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Kingdom Animalia 11th std

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Kingdom Animalia presentation (prepared according to 11th standard Biology textbook, Maharashtra Board)

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Kingdom Animalia 11th std

  1. 1. Kingdom Animalia Biren Daftary 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  2. 2. Introduction • Animals classified into chordates & non-chordates • Chordates have a ‘notochord’ • Non-chordates do not have a ‘notochord’ • Notochord is a rod like structure made up of tightly packed vacuolated cells which run along the mid dorsal line • Animals showing a vertebral column are called vertebrates • Animals not having a vertebral column are called as invertebrates • There are 1.2 million species which show a great diversity of life 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  3. 3. CRITERIA FOR ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  4. 4. 1. Number of germ layers • Every multicellular organism begins life as a single cell called ‘zygote’ • The zygote divides many times to form a mass of cells • These mass of cells get arranged into 2-3 layers called as germinal layers • Diploblastic animal: 2 layers, outer ectoderm & inner endoderm separated by mesoglea. Example: phylum Cnidaria • Triploblastic animal: 3 layers, outer ectoderm, middle mesoderm & inner endoderm. Example: phylum Platyhelminthes onwards 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  5. 5. Mesoglea 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  6. 6. 2. Animal body plan 1. Cell aggregate plan: • Includes simplest of animal types like sponges • Animal is made up of aggregation or collection of cells • Tissues & organs are absent • There is no nervous co-ordination • Example: Phylum Porifera 2. Blind sac body plan: • Shown by slightly complex animals • Digestive system having a single opening which acts as mouth & anus. Hence ingestion & egestion is done through that opening • Example: Phylum Cnidaria 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  7. 7. 3. Tube within tube body plan: • Shown by advanced & evolved animals • Complete digestive system with 2 separate openings for mouth & anus • Example: Phylum Annelida onwards 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  9. 9. 3. Body symmetry • Symmetry means similarity in shape, size & number of parts on opposite sides of a median line • Median line is the plane through which animal can be cut into 2 equal halves 1. Asymmetrical animals: • Animals whose body cannot be divided into 2 equal parts through any plane. • Example: Some sponges & snails 2. Radially symmetrical animals: • Animal whose body can be cut into 2 similar halves in many planes • All the cuts pass through the centre & appear like radii. • Example: Hydra, starfish, sea anemone 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  10. 10. 3. Bilaterally symmetrical animals: • The animal can be divided into 2 equal halves by one 1 single median plane • Example: Fish, frog, goat 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  12. 12. 4. Body cavity or Coelom • Body cavity is the space between the body wall & the alimentary canal which is produced by the splitting of the mesoderm during embryonic development 1. Acoelomates: • Animals which do not have any body cavity • The space between body wall & alimentary canal is filled with parenchyma • Example: Phylum Platyhelminthes 2. Pseudocoelomates: • These animals show a false body cavity which is lined by patches of mesodermal cells • The false cavity is called as ‘pseudocoel’ • Example: Phylum Aschelminthes 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  13. 13. 3. Coelomates: • Animals having a true body cavity • Present in triploblastic animals • The mesoderm splits into 2 layers enclosing a body cavity called coelom • The cavity is filled with ‘coelomic fluid’ • In some animals like cockroach, coelom is filled with blood, hence it is called as ‘haemocoel’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  15. 15. 5. Body segmentation • It is also called as ‘metamerism’ (true segmentation) • It is a series of segments arranged along the body of the animal • When the external segmentation matches with the internal segmentation, such animals are called as ‘metamerically segmented animals’ • Example: Earthworm 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  17. 17. 6. Body Support • The internal or external framework which provides support to the body is called as skeleton • It is of 2 types. Exoskeleton (outside) & endoskeleton (inside) • Lower animals have only exoskeleton for protection. Example: cockroach • Higher developed animals have both exoskeleton & endoskeleton for their protection. Example: fish, cobra, parrot, man, etc 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  18. 18. ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  21. 21. SALIENT FEATURES OF NON-CHORDATES 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  22. 22. Phylum: Porifera (Pore bearing) • Simplest pore bearing organisms • May be solitary, colonial or sedentary • Mostly marine, some are fresh water • Vase shaped or cylindrical body • Body shows cell aggregate plan, no tissues or organs • Ostia are the small pores through which water enters the body & osculum is the opening through which water exits the body 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  23. 23. • Body cavity is called ‘spongocoel’ • ‘Choanocytes’ help in digestion (digestive system absent) • Exoskeleton made up of silica, CaCO3 or protein spongin fibres • Porifera feed on detritus material present in water (decaying) • Asexual reproduction by budding, sexual reproduction by gametes • Sponges have great power of regeneration • Examples: Sycon & Euspongia 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  24. 24. Sycon 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  26. 26. Phylum: Cnidaria (coelenterata) • Colonial or solitary forms • Sedentary or free living animals • Most are marine but few may be found in fresh water (Hydra) • Body is radially symmetrical • Presence of specialized cells called as ‘cnidocytes’ which contain stinging structures called as ‘nematocysts' 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  28. 28. • Cnidocytes are present in tentacles help in capturing large prey as their nematocysts discharge toxin into them • Tissue level organization is seen for the first time in Cnidaria • Due to blind sac body plan, mouth & anus are the same • Body cavity called ‘coelenteron’ helps in digestion & circulation • Two types of body forms: polyp & medusa • Polyps are sedentary & cylindrical life forms 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  30. 30. • Medusa are free swimming & umbrella shaped • Mouth is surrounded by tentacles which help in locomotion & capturing prey • Poorly developed nervous system forming nerve net • Asexual reproduction: budding, sexual reproduction: gametes • Sea anemone are polyp type cnidarians, jelly fish are medusa type • Corals are used in jewellery & they form coral reefs 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  33. 33. Phylum: Ctenophora • Exclusively marine animals • Radially symmetrical body which is diploblastic • Animals are called ‘comb jellies’ • Spherical body with external rows of cilia • They exhibit bioluminescence (emission of light) • Sexual reproduction with external fertilization • Examples: Ctenoplana, Pleurobrachia 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  35. 35. Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flat worms) • Bilaterally symmetrical animals with blind sac body plan • Most are endoparasites, few are free living • Body is leaf like or ribbon like, unsegmented, dorso-ventrally flattened & covered by ‘cuticle’ • Parasitic forms show ‘suckers’ or ‘hooks’ for attachment to the host • In parasitic form digestive system is absent, if present it has only one opening • Excretory system is made up of flame cells 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  36. 36. Hooks Sucker 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  39. 39. • Nervous system is in the form of nerve rings or nerve cords • Reproductive system is well developed, animals are mostly hermaphrodite (bisexual) as both male & female sex organs are present on the same body • Great power of regeneration • Locomotory structures & sense organs are absent • Examples: Tapeworm, liverfluke 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  41. 41. Phylum: Aschelminthes (thread worms) • Commonly called as ‘round worms’ • Most are parasitic living in body fluids of host • Body is long & cylindrical which is thread like • Bilaterally symmetrical animals which are pseudocoelomate • These animals show ‘tube within a tube’ type body plan • Body wall shows longitudinal muscles but no circular muscles • Excretion takes place by protonephridia 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  42. 42. • Nervous system has nerve rings & nerve • Sexes are separate (unisexual) & animals show ‘sexual dimorphism’. e.g. Male ascaris is shorter than the female • Male ascaris has a curved posterior end with a pair of penial setae for reproduction • Female ascaris is longer with a relatively straight posterior • Examples: Ascaris, Wuchereria & Dracunculus 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  45. 45. Phylum: Annelida (Ring worms) • Commonly called as ‘ring worms’ • Most are free living, few may be parasitic • Some are burrowing & occur in moist soil • These are bilaterally symmetrical & are first true ‘coelomates’ • Body is soft, elongated, cylindrical & metamerically segmented • Complete digestive system • Locomotion occurs with setae, parapodia or suckers 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  46. 46. • Well developed longitudinal & circular muscles help in locomotion • Respiration occurs through body surface • Excretion occurs by ‘nephridia’ • Circulatory system is of the closed type • Hb is dissolved in the plasma • Nervous system is made up of nerve ring & ganglionated nerve cord • Mostly bisexual but few may be unisexual • Ectoparasites like leech suck vertebrate blood • Examples: Nereis, earthworm (Pheretima), leech (Hirudinaria) 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  50. 50. Pair of Ganglia 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  53. 53. Phylum: Arthropoda (Jointed legs) • Largest & most successful phylum • Arthropods are solitary or colonial, most are free living • They are omnipresent & bilaterally symmetrical • Body covered by a tough ‘chitinous cuticle’ • Arthropods undergo ‘moulting’ to allow body growth • Body is divided into head, thorax & abdomen • In some animals head & thorax fuse to form ‘cephalothorax • Arthropods possess legs for crawling, creeping, walking & wings for flying 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  55. 55. • Digestive system is complete and divided into: foregut, midgut & hindgut • Mouth parts are highly evolved & used for biting , chewing & sucking • Circulatory system is of the open type, blood flows in open sinuses & bathes the organs • Respiratory organs are gills, trachea, book lungs & book gills • Excretion takes place by green glands/ malphigian tubules • Nervous system is formed by nerve ring & double ganglionated nerve cord • Sense organs are well developed in the form of antennae, compound eyes & taste receptors • Sexes are separate showing sexual dimorphism • Animals are ‘oviparous’ & fertilization is internal 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  60. 60. • Development is direct or indirect (metamorphosis) • In some arthropods like honey bees, individuals are produced by parthenogenesis (without fertilization) • Some arthropods are economically important like honey bees, silk worm, lobsters, prawns, crabs, etc • Some arthropods are harmful like mosquitoes, centipede, spiders, cockroaches, etc • Examples: Cockroach, butterfly, scorpion, centipede, crab, grasshopper, ants, etc 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  61. 61. Metamorphosis 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  62. 62. Phylum: Mollusca (soft bodied) • This phylum includes soft bodied animals • They are free living or sedentary • They are mostly marine while some are marshy • They show ‘tube within tube’ body plan • Most are bilaterally symmetrical but some are asymmetrical due to ‘torsion’ in shells • Body is divided into head, foot & visceral mass • Visceral mass is enclosed in thick muscular fold of body wall called ‘mantle’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  63. 63. Torsion in molluscs 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  65. 65. • Mantle secretes a hard calcareous shell which may be external, internal or absent • Molluscs feed on plant and animal matter • Locomotion is by arms or foot. Foot is modified for burrowing & swimming • Digestive system is well developed (intestine is U shaped because of torsion in gastropods) • Buccal cavity has a tongue like organ (rasping organ) called ‘radula’ which has teeth • Terrestrial molluscs may show lungs, aquatic molluscs show numerous gills called ‘ctenidia’ • Circulatory system is of ‘open type’ (except in sepia) • Blood contains blue coloured respiratory pigment called ‘haemocyanin’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  66. 66. Sepia & its internal shell 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  67. 67. • Excretion occurs by kidneys, also called as ‘Organ of Bojanus’ • Nervous system is formed by 3 pairs of ganglia: cerebral ganglia in head, pedal ganglia in foot & visceral ganglia in visceral mass • Sense organs such as eyes, tentacles & osphradia (for testing purity of water) • Sexes are separate • Animals are mostly oviparous • Development is direct or indirect • Examples: Chiton, octopus, Sepia, Pila 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  68. 68. Chiton dorsal & ventral surfaces 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  69. 69. Phylum: Echinodermata (spiny skin) • These are spiny skinned animals • They are exclusively marine, solitary, sedentary or free living, colonial & benthoic • They have radial symmetry with ‘pentamerous symmetry’ • Bodies are spherical, elongated or star shaped • Body does not have a well defined head • Spiny exoskeleton present made up of calcareous plates • Presence of a ‘water vascular system’ in the body for locomotion 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  71. 71. • The water enters the water vascular system through an opening called as ‘madreporite’ • Echinoderms are carnivorous, and mainly feed on molluscans • They move with their arms & tube feet (suckers present on arms) • Respiration is by peristomial gills • Circulatory system is greatly reduced, it is of open type & heart is absent • Nervous system is simple with a ring around the mouth & radial nerves in the arms • Sexes are separate & fertilization external, development indirect • They show a high power of regeneration • Examples: Star fish, sea urchin, brittle star & sea cucumber 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  75. 75. Phylum: Hemichordata (Half chordate) • Exclusively marine animals usually living at the bottom of the sea • Most are free living, some may be sedentary • Body is soft, fragile, vermiform & unsegmented • Body is divide into 3 parts: proboscis, collar & trunk • Buccal cavity gives rise to a rod like structure which is considered as notochord by some scientists • They feed on microorganisms present in water 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  77. 77. • Proboscis helps to make burrows while entire body brings about movement • Alimentary canal is complete, straight or ‘U’ shaped • Respiration occurs by paired gills • Gills open as gill slits • Circulatory system is simple and closed type • The blood is colourless • Nervous system is embedded in epidermis on both dorsal and ventral sides • The sexes are separate 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  78. 78. • Fertilization is external and development is indirect through free swimming larva • This phylum is the connecting link between non-chordates & chordates • Examples: Balanoglossus, Saccoglossus 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  79. 79. SALIENT FEATURES OF CHORDATES 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  80. 80. Phylum: Chordata • These animals show a the presence of cartilagenous notochord atleast in early embryonic life • Presence of gill slits in the pharyngeal region • Presence of a hollow dorsal nerve cord running through the body length • Animals which have a notochord but do not have a vertebral column are called as ‘invertebrate chordates’ • These invertebrate chordates are a link between ‘non-chordates’ & ‘vertebrates’ • Invertebrate chordates are of 2 types: ‘Urochordata’ & ‘Cephalochordata’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  81. 81. • Phylum Chordata is divided into 3 sub-phylums Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata Subphylum: Cephalochordata Subphylum: Vertebrata 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  82. 82. Subphylum: Urochordata • These animals are called ‘tunicates’ • Body is soft & covered by covering called as ‘test’ which is made up of cellulose called ‘tunicine’ • Notochord is present only in the tail of the larva. It is lost during metamorphosis • Only marine animals • Pharynx has many gill slits • Examples: Herdmania, Salpa, Doliolum 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  84. 84. Subphylum: Cephalochordata • These are also called as ‘lancelets’ • They are small fish like animals that are not longer than 5cm in length • They live partly buried in soft marine soil • Notochord is present throughout the life and extends in length • They show chordate characters such as presence of pharyngeal gill slits, tail & dorsal nerve cord • Examples: Amphioxus 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  86. 86. Subphylum Vertebrata • Notochord is replaced by vertebral column • Subphylum vertebrata is divided into 2 divisions: ‘Agnatha’ (without jaws) and ‘Gnathostomata’ (with jaws) Division: Agnatha • Includes the most primitive vertebrates without jaws • Division Agnatha includes only one class i.e. Class Cyclostomata 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  87. 87. Class Cyclostomata (circular mouth) • Cyclostomes are jawless & ‘eel like’ animals • Skin is soft, smooth containing unicellular mucous glands but no scales • Median fins are present but paired fins are absent • They are ‘ectoparasites’ which have sucking & circular mouth without jaws • Endoskeleton is cartilagenous • Digestive system lacks stomach • Intestine is present with a fold call as ‘typhlosole’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  88. 88. • Respiration occurs by 5-16 pairs of gill slits • Heart is 2 chambered • Gonad is single & large without ‘gonoduct’ • Fertilization is external • Examples: Petromyzon (lamprey) & Myxine (hagfish) 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  90. 90. Division: Gnathostomata • It is divided into 2 superclasses 1. Superclass: Pisces (bear fins) 2. Superclass: Tetrapoda (bear 4 limbs) 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  91. 91. Superclass: Pisces • These are aquatic animals • ‘Poikilothermic’ or cold blooded animals (body temperature changes with the surrounding temperature) • They feed on detritus material, planktons, algae, molluscs & other aquatic animals • Locomotion is by body scales & fins • ‘Caudal fin’ helps in steering • Exoskeleton is made up of dermal scales • Endoskeleton is either ‘bony’ or ‘cartilagenous’ 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  92. 92. • Body is streamlined & boat shaped • Mouth is terminal or ventral in position • Respiration is by gills • Heart is 2 chambered & it shows single circulation which is closed • Blood is red in colour due to red blood cells • Pisces have a well developed brain with large ‘olfactory lobes’ • Sexes are separate • Most fishes are oviparous & some are vivparous • Superclass Pisces is divided into 2 classes 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  94. 94. Superclass: Pisces Class: Chondrichthyes Class: Osteichthyes 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  96. 96. Class: Chondrichthyes (cartilagenous fishes) • Endoskeleton is in the form of a ‘cartilage’ • They are only marine • Exoskeleton is made up of tiny ‘placoid scales’ • Mouth is ventral & there are 2 dorsal fins • Male copulatory organ called ‘claspers’ are present • Caudal fin is ‘heterocercal’ (asymmetrical) • 5-7 pairs of gill slits are present. Operculum is absent 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  97. 97. Placoid scales 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  98. 98. • Fertilization is internal and these fishes are ‘viviparous’ • Examples: Shark (Scoliodon), electric ray, sting ray, hammerhead shark & saw fish 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  101. 101. Class: Osteichthyes (bony fishes) • Endoskeleton is made up of bones • These are found in fresh water & marine water • Exoskeleton is made up of ‘cycloid’ or ‘ctenoid’ scales • Mouth is terminal in position • Single dorsal fin is present • Claspers are absent • Caudal fin is ‘homocercal’ (symmetrical) 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  102. 102. • 4 pairs of gill slits are present covered by an operculum • Fertilization is external & these fishes are ‘oviparous’ • Examples: Bombay duck, Pomphret, Catla, sea horse 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  105. 105. Superclass: Tetrapoda (4 limbs) • These animals bear 2 pairs of limbs or appendages • Some animals like snakes are limbless • Superclass tetrapoda includes 4 classes Superclass: Tetrapoda Class: Amphibia Class: Reptilia Class: Aves Class: Mammalia 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  106. 106. Class: Amphibia • These animals live on land as well as water • They are poikilothermic animals & carnivorous • Body divided into head, trunk & tail (Sometimes tail is absent) • 2 pairs of limbs arise from each from the pelvic girdle & pectoral girdle • In frogs webs are present between digits which help to swim • Skin is moist, glandular with mucous membrane • Prominent ear drums or ‘tympanic membranes’ are present on the head 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  108. 108. • Intestine & digestive glands are well developed • Circulatory system is of closed type & heart is 3 chambered & ventral • RBCs are biconvex & nucleated • Respiration is through skin, lungs & bucco-pharynx • Nervous system is well developed • Sexes are separate, these are oviparous, fertilization is external • Development occurs in water & and is indirect ( metamorphosis) • Examples: Frog, toad, salamander, Ichthyophis 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  109. 109. Metamorphosis 3 chambered heart 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  110. 110. Class: Reptilia • These are crawling animals like cobra, crocodile, turtle • They are the first true terrestrial vertebrates, few may be aquatic or semi- aquatic found in marshy areas • Most of them are carnivorous • Locomotion is by limbs which have well developed ‘pentadactyl digits & claws’ which help the animal to creep or crawl • Reptiles are poikilotherms (cold blooded) • Skin is dry, non-glandular & covered by epidermal scales, scutes or plates 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  111. 111. Pentadactyl digits with claws Scutes Scales Plates 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  112. 112. • Heart is incompletely 4 chambered & ventral & circulatory system is of closed type (crocodile has perfectly 4 chambered heart) • Ear drum is depressed • Respiration is through lungs • Brain is well developed • ‘Olfactory lobes’ & ‘cerebellum’ are better developed than amphibians • Sexes are separate & show prominent sexual dimorphism • Fertilization is internal, reptiles are oviparous, they lay shelled eggs& show little parental care (viper is viviparous) 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  113. 113. Reduced ears 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  114. 114. Incompletely 4 chambered heart Completely 4 chambered heart 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  115. 115. Class: Aves • It includes flightless birds & flying birds • Forelimbs are modified into wings for flying • Hind limbs are used for walking or running • Aquatic birds have webs between toes • Body differentiated into head, neck, trunk & tail • They are homeotherms (warm blooded) i.e. body temp. remains constant • Exoskeleton is made up of feathers 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  116. 116. Webbed feet 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  118. 118. • Scales are present on hind limbs • Skin is thin, dry & non-glandular • Bones are hollow • Jaws form the beak & teeth are absent • Special organs such as crop & gizzard are present • Blood is red due to RBCs (biconvex & nucleated) • Heart is ventral in position & 4 chambered showing double circulation • Respiration is by lungs having air sacs for buoyancy 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  122. 122. • Brain is enlarged with well formed cerebellum • Optic lobes are well developed, olfactory lobes are poorly developed • Unisexual, sexual dimorphism, oviparous, internal fertilization • Birds lay shelled eggs with yolk & albumin • Birds build nests on trees • Most are herbivores & some are carnivores • Parental care is well seen along with seasonal migration • Urinary bladder is absent & females show only the presence of left ovary & oviduct to reduce body weight during flying 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  123. 123. Class: Mammalia • Mammary glands are present for nourishment of young ones • Mammals are terrestrial, aquatic, aerial & arboreal • Most are herbivores, few are carnivores & some are omnivores • Locomotion is by limbs • Body divided into head, neck, trunk & tail • They are homeotherms (warm blooded) • Exoskeleton is in the form of skin, hair, fur, nails, hooves 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
  124. 124. • Skin is glandular having sweat glands & sebaceous glands • Body cavity is divided into 2 parts: thoracic cavity & abdominal cavity by a diaphragm • Mammals show the presence of an external ear • Teeth are of different types: I, C, M, PM • Heart is completely 4 chambered with double circulation • RBCs are biconcave & without a nucleus (except camel) • Blood is red in colour • Respiration is by lungs 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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  129. 129. • Brain is highly developed • Cerebrum shows transverse band called as ‘corpus callosum’ • Optic lobes are better developed than olfactory lobes • Few mammals are oviparous e.g. Duck billed platypus • Some mammals have pouches for development of young ones. These mammals are called as marsupials. e.g. Kangaroo • Most mammals are placental & viviparous 8/24/2016 BIREN DAFTARY
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