A Strategic Priority at Embrapa


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Presentation of Robert Michael Boddey for the “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”

Apresentação de Robert Michael Boddey realizada no “Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle”

Date / Data : May 14 - 15th 2009/
14 e 15 de maio de 2009
Place / Local: ABTLuS, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: http://www.bioetanol.org.br/workshop3

Published in: Technology, Business
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A Strategic Priority at Embrapa

  1. 1. Sustainability of the sugarcane/bioethanol production cycle: A strategic priority at Embrapa. Robert Michael Boddey Research Scientist, Embrapa Agrobiologia http://johnbokma.com/mexit/2006/12/17/sugarcane-against-the-blue-sky.jpg Workshop on the Impact of New Technologies on the Sustainability of the Sugarcane/Bioethanol Production Cycle. Campinas, SP, May 15th, 2009 5/18/2009
  2. 2. Brazilian Agriculture: before the 1970s Low agricultural production and productivity Production concentrated in the South and Southeast Accelerating Urbanization Poverty in the rural areas Food shortages (crises de abastecimento) Lack of specific knowledge of Tropical Agriculture International markets in expansion Poor institutional infrastructure (agricultural research, education, markets, communications, government institutions etc.) The task: move from a traditional agriculture to one based on science and technology.
  3. 3. The National System of Agricultural Research Central administration 9 Thematic centres Labex EUA 13 Product centres Labex Europa 15 Eco-regional centres Labex Asia 3 Special services Embrapa Africa 17 State research systems Embrapa Venezuela
  4. 4. Embrapa: General Information Established in 1973 Employees – 8,498 Scientists (total) – 2,153 Scientists (PhDs) – 1,615 (~75 %) Budget 2008 – ~R$ 1.4 billion Vinculada ao Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento
  5. 5. V Plano Diretor : Stategic Objectives 2008-2001-2023 SO4: SO5: SO3: Contribute to the Intensify the Explore the advance of the development of biodiversity for the frontiers of SO2: technologies for development of knowledge and Attain a new the sustainable use products with a high SO1: competitive of the different added value for the incorporate this acquiredGuarantee technological biomes and the exploitation of new knowledge in newcompetitivity level in Agro- productive segments of the and emergingand integration of all market energy and technologies.sustainability of bio-fuels regions of BrazilBrazilianAgriculture 5/18/2009
  6. 6. Innovation and Technology: Tropical Agriculture  Improved genotypes: Tropical Crops and Livestock Sandra Santos, Embrapa Pantanal – Soybean (photoperiod) – Maize/sorghum, P efficient, acid tolerant – Tropical fruits and adapted temperate fruits – - Zebu cattle, swine e poultry, etc • Improvement of pasture quality – Brachiaria (impacts on beef and dairy production) – Fibres and timber/cellulose (cotton, Eucalyptus) Paulo Kurtz, Embrapa Trigo 5/18/2009
  7. 7. Innovation and Technology: Tropical Agriculture  Biological nitrogen fixation  Biological control of pests and diseasesSitophilus zeamais  Zero tillage Paulo Kurtz, Embrapa Trigo  Integration cropping/pasture/forestry Fernando 2006  Reduction of post-harvest losses  Agricultural mechanization  Precision agriculture  Agro-ecological zoning 5/18/2009
  8. 8. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Economic Impact Cassava (40 t/ha), beans, maize, soya ... Paulo Kurtz Paulo Kurtz Fernando 2006Production systems and genetic improvement 5/18/2009
  9. 9. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Social ImpactAldeias: Jaguapirú and Bororó Cotton Solutions: Barraginhas, ... Organic vegetable production Mini cotton mills Production systems Targeted public: Family agriculture, Settlements, Traditional and Indigenous Communities, Quilombos, ...Technologies for small scale agriculture:Programs: Mais Alimentos, Programa Balde Cheio, Septic tanks,Programs for Seeds and seedlings, Production quality ...
  10. 10. Innovation and Technology: Actions with Environmental Impact1. Management, organization 2. Management and valorization 3. Integrated sustainable and Land-use monitoring. and economic evaluation of systems for impacted areas hydric and forest resources and for alternative uses Ulisses Silva Image VCP Image VCP J.A. araújo FilhoBrazil: The only country in the World that offers 2/3 of its territory for preservation 5/18/2009
  11. 11. Innovation and Technology: Conservation of the Environment Castor oil crop Reduction in fossil energy inputs by substitution of agro-chemicals by biological processes (e.g. biological control of pests and diseases and biological N2 fixation) Integration of the bio-energy and food crops Dendê c/culturas intercalares’ Intercrops with African oil palm Ricardo lopes et al., CPAA Sustainable Agriculture for food and fuel Ricardo lopes et al., CPAA 5/18/2009
  12. 12. Biofuels: Challenges and responses 5/18/2009
  13. 13. Expansion of the area for Sugar cane production Soil Plant Climate  Traditional areas  Areas of expansion  Excluded areasProduction systems: criteria for sustainability 5/18/2009
  14. 14. Matéria-prima para etanol: cana-de-açúcar “Of all of the liquid biofuels, only Brazilian ethanol produced from sugarcane has been consistently competitive in recent years, without the necessity of continuous subsidies”  Report of FAO - UNO, on the theme: “Helping to construct a world without hunger” Rome, June 2008. 5/18/2009
  15. 15. Field N budget for a typical cane variety growing in São Paulo State (burned cane) Yield 84 tonnes/ha Total N (kg N /ha/yr) in: Cane stems ……………………… 42 kg Trash/senescent leaves*………. 52 kg Sugarcane and Flag leaves (left in field) ………. 62 kg maize with no N fertilizer on sandy Total aerial tissue ………………156 kg N-deficient soil (Seropédica, RJ) Removed by burning and exported to mill … 94 kg Added as N fertilizer 65 kg N/ha Balance = minus 29 kg N ha (not counting leaching, volatilization and erosion losses) Rainfall and dry deposition inputs estimated for Piracicaba as <9 kg N/ha# *More than 90 % lost on burning #Lara et al., 2003, Environ. Pollution 121: 389-399
  16. 16. Biological N2 fixation in Brazilian cane varieties 1958 – Johanna Döbereiner & Aliades Ruschel find new species of N2-fixing bacteria associated with sugar cane (Beijerinckia fluminense) 1972 – N2-fixing (nitrogenase) activity detected associated with sugarcane roots (Dart, Day Döbereiner) 1974 – Day and Döbereiner, discovery of Azospirillum spp. associated with sugarcane (etc.). 1987 and 1992 – N balance and 15N-enriched fertilizer studies show large contributions of BNF to sugar cane in pots and a large tank (20 x 6 m – Lima, Urquiaga, Boddey, Döbereiner) 1986 – 1988 Discovery of two new “endophytic” N2 fixing bacteria – Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Baldani, Cavalcante, Döbereiner). 2001 – On-farm studies with 15N natural abundance show different cane varieties on different plantations able to obtain between 0 and 60¨% of their N from BNF (Boddey, Polidoro, Alves, Resende, Urquiaga). 2008 – Complete genome sequenced of G. diazotrophicus (FAPERJ) and Herbaspirillum seropedicae (UFPR et al.).
  17. 17. Contribution of biological N2 fixation to differentsugarcane varieties determined with 15N isotope dilution and N balance* 35 N from N2 fixation 30 N accumulation (g N m ) N from soil -2 25 20 15 10 5 0 um 3 2 50 99 9 9 i -3 er 14 31 -8 -7 45 -1 -7 rb ne 47 56 -1 -2 52 71 ba CB 70 79 ta CB NA C SP on S. SP SP IA sp Sugarcane variety S.*Data from Urquiaga, Cruz & Boddey, 1992, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:105-114
  18. 18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Emission of GHGs during a journey of 100 km run by the same vehicle using three different fuels* Avoided Consumption Maximum GHGs Model Motor Fuel emission Km/L power kg CO2 (%) S10 single 2.8 turbo Diesel 13.5 140 CV 29.69 -- cabin S10 single 2.4 Pure gasoline 10.4 141 CV 35.10 0 cabin flexpower Brazilian S10 single 2.4 gasoline 9.5 141 CV 28.34 19 cabin flexpower (24% etanol) Ethanol S10 single 2.4 (sugarcane, 7.2 147 CV 6.92 80 cabin flexpower Brazil)The vehicle running ethanol from sugarcane emits only 20 % of theGHGs which it would emit using pure gasoline ORThe use of Brazilian bioethanol promotes a mitigation of 80 % of theGHGs emitted when the same distance is covered using pure gasoline
  19. 19. Impact of GHG emissions of biological nitrogen fixationToday a mean of approximately 60 kg N fertilizer are applied per ha ofsugarcane. The manufacture, transport and application of this quantityof N fertilizer emits 270 kg CO2eq.On application to the soil, IPCC estimates that 1 % of the N (600 g) isemitted as N2O, equivalent to an emission of 292 kg CO2.Thus the total GHG emission = 562 CO2eq.Nearly all other countries in the world use between 150 and 200 kg Nfertilizer per ha. So BNF saves Brazil an emission from ~120 kg N (1100kg CO2eq) which would increase total GHG emission by 33 %.If further advances in BNF research results in the complete eliminationof N fertilizer then present GHG emissions will be reduced by 17 %.* Manufacture, transport and application of 1kg N fertilizer emits 4.5 kg CO eq of GHGs (IPCC, 2006) 2
  20. 20. Impact of change from burned cane to green-cane harvesting Usina Cruangi, Timbauba, PE* Increase in soil C stocks on change to 100 green cane harvesting Cane burned Trash conserved Rainfall (mm) 1800 = ~300 kg C ha-1 yr-1 80 aa a over 16 yearsMean cane yield (Mg ha -1 ) a 1600 a 1400 Rainfall (mm) a a 60 a b a 1200 a a a b 1000 a a a b b a a 40 b 800 b b a 600 20 b 400 200 0 0 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 Year *Resende et al., 2006, Plant Soil 281: 337-349
  21. 21. Comparison of emissions of GHGs from the manualharvesting of burned cane with the mechanized harvest of green (unburned) cane Emission source Emission CH4 N2O Fossil CO2 Total (g ha-1) (g ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg eq.CO2 ha-1) Manual harvest, burned cane 1. Cane burning 28,350a 735b - 1,865 2. Manual labour and transport - - 328 328 TOTAL 2.193 Mechanized harvest, green cane 1. Fuel for harvester (diesel) 5.7 1.1 141 142 2. GHGs for machine fabrication . - - 5 5 3. Manual labour and transport 152 152 4. Mineralization of residues 471.4 146 TOTAL 445a Based on IPCC (2006) methodology for the burning of 13.1 Mg ha-1 of agricultural residues at 80 % efficiency (2.7 kg CH4 Mg-1 burned).b Based on IPCC (2006) methodology for 13.1 Mg ha-1 of sugarcane residues (0.07 kg N2O Mg-1 burned).------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- At present ~60% of cane is burned for manual harvest. If burning is completely replaced by mechanized green cane harvesting the mitigation of GHG emissions increases from 80 to 87%
  22. 22. Impact of GHG emissions on conversion of land to sugarcane production1 ha of sugarcane produces today ~6,500 Litres of ethanol which willfuel a journey by a pickup fuelled by 2.4 L flexfuel motor approximately46,800 km. This distance requires 4,500 L if pure gasoline is used.The total emission of GHGs (N2O, CH4 & fossil CO2) by the 6,500 L ofethanol = 3,300 kg CO2eq.The total emission of GHGs by 4,500 L of pure gasoline = 16,430 kgCO2eqThus the total avoided emissions (“Carbon sequestration”)of 1 ha of sugarcane used for bioethanol production = 13,200 kg CO2 ha-1 (3.6 Mg C ha-1) year-1.
  23. 23. Impact on GHG emissions of conversion of land to sugarcane productionA low productivity pasture grazed at 0.7 animal units (AU) ha-1 is estimated to emit 2,840 kg CO2eq ha-1 year-1 (principally CH4 from rumen and N2O from urine etc.). If there is no change in soil C stocks the change in GHG emissions is from pasture to sugar cane 2,840 to 3,300 kg CO2eq.For the change from soybean/ maize cropping to sugarcane the extra GHG emission becomes 3,300 - 1,720 = 1,580 kg CO2eq.When land under crops or pastures isplanted to sugarcane the extra GHGemissions are unlikely to exceed 1.5 MgCO2eq year, which is minor compared tothe mitigation (>13 Mg ha-1 yr-1) promotedby bioethanol production
  24. 24. Sugarcane Research challenges of the Future: Embrapa´s role- Improvement of soil management, fertilization, irrigation and control of plant insect and diseases.- New sugar cane varieties produced for their tolerance to hydric deficit and salinity through traditional plant breeding techniques or biotechnology (GMs).- Isolation and selection of cellulolytic microorganisms efficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production from bagasse and crop residues.- Monitoring of the impact of the use of residues of the ethanol industry in the soil C stock and GHG emission.- Optimization of the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to sugar cane crop, selecting efficient varieties for different climatic conditions.- Understanding of the functional genome of diazotrophic bacteria in the sugar cane crop.- Optimization of the production of sugar cane in the North and North-East of Brazil.
  25. 25. Regional motivations for the production of biofuels North Northeast - Exploitation of local species - palms, babaçu, ... - Castor oil production by small holders – family agriculture - Recovery of degraded areas - Generation of electricity in - Introduction of other energy remote areas of difficult access crops - e.g. Jatropha - Boat fuel - Integrated crop/pasture/forestry production (ILPF) Agroenergy Central-west South/southeast -- Exploitation of abundant soybean oil - Improvement of air quality in urban areas by the substitution- Area for the expansion of sugar cane of diesel by biodiesel and other energy crops - Exploitation of soybean and other oils produced in the region- Reduction in costs of grain transport to the coast substitution of fossil diesel by biodiesel - Integrated crop/pasture/forestry- Integrated crop/pasture/forestry production (ILPF) production (ILPF)
  26. 26. Obrigado! 5/18/2009
  27. 27. More information from bob@cnpab.embrapa.br Recent publications available on-line 1. Soares, L. H. B.; Muniz, L. C.; Figueiredo, R. C.; Alves, B. J. R.; Boddey, R. M.; Urquiaga, S.; Madari, B. O.; Machado, P. L. O. A. Balanço energético de um sistema integrado lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado. Seropédica, RJ: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2007, 28p. (Embrapa Agrobiologia, Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, 26). Disponível on-line em: http://www.cnpab.embrapa.br/publicacoes/download/bot026.pdf 2. Soares, L. H. B.; Alves, B. J. R.; Urquiaga, S.; Boddey, R. M. Mitigação das emissões de gases efeito estufa pelo uso de etanol da cana-de-açúcar produzido no Brasil. Seropédica, RJ: Embrapa Agrobiologia, 2009, 14p. (Embrapa Agrobiologia, Circular Técnica, 27). Disponível on-line em: http://www.cnpab.embrapa.br/publicacoes/download/cit027.pdf