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2.1. vienādojumu sistēmas
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  1. 1. Understanding cultural differences Designer Linda Blaasvær // Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013 //
  2. 2. Designer Linda Blaasvær MA Industrial design (2012) The Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) I recently completed my Masters degree in industrial design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design. My Master thesis had a systems oriented design perspective with interaction design as part of the final design solution. In the following I will present the essence my master thesis, conducted in the period from August to December 2012. Contact details + 47 98473136
  3. 3. UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES A design project Linda Blaasvær // Relating Systems Thinking & Design 2013 //
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION “Understanding cultural differences” is a design project that is based in Systems oriented design, using Gigamapping as the main tool to achieve a holistic view. The system under study is the Norwegian military. I have tried to find out how the military prepare the young Norwegian soldiers for meeting a foreign culture when they are about to travel in International operations (INTOPS) for the first time. I question if they have enough training to understand the cultural differences they will meet before they leave for military service abroad, and if designers can provide relevant solutions.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVE ? How can desigers help improve the cultural education of norwegian soldiers traveling in International operations e.g. Afghanistan?
  7. 7. DESIGN PRACTICE IN NEW AREAS I was first introduced to this theme in a broader sense through the Systems oriented design course at AHO, led by Birger Sevaldson, spring of 2011. We got a client from UNIDIR (research centre within the UN system), Dr. Derek B. Miller. UNIDIR research various methods to obtain peace and security in post conflict areas. During that semester I found this specific potential area to investigate in my Diploma assignment. This project would not exist without a systems perspective on a larger system such as UN challenges. That system design project led me to this task, trying to create a design solution for Norwegian soldiers in International service. Designers are not often invited to contribute in such complex and political oriented themes, and I wanted to explore the role of the designer in such a landscape.
  8. 8. DESIGN PRACTICE IN NEW AREAS Photo: private Photo: AHO Project Review with the client from UNIDIR. From left: Derek B. Miller, Birger Sevaldson, Linda Blaasvær and Romain Briant. Spring of 2011. Systems oriented design course was visited by Kristin Halvorsen, who was Minister of Education. Spring of 2011.
  9. 9. CULTURAL EXPERIENCE The design solution evolves within service design and interaction design, and is an application for mobile devices: “Cultural Experience”. During the process I found that a service for Norwegian soldiers that will offer knowledge from International operations have to come from within the system to be a credible service and provide relevant information and learning’s. The service offers insights from veterans so I decided that it should be a closed network for veterans to be able to share also sensitive information. I have been in contact with people in the defense. The result has arrived on the basis of research, interviews with veterans of Afghanistan (also Macedonia, Lebanon), and second-hand information. An application for a handheld device is a useful tool because, it is an accessible tool and the target audience is accustomed to the medium and they use it daily. This design is a demo.
  10. 10. RELEVANS The Norwegian troops pull out of Afghanistan by the end of 2014. This prototype serves as a template with Afghanistan as an example. Norwegian soldiers are present in INTOPS elsewhere and will get new assignments after this. The Norwegian contribution in Afghanistan is the longest war assignment Norway has participated in since 1814, and the knowledge Norwegian Afghanistan veterans sits on is valuable experience. " When the Norwegian forces pull out of Afghanistan, it is not because the goals are reached and the mission is accomplished. The withdrawal occurs because the goals can’t be realized, claims John O. Egeland " in Dagbladet on 11th of September 2012. The goal was to remove the Taliban and facilitate a strong central government based on democracy and the rule of law. It has been difficult to understand the dynamics of power structures, the government is weak and it is uncertain whether it can stand when the Western forces pull out. This article discusses the value of the military contribution to the war and how the Taliban, for example, do not depend on winning the war, they just need to hang in there until the West is worn out. The West has not understood the importance of political and cultural development claims Egeland. (Egeland, 2012) Photo: Forsvarets Mediesenter
  11. 11. WHY AN APPLICATION ? Illustration photo:
  12. 12. PRIMARY USER The solution became an application, “Cultural Experience”. It is designed for Norwegian soldiers in international service, for them to learn about foreign culture. The target audience is soldiers travelling for the first time, and the main user is approximately 20 + years old. An application for a handheld device is a useful tool because, it is accessible and the user group is accustomed to the medium and they use it daily. And in this case, the soldiers are working shifts and would benefit from a device they can use when it is most suitable. Insights from the user - interview "I would use such a service on a smartphone. For the content to be credible, I would like to watch videos. And contextual pictures will make me belive the content" Olav, 20 years. Photo: FMS. Norwegian soldier in Afghanistan:
  13. 13. BACKGROUND Kultur på ville veier: En gjennomgang av Forsvarets satsing på kulturforståelse Trine Holo og Morten Dehli Andreassen Norwegian Institute of International Affairs Department of Security and Conflict Management Soldiers traveling in International service for the first time do not only meet a war situation; they also face a foreign country and a foreign culture. The challenges inherent in manoeuvring in a foreign country, to meet and communicate, not only in a foreign language but also in the context of different norms and values requires a robust training of the soldiers. This is something the Norwegian military of course takes seriously. But discussions in Norwegian media gives reason to believe that soldiers traveling in International service is not always so well prepared to meet a foreign culture as we might hope. "NATO soldiers trampled in as elephants in a glass house, with a maximum few hours of training in cultural understanding." Gro Holm, utenrikskommentator Ref.: 11.09.2 012 Security in Practice 11 · 2010 [NUPI Report] "You will always find someone who says that training is unsystematic and inadequate.” Harald Høiback, Forsvarets Stabsskole.
  14. 14. KEY FINDINGS Little focus on cultural understanding in a military context. CULTURAL EDUCATION within military education Do not meet cultural challenges before they are presented ‘on the job’ The various military institutions have different understanding and prioritization of training in Afghan culture. Academic knowledge Military skills The training that exists is theoretically Quality assurance is weak or non-existent. The deteriorating security situation in Afghanistan leads to that cultural understanding will be abandoned in favor of pure military skills. Ref.: Holo, Andreassen. 2010 Personal development Physical capacity
  15. 15. Zoom: cultural education EXAMPLE OF MILITARY EDUCATION // description of military service ending with International service Grunnlegggende nivå Førstegangstjeneste/ befalsskole, 1 til 2 år Krigsskole, bachlor utdannelse Stabsskolen del 1 (3 mnd) Nasjonalt langkurs, Sjøforsvaret (1 år) Stabsskolen del 2 Utdanning for utenlandstjeneste International service Grunnleggende utdannelse er fagspesifikk. Soldatene får innføring i grunnleggende militære disipliner; skyting/marsjiering/felttjeneste o.l. Oppsummert; Sjøforsvaret utdanner personell for å seile fartøy og er styrt mye av sivile regelverk mtp sertifikater. Det vil og være et militært tilsnitt, samt øvelser/kursing som går på mulige trusselgrupperinger. Stabsmetodikk i fokus og militære operasjoner. I Sjøforsvaret var dette et taktisk operativt kurs med fokus på bestemte våpen og løsning av «kjente» operasjoner. Denne utdanningen har jeg ikke, men har kikket på UV planen – og den ligner veldig på utdannelsen jeg fikk på 2.avdeling på krigsskolen (Gammel ordning). Avhengig av hvor en skal, eller hvilken grad en har er det forskjellige utdanningspakker. På lavere gradsnivå (menig til kaptein/kapteinløytnant) jobber en normalt innen spesifikke faggrener. Eksempelvis operasjonsplanlegging (+2 dager til 60 dager) for Regional Kommandoen i MeZ. På mellomsjiktet og høyere gradsnivå (major/orlogskaptein og opp) kommer du gjerne inn i fellesstaber. Etter at felles grunnleggende modul er ferdig, skal de normalt gjennom en fagutdanning som gjør de i stand til å tjenestegjøre der de er ment å jobbe etter opplæring. Menig personell (førstegangstjeneste) vil etter endt utdanning havne på avdeling hvor de skal jobbe i ca 7-9 måneder. Befalsskoleelever/utskrevet befalskurs elever får videre opplæring ved tjenestegjørende avdeling, evt får de utdannelse på skole – avhengig av Forsvarsgren. I utdanningen vil det være noen nettkurs som går på krigens folkerett, samt innføring i militære operasjonsområder – men ikke spesifikk kulturutdannelse. («ny ordning 3 ½ år», gammel ordning 2+2 år) Hær/luft er ikke inkludert i dette scenarioet. Hær/Luft – følger nok mye samme bachelor mønsteret hvor fagutdanning er tungtveiende for å tilfredsstille krav til dette. Felles er øvelser hvor kadetter blir satt i ulike situasjoner hvor de møter «terror grupper», de blir satt under fangetjeneste, får trening i motstand mot avhør, trening i oppførsel etter evt at de er blitt tatt til fange. Meg bekjent er det ikke lagt inn kulturell utdannelse på krigsskolene. Befalsskolen for etterretning utdanner personell i språk, annet hvert år i hhv russisk og arabisk, pashtu og dari. Kjenner ikke til om disse får videre innføring i de ulike samfunnsstrukturene men er nærliggende å tro. Her var det en felles utdanning som la vekt på internasjonal politikk, sjømakt, lederskap, logistikk, organisasjon og div annet, men ikke så mye på kultur i operasjonsområder. Vi kikket på alquida og taliban og skrev oppgaver om deres nettverk og sannsynlige handlingsporteføljer. 3 ukers kurs: Kurset bestod 1 uke med våpen tjeneste, ½ uke med sanitet, 1 ½ uke med operasjonsforståelse av Afghanistan. Innen fellesstabene deler en inn i avdelinger som omhandler personell, etterretning, operasjoner, logistikk/forsyning, plan, samband, erfaringssenter, økonomi og sivilt militært samband (CIMIC). Innen CIMIC ligger det mye kontakt med den sivile befolkningen. De får mer «on the job training» enn de får kursing i forkant. Within CIMIC is there a lot of contact with the civilian population. They get more "on the job training" than they receive training in advance. Law of war Military operation areas Language, respectively, Russian and Arabic, Pashtu and Dari Social Structures Ref.: Timeline based on interview with a veteran from Afghanistan. Qualitative research. Yellow keys represent findings of cultural education within the military training and service: At Basic level and then “on the job training” during International service.
  16. 16. WHY What will be achieved with cultural education ? Give confidence to the soldier to behave correctly in different situations so that the military tasks can be performed in the best possible way. "To understand the culture enables you understand why people behave the way they do. " From an interview with an Afghanistan veteran Better soldiers cost efficient Do not shoot at the wrong time Do not feel alienated Give confidence to do a good job Harmless behavior when in contact with local population Concequences with lack of cultural understanding Misunderstandings due to language barrier Misbehavior because one is not familiar with local customs The mission is delayed People are injured/Fellow soldiers or counterparty Injury, death, loss of fellow soldiers.
  17. 17. DESIGN VALUE REDUCE Fear Anxiety Frustration Discomfort Stress Photo: From the documentary movie Armadillo, Metz 2010.
  18. 18. DESIGN VALUE PROVIDE Cultural understanding Emotional accomplishment Confidence Photo: Forsvarets Mediesenter
  19. 19. Holdninger og praksis Sosiale spill Ideer Mønster for stemmegivning Potensiale for vold samfunn Fiksede valg - disengagement interaksjoner Conflicts Trusselgrupperinger Islam Samfunnsstrukturer sunni og shia liv og død The network of Kunduz Konflikten og aktørene Economy ”Phantom kvinnelige stemmer” Politics Religion Hvordan vinne Afghan valg Omdømme Komplekse spill i forhandling og avtaler Adferd Status Language Allianser individ - organisasjoner Smak FRAMING THE TERM CULTURE Kunnskap og erfaring Kjønnsroller – Mann & kvinne Kvinners rettigheter Myths Kleskoder Normer Ramdan Jihad Security Pashtunwali – Doing Pashto Mat & drikke Lukt Historie Verdier Islam Musikk Ungdomskultur Familien Urbefolkning The way of the Pashtuns Fashion Tradisjonsdrakt Taleban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Al-Qaeda Geografi Land Tilgang til ressurser Politisk representasjon Høytider Folkeskikk Do’s and Don’ts Tradisjoner stammefolk Design & Arkitektur Islamic Architecture Churches Vann Landskap og dyreliv mennesker
  20. 20. FRAMING THE TERM CULTURE GENERAL academic General culture Social Structures Threat groupings Country Specific History Language Interaction/ Social games PERSONAL experience Personal knowledge Communication/ Language Personal experience “Lessons learned”
  21. 21. HOW GENERAL KNOWLEDGE academic PERSONAL KNOWLEDGE experience “Lessons learned” Transferring experience based knowledge of cultural understanding INEXPERIENCED SOLDIER VETERAN
  23. 23. Scenario: BEFORE DEPARTURE Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Service on the Internet Download application Viewing vetranprofiler Learning about the veterans cultural experience
  24. 24. FRAMING THE TERM CULTURE WITH A SYSTEMIC APPROACH The application includes learning from veterans with experience from international service. They share their experience of encounters with another culture during service abroad. Inexperienced soldiers can reap the experience of others with the aim of reducing misunderstandings and avoid difficult situations. Veterans possess vast amounts of experience inexperienced soldiers can benefit from. But how can young, inexperienced soldiers have access to this knowledge? My response to this has been to design an application that provides “lessons learned”. The application aims to be a solution that engages, and providing valuable experiences a venue to reach inexperienced soldiers.
  25. 25. WIREFRAMES Carrier 12:00 PM Carrier 12:00 PM Logo INTRODUCTION Description of application VETERANS TIPS CULTURE & SOCIETY DICTIONARY PHOTO & VIDEO FAVORITES HOME SETTINGS VIDEO 2012 12 19 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. VIDEO 3 2012 12 10 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. HOME Latest uploaded content CATEGORIES
  26. 26. WIREFRAMES Carrier 12:00 PM Carrier Back VETERANS SORTER AREA POSITION 12:00 PM VETERAN NAME NAME UPDATED 11/15/2 TIPS NAME PHOTOS Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet UPDATED11/15/2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet UPDATED 11/15/2 NAME Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet UPDATED 11/15/2 NAME Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet VETERANS Scroll list / can sort (not filter) Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi. Nam liber tempor cum soluta nobis eleifend option congue nihil imperdiet doming id quod mazim placerat facer possim assum. Typi non habent claritatem insitam; est usus legentis in iis qui facit eorum claritatem. Investigationes demonstraverunt lectores legere me lius quod ii legunt saepius. Claritas est etiam processus dynamicus, qui sequitur mutationem consuetudium lectorum. Mirum est notare quam littera gothica, quam nunc putamus parum claram, anteposuerit litterarum formas humanitatis per seacula quarta decima et quinta decima. Eodem modo typi, qui nunc nobis videntur parum clari, fiant sollemnes in futurum. VIDEOER VETERAN PROFIL
  27. 27. WIREFRAMES Carrier 12:00 PM Back Carrier VIDEO NAME 12:00 PM FAVORITES PEOPLE VIDEOER TIPS UPDATED 11/15/2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis UPDATED 11/15/2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy VIDEO FAVORITES Content to favorite page stored and grouped by content type (people, videos, tips, etc.)
  29. 29. NAVIGATION SERVICE BLUEPRINT DESCRIPTION: AFGANISTAN Horizontal menu slide. Clear top bar navigation with reserved space for conventional navigation at the top (”back“ and a button for reaching all categories at any level). It is relatively space efficient. 1 HOME PAGE CHOOSE COUNTRY Space reserved for step-by-step navigation “back” Category button always visible APP STORE DOWNLOAD Carrier Back 12:00 PM Carrier 12:00 PM Logo MENY CATEGORY 1 CATEGORY 2 CATEGORY CATEGORY CATEGORY APP DOWNLOAD Download country spesific app from App Store CATEGORY CATEGORY 2 CATEGORY 3 5 7 4 Carrier 6 12:00 PM 8 2 iPhone / iPad Download country spesific app from App Store
  30. 30. MOCK UP
  31. 31. WHY IS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING IMPORTANT? PROVIDE THE SOLDIER WITH Increased knowledge about the culture and the conflict Confidence to do a good job Feeling of recognition Increased sense of achievement REDUCE Fear Anxiety Frustration Discomfort Stress
  32. 32. CULTURAL EXPERIENCE Is a tool for Norwegian soldiers international service to better understand a foreign culture - you reap the experiences of others with the aim of reducing misunderstandings and avoid difficult situations. CONCLUSION Perhaps one can never be well enough prepared in such situations, and it is difficult to predict what awaits one. But I believe that inexperienced soldiers can benefit from what I have called "lessons learned", in the application “Cultural Experience”.
  33. 33. Project / Understanding cultural differences Further references and insights about the project upon request. PRESENTATION RSD2 Symposium 9th-11th October 2013 Emerging Contexts for Systemic Design AHO – Oslo School of Architecture & Design, Oslo, Norway EXHIBITION Bridge – Design Collaboration 13.06.2013 - 25.08.2013 DogA - the Norwegian Centre for Design and Architecture AWARD Award for Social Innovation. By Norsk Form. 01.02.2013 Resourceful people connected to the project: The veterans for insights and feedback Birger Sevaldson / AHO Mosse Sjaastad / AHO Renata Mikaulaiskaite / interaction designer Adrian Paulsen / AHO Anne Lene Haarstad / service designer L.B./ 2013