, although it looks easier to manage 20 staff in the kitchen than 1700 athletes. In this case it is possible to use the whole field of play for CEP. The field of play can be divided into two part by two tents _OL network idea- for different CEP activities. For continuing of the design in this venue, the other important design question is how to make it a living room and change the boring atmosphere of concrete? the other topic that can be taken further is a very steep road in the Olympic network. it is important to consider the steepness of this road considering the climate situation large number of young athletes unaccustomed to the place.
  35. 35. www.olympic.org www.olympic.org/ioc www.lillehammer2016.no http://www.systemsorienteddesign.net/ References Youth Olympic Games Event Manual, 6th edition- post innsbruck 2012 winter youth Olympic Games, International Olympic Committee, IOC February 2013. Factsheet youth Olympic games- updated 2012, International Olympic Committee. Culture and education programme, lillehammer youth Olympic games 2016. Operational vision for YOV. Bedinventorysolvencyallotmentreportanalysisforlillehammer2016,TomasHolmestad, Kristin Nilseng, July 2013. Documents from Lillehammer Olympic Committee: Web pages: Book: Olympic cities : city agendas, planning and the world’s games, 1896-2012 / edited by John R. Gold and Margaret M. Gold Churchman, C. W. (1971). the design of inquiring systems. basic books Inc. Sevaldson, B. (2005). developing digital design techniques. Oslo university of architecture and design. Sevaldson, B. (2013). lectures at system- oriented course . sevaldson, b. (2012). system-oriented design for built environment. In M. U.Hensel (Ed.), Design innovation for the built environment. Abingdon: Routledge.

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