CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Concept Normality vs. Abnormality Criteria for abnormality Causes of abnormal behavior Major psychological disorders
Clinical Psychology diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders investigate causes of disorders associated mental health specialists: Psychiatrists and Psychoanalysts
NORMALITY VS ABNORMALITY People who behave normally are those who act and behave in an average, typical way. Statistically speaking, normal behavior is that which we would expect from the majority of people. Abnormal, therefore, refers to any behavior that is not typical.
CRITERIA FOR ABNORMALITYStatistical To determine abnormality, we simply observe what are rare or infrequent in a given society or culture and label these deviation from the norms as abnormal.
CONTD… Many population facts are measured such as height, weight and intelligence. Most of the people fall within the middle range of intelligence, but a few are abnormally stupid. But according to this definition, a person who is extremely intelligent would be classified as abnormal.
CONTD…Cultural every culture has certain standards for acceptable behavior; behavior that deviates from that standard is considered to be abnormal behavior. But those standards can change with time and vary from one society to another.
CONTD…Behavioral According to this view of abnormality, people who are unable to function effectively and adapt to the demand of society are considered as abnormal.
CONTD…Personal distress The final criteria considers abnormality in terms of the individuals subjective feelings, personal distress, rather than his behavior. Most people diagnosed as mentally ill feel miserable, anxious, depressed and may suffer from insomnia.
MAJOR PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Dissociative disorders Schizophrenia Mood disorders; Depression, Bipolar Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Anxiety Disorders Personality disorders
DID is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states. The diagnosis requires that at least two personalities (one may be the host) routinely take control of the individuals behavior with an associated memory loss that goes beyond normal forgetfulness; in addition, symptoms cannot be the temporary effects of drug us or a general medical condition. Along with these symptoms client might experience: Depression, mood swings, sleep problems, alcohol and drug abuse, compulsions, and some more.
SCHIZOPHRENIA Positive: hallucinations, delusion, Negative: apathy, lack of interest, emotions Cognitive: disorganized thought, difficulty in concentration, difficulty in completing tasks
Anxiety disorders Generalized anxiety disorders The experience of long term anxiety with no explanation. Panic disorders Anxiety that manifests itself in the form of panic attack that lasts from a few second to as long as several hours.
Phobic disorders Intense irrational fears of specific object or situation. Obsessive compulsive disorders a disorder characterized by obsession or compulsion.
CAUSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERSOpen floor session
CAUSAL FACTORS RELATED TO ABNORMALBEHAVIORBiologicalmodel:Psychodynamic Model:Behavioristic Model:Cognitive model:
CONTD…Biological model This model suggests that physiological causes are root of abnormal behavior.Psychoanalytic model Abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts.
CONTD…Behavioral modelAbnormal behavior is a learned response.Cognitive modelThis model assumes that cognitions are central to abnormal behaviors.