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NREL Biomass and Biofuels Experience


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Presentation of Andy Aden for the "Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery"

Apresentação de Andy Aden realizada no "Workshop Virtual Sugarcane Biorefinery "

Date / Data : Aug 13 - 14th 2009/
13 e 14 de agosto de 2009
Place / Local: ABTLus, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento:

Published in: Technology, Business
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NREL Biomass and Biofuels Experience

  1. 1. NREL Biomass and Biofuels Experience Andy Aden, PE Senior Research Engineer Nation Renewable Energy Laboratory August 16, 2009 g , 1
  2. 2. Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Technology Development ProgramsNREL R&D Portfolio L P o Efficient Energy Use Renewable Resources Energy Delivery & • Vehicle Technologies • Wind Storage • Building Technologies g g • Solar So a • Electricity • Industrial Transmission & • Biomass Technologies Distribution • Geothermal • Alternative Fuels • Hydrogen Delivery and Storage Foundational Science
  3. 3. Biomass F d t kBi Feedstocks Intermediates I t di t Transportation Fuels Fermentation Ethanol & Catalytic synthesis Mixed Alcohols FT synthesis Lignocellulosic Gasification g Syn Gas y ese Diesel*Biomass (wood, agri, MeOH synthesis Methanol waste, grasses, etc.) MTG Pyrolysis & Gasoline* Liquefaction Bio-Oils HydroCracking/Treating Diesel* Ag residues,(stover, bagasse) Catalytic upgrading Lignin Gasoline* & Diesel* APP Diesel*Sugar/Starch Crops Catalytic pyrolysis Gasoline* Hydrolysis Sugars(corn, sugar cane, etc.) APR Hydrogen Fermentation Ethanol, Butanol, Hydrocarbons Transesterification Biodiesel Natural Oils (plants, l ( l t algae) ) Hydrodeoxygenation Green diesel * Blending Products National Renewable Energy
  4. 4. Biomass Program Mission and ObjectivesProgram MissionDevelop and transform our renewable and abundant,non-food,non food biomass resources into s stainable cost reso rces sustainable, cost-competitive, high-performance biofuels.Focus on targeted research, development, anddemonstration • Support through public and private partnerships • Deploy in integrated biorefineries Program Performance Goals • Make cellulosic ethanol cost competitive at a modeled cost for mature technology: $1.76/gallon $1 76/gallon by 2012 • Help create an environment conducive to maximizing production and use of biofuels, 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels per year by 2022 (EISA)
  5. 5. U.S. Biomass Resource Assessment • Updated resource assessment - April 2005 • Jointly developed by U.S. DOE and USDA • Referred to as the “Billion Ton Study” Taken from ORNL & USDA Resource Assessment Study by Perlach (April 2005)
  6. 6. In 2008, the Biomass Program, Sun Grant Initiative universities, and USDA selected, and in some cases established the first round of replicated field trials of corn stover removal and dedicated herbaceous energy crops.This map showsthe selectedlocations andtypes of crops.
  7. 7. Commercial development
  8. 8. Appropriate Level of Analysis for Project Stage of Development Early Stage: Simple spreadsheet, y g back of the envelope estimates  Early Stage: Simple cash Mid Stage: Industry-relevant flow analysis ASPENPlus™ process simulation  Mid Stage: Discounted cash Kinetic modeling and regression flow rate of return analysis fl t f t l i analysis tools R&D Conceptual Capital and Material and Economic Process Project Cost Energy Balance Analysis Design Estimates Environmental / Sustainability Analysis National Renewable Energy 8
  9. 9. Biochemical Conceptual Design Report Drives R&D Direction Enzyme Production (Currently being updated) Co- Enzymatic E ti fermentation f t ti Product P d tPretreatment Conditioning Ethanol Hydrolysis of C5 & C6 Recovery Sugars Hybrid Saccharification & Fermentation - HSF Residue By-products Processing • Conceptual design of a 2,000 tonnes/day commercial plant – one possible tech package, not optimized • NREL pilot plant based on this process • Basis for connecting R&D targets to cost targets g g g • Has undergone rigorous peer review • Basis for comparison against other technology options
  10. 10. Technical Achievements Translate into Cost Savings
  11. 11. FY08 Biochemical State of Technology Bi h i l St t f T h l $7.00 (yr $2007 actual) $6.47 $6.00 Feedstock ConversionMinimum Ethanol Sellin Price (2007$ per gallon) $5.00 $4.00 ng $3.00 $2.85 $2.69 $2.61 FY06 Included in FY07 $2.36 $1.98 $2.00 d m $1.68 $1 68 $1.49 $1.00 $0.00 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
  12. 12. NREL Pilot Plant Capabilities 1 ton per day biochemical batch & continuous pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis fermentation (9000L) Distillation Separations 0.5 ton per day thermochemical Gasification Pyrolysis Tar Reforming Syngas cleanup Fuel synthesisNational Renewable Energy
  13. 13. Thermochem Conceptual Design Feed Report Drives R&D Targets Processing Productsand HandlingGasification Gas Cleanup Gas Conditioning Fuel Synthesis Heat & Indirect I di t High T Collection/Fractionation Upgrading Power Separation Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis • Conceptual design of a 2000 tonnes/day commercial plant • NREL pilot plant based on this process • B i f connecting R&D t Basis for ti targets t cost t t to t targets t • Has undergone rigorous peer review
  14. 14. Fast Pyrolysis and Bio-oil as Feed toPower Plant or Petroleum Refineryy Bio-oil is is comprised of many oxygenated organic chemicals, with water miscible and oil miscible fractions Dark brown mobile liquid, Combustible, Not N t 100% miscible with hydrocarbons, i ibl ith h d b Modest heating value ~ 17 MJ/kg, High density ~ 1.2 kg/l, Acidic, H 2 5 A idi pH ~ 2.5, Pungent odour, “Ages” - viscosity increases with time Based on research at NREL (1990 - 2006)
  15. 15. Stage of Development of Biofuels Technologies g p gCompared to Penetration of Conventional Fuels Demonstration Market Market Biofuel R&D Initial System Refined Commercial Entry y Penetration Prototypes Prototypes Prototypes Ethanol fromCorn/Sugarcane Ethanol from 2012 – few 700 tons/day htt // 1 /bi / lignocellulosics start commercial operation Biodiesel Renewable Conventional Diesel Bio Syn-Gas Heat & Power Liquid Fuels Bio-Oil Chemicals Fuels Ren. Diesel Specialties from Algae Sugars to Hydrocarbons National Renewable Energy
  16. 16. Key challenges facing the biofuels industry1. The “Blend Wall”  E10 market will soon be saturated and E85 market is very small and stagnant  Even if E20 blends are allowed, market is limited  Advanced biofuels key for expanding markets and achieving societal benefits2. Cost Competitive Cellulosic Biofuels  Current “credit crunch” affects entire industry3. Sustainability  Land use change / availability  Water use / water quality  GHG / Climate change 16
  17. 17. Life Cycle Assessment + Water Use/RecycleyA H li ti and Rigorous Approach Holistic d Ri A h + Land Use + Land Use Changeto Answer Sustainability Questions + Direct/Indirect Impacts + Biodiversity… waste materials Waste emissions emissions disposal Extraction process energy net emissions energy non-renewable raw materials energy emissions energy emissions energy Intermediate Intermediate Process Process feedstock Process feedstock of final product Interest Intermediate energy energy non- feedstock emissionsrenewable emissions energy Extraction materials Process raw materials emissions p process Life cycle system boundary
  18. 18. GHG Impacts Relative Emissions Impacts CO Plants Wet DGS Reduction 36%Greenhouse gas emissions of fuels vary by feedstock and by type of energy used for processing.
  19. 19. Algae Microalgae 60% TriglycerideCO2 40% Jet Fuel (JP-8) Carbohydrates and Cultivation Ponds Protein • Ethanol • Power Green Diesel • F d FoodNational Renewable Energy
  20. 20. Thank You for theOpportunityAre there any Questions ?