The Quinoa Boom  Blessing or Curse?       Matthias Jäger   Bioversity International
Content Quinoa facts Livelihood benefits and trade-offs Outlook
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)               •   Ancient crop of the Incas               •   In 1996, quinoa was class...
Adaptability &Climate change•   Centre of origin: High Andes from    Colombia to Argentina•   From sea level up to 4.500m•...
Nutritional aspects•   Ideal amino acids composition in both quality and quantity•   Trace elements, vitamins , linoleic a...
Ex situ conservation &   Genetic diversity          • More than 3.000 ecotypes            conserved at INIAF genebank in  ...
Field production system   Low productivity (annual yield of 573 kg / ha in Bolivia)   Lack of good agricultural practice...
Quinoa ProcessingImproving processing technology of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)  winning        washing             drying...
Quinoa: Industrial processing
Traditional Uses &Consumption patterns
Quinoa: Non traditional uses                There are several products derived                 from quinoa, such as puffs...
Novel applications: Natural Colorants
Marketing:   Bolivian and Peruvian companies at             BIOFACH 2009 in Germany                       •   Direct sales...
Quinoa Production•   Quinoa cultivation is expanding: 2010 production in the Andean    Region was about 78,000 t with 41,0...
Quinoa – Exports & Prices• Bolivia is the largest exporter of quinoa ( € 30 million,  15.116 tons in 2009) of the world fo...
Calculation of estimated value-added (US$ Dolar)           Quinoa, Puno (Peru), Harvest 2011                           Far...
Livelihood benefits   Quinoa as a strategic product for the extremely marginalized area of    southern altiplano of Boliv...
Quinoa: Trade-offs of intensified          production              Issue                                  ImpactNo crop ro...
Sustainability issues•   The current booming production of quinoa in the southern    altiplano of Bolivia raises legitimat...
Outlook1. Quinoa has a high potential both for its nutritional benefits and its agricultural   versatility to contribute t...
MUCHAS GRACIAS!!
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The Quinoa Boom - Blessing or curse?

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2013 is the UN International year of quinoa. Quinoa is a neglected and underutilized cereal crop with a long history in the Andes but its diversity has recently become undermined through the replacement of a wide range of traditional varieties by a narrow choice of commercially favoured ones. Read more about Bioversity International’s work on Neglected and Underutilized Species
http://www.bioversityinternational.org/research-portfolio/marketing-diversity/neglected-and-underutilized-species/

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The Quinoa Boom - Blessing or curse?

  1. 1. The Quinoa Boom Blessing or Curse? Matthias Jäger Bioversity International
  2. 2. Content Quinoa facts Livelihood benefits and trade-offs Outlook
  3. 3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) • Ancient crop of the Incas • In 1996, quinoa was classified by FAO as one of humanity’s most promising crops • Pseudocereal - Close relative of spinach • Well studied • Good conservation (ex situ) • Use: seeds (less leaves)
  4. 4. Adaptability &Climate change• Centre of origin: High Andes from Colombia to Argentina• From sea level up to 4.500m• Temperature range: -8 C to 38 C• Humidity from 40% to 90%• Tolerates saline soils• Highly water efficient plant (low rainfall levels (100-200mm p.a.)• Low input crop• Established in areas unsuitable for other crops• Impact of climate change on centre of origin in Bolivia and Peru
  5. 5. Nutritional aspects• Ideal amino acids composition in both quality and quantity• Trace elements, vitamins , linoleic acids (omega-3), amylases, no gluten• Considered as superfood by NASA to be used in long-duration space travel• Highly nutritious leaves (not used)
  6. 6. Ex situ conservation & Genetic diversity • More than 3.000 ecotypes conserved at INIAF genebank in Bolivia Quinoa diversity and variability: • Grain Color (66 colours) • Vegetative cycle (110 a 210 days) • Protein content of the grain (10.21 to 18.39%)
  7. 7. Field production system Low productivity (annual yield of 573 kg / ha in Bolivia) Lack of good agricultural practices, improved varieties and enhanced cultivation practices Drudgery in processing and value addition at farm level Considerable harvest and post harvest loss Perception of being “food of the poor” has changed in recent years, but still a NUS crop in many other aspects
  8. 8. Quinoa ProcessingImproving processing technology of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) winning washing drying milling
  9. 9. Quinoa: Industrial processing
  10. 10. Traditional Uses &Consumption patterns
  11. 11. Quinoa: Non traditional uses  There are several products derived from quinoa, such as puffs, flour, pastas, drinks, flakes, granola, energy bars, etc.  Series of sub-products can be obtained for use as food, in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals  Requires the use of advanced technologies such as the extraction of quinoa oil, starch, saponins, colourings from the leaves and seeds, etc.
  12. 12. Novel applications: Natural Colorants
  13. 13. Marketing: Bolivian and Peruvian companies at BIOFACH 2009 in Germany • Direct sales to international markets and increased market power for Bolivian farmers organized in big cooperatives • Bolivian exports mostly as bulk quinoa seeds • Value addition and processing mostly done by importers and processors in the US and EU • Huge opportunities on growing organic and fair trade markets (90% of Bolivian exports are organic certified) • Quinoa exports consist mostly of Bolivian organic quinoa Real (white quinoa). • Exports of red and black quinoa are growing.
  14. 14. Quinoa Production• Quinoa cultivation is expanding: 2010 production in the Andean Region was about 78,000 t with 41,000 t produced by Peru, 36,000 t by Bolivia (90% of world quinoa production).• United States, Ecuador and Canada with about 10% of global production volumes.• Quinoa is also cultivated in England, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Italy and France.• In the Himalayas, the plains of Northern India and Kenya quinoa can develop successfully and with high yields
  15. 15. Quinoa – Exports & Prices• Bolivia is the largest exporter of quinoa ( € 30 million, 15.116 tons in 2009) of the world followed by Peru (€ 4.6 million, 2.400 tons in 2009)• In Bolivia 58% of total national quinoa production is still consumed domestically (Peru 94%)• The price for quinoa sold by farmers has almost tripled, from US $ 800 (1999) to US $ 2.300 / ton (2008).• The major importers of Bolivian quinoa grain are: United States (45%), France (16%), Netherlands (13%), Germany, Canada, Israel, Brazil, UK.• Quinoa still remains relatively unknown to EU and US consumers.
  16. 16. Calculation of estimated value-added (US$ Dolar) Quinoa, Puno (Peru), Harvest 2011 Farmer Exporter Importer Retail shop In Peru EU EU Prices per / kilo $ 1.98 $2.8 $4.50 $9.00 Cost of production $1.06 $ 1.98 $2.80 $4.50 Other inputs $ 0.12 $ 0.50 $ 0.80 Net value added $0.92 $0.70 $1.20 $3.70% of total value-added 14.1 % 10.7 % 18.4 % 56.8 % Local Middlemen Importing& Organic Farmers or farmer Distributing Shops Titikaka Lake association Companies (mostly)
  17. 17. Livelihood benefits Quinoa as a strategic product for the extremely marginalized area of southern altiplano of Bolivia has had a significant impact on the 20.000 households involved in production, processing and sales Incomes have increased and will enable farmers to meet basic needs which today are unsatisfied (education, health, housing, electricity and water) Impact on regional and district development growth Many migrants have returned from cities and many small farms have been maintained
  18. 18. Quinoa: Trade-offs of intensified production Issue ImpactNo crop rotation More pests & diseasesPlanting only in flat areas due to the Higher yield but also higher risk ofneed to use tractors soil fertility lossMechanized ploughing using Soil erosion. Propagation of peststractorsUse of chemical pesticides Environmental contamination, residual effectsIncreased sales of quinoa to Change of diets. Less quinoa andmarkets and higher prices more white bleach flour products (pasta, bread)Market preference for royal quinoa Genetic erosion(white, large seeds)
  19. 19. Sustainability issues• The current booming production of quinoa in the southern altiplano of Bolivia raises legitimate concerns about social and environmental sustainability in the region• Rapid changes in crop systems are potentially threatening the environmental basis for a sustainable quinoa production and soil fertility• We have still very limited knowledge about the relationship between the booming quinoa production and :  the agro-ecological and social basis of quinoa sustainability  potential change of dietary pattern of Bolivian farmers and  erosion of intra-specific quinoa diversity
  20. 20. Outlook1. Quinoa has a high potential both for its nutritional benefits and its agricultural versatility to contribute to food security in various regions of the planet, especially in countries which are limited in food production or where the population has no access to protein sources.2. By achieving substantial improvements in production technology, and assuming an integral perspective (organic farming, fair trade), the production levels could be improved to assist in sustainably improving the income for the quinoa-growing families.3. Existing knowledge, technology and best practices for a sustainable intensification of quinoa production needs to be shared and scaled out.4. Extension of quinoa outside the Andes potentially encouraged through the International Year of Quinoa: Issue of benefit sharing (Nagoya Protocol)?
  21. 21. MUCHAS GRACIAS!!

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