Environments of Production and Agronomic Management

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Event / Evento: II Workshop on Sugarcane Physiology for Agronomic Applications

Speaker / Palestrante: Jorge Donzeli (Sugarcane Research Center - CTC)
Date / Data: Oct, 29-30th 2013 / 29 e 30 de outubro de 2013
Place / Local: CTBE/CNPEM Campus, Campinas, Brazil
Event Website / Website do evento: www.bioetanol.org.br/sugarcanephysiology

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Environments of Production and Agronomic Management

  1. 1. Environments  of  Produc1on  and   Agronomic  Management   2nd  Sugarcane  Physiology  for  Agronomic  Applica7on  Workshop   JORGE  LUIS  DONZELLI   R&D  Manager   CTC  Sugarcane  Breeding  Program   jorge.donzelli@ctc.com.br   Campinas,  October,  29,  2013  
  2. 2. Presenta1on  schedule   Yield  Poten1al  -­‐The  pillars  of  agronomic  produc1on   Defini1on  of  Environments  of  Produc1on   Agronomic  management  -­‐  Varie1es   Agronomic  management  –  Best  Prac1ces   Yield:  where  we  are?   Final  comments  
  3. 3. YIELD  POTENTIAL  (Yp)*    “the  yield  of  a  cul7var  when  grown  in  environments  to   which  it  is  adapted,  with  nutrients  and  water  non-­‐ limi7ng,  and  with  pests,  diseases,  weeds,  lodging   and  other  stresses  effec7vely  controlled”            (Evans  and  Fisher  1999)   *  Quoted  by  Paul  H.  Moore,  Physiological  Constraints  of  Sugarcane  Yield  Poten7al,  Centro  de  Tecnologia  Canavieira,  Piracicaba,  2013    
  4. 4. The  pillars  of  agronomic  produc1on   CROP YIELD 175 150 DEF.HÍDR. 125 CLIMA Divided  in  5  categories   A-­‐B-­‐C-­‐D-­‐E     MI LÍM ET ROS SOIL EXC.HÍDR. 100 75 50 25 0 CLIMATE   CHUVA EVAP.POT. -25 -50 J F M A M J J A S O N AGRONOMIC   Management D Divided  in  5  categories   I-­‐II-­‐III-­‐IV-­‐V     Divided  in  2  categories   Varie1es  +Best   prac1ces   Objec7ve:    the  problems  of  applica7on  of  best  prac7ces  in  agronomic  management  
  5. 5. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  -­‐  Defini1on  of  Environments  of  Produc1on   Yield  Poten1al  Decrease  from  A  to  E   175 150 DEF.HÍDR. 125 AGRONOMIC   Management EXC.HÍDR. SOIL MI LÍM ET ROS 100 75 50 25 0 CLIMATE   CHUVA EVAP.POT. -25 -50 J F M A M J J A S O N D A TCH MÉDIA DE 4 CORTES  TCH  Average  of  4  cuts   B C 105,0 D E 100,0 95,0 tcana/ha 90,0 85,0 CLIMA 80,0 75,0 70,0 65,0 88/89 89/90 90/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 SAFRAS Harvest  Season   95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 Média
  6. 6. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  -­‐  Defini1on  of  Environments  of  Produc1on   CTC  data  bank   •  24  years  of  sugarcane  yield   •  20-­‐40  years  of  climate  data   “EDAPHOCLIMATIC” ENVIRONMENTS OF PRODUCTION (EEP) 175 150 DEF.HÍDR. 125 EXC.HÍDR. SOIL MI LÍM ET ROS 100 75 50 25 0 CLIMATE   CHUVA EVAP.POT. -25 -50 J AMBIENTES   EDAFOCLIMATICOS SOLOS SOILS   EEP   A B C D E F M A M J J A S O N AGRONOMIC   Management D Clima7c  Regions   REGIÕES  CLIMÁTICAS I II III IV A-­‐I Yie A-­‐II A-­‐III A-­‐IV ld  Po ten B-­‐I B-­‐II1al   B-­‐III B-­‐VI Decr ease C-­‐I C-­‐II C-­‐IIIfro   m C-­‐VI  A–I   to  E-­‐ D-­‐I D-­‐II D-­‐III D-­‐VIV   E-­‐I E-­‐II E-­‐III E-­‐IV V A-­‐V B-­‐V C-­‐V D-­‐V E-­‐V
  7. 7. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  -­‐  Defini1on  of  Environments  of  Produc1on   175 150 DEF.HÍDR. 125 CLIMATE EXC.HÍDR. MI LÍM ET ROS 100 SOIL 75 50 25 0 CHUVA EVAP.POT. -25 AGRONOMIC   Management -50 F M A M J J A S O N D Toneladas Tones  pol/ha  –  Average  of  5  cuts   5 cortes. de Pol por Hectare (TPH), média de 61%   27%   Ambientes de Edaphoclima7c  EProdução Edafoclimáticos nvironments  of  Produc7on   A-V B-V C-V D-V E-V A-IV B-IV C-IV D-IV E-IV A-III B-III C-III D-III E-III 27%   A-II B-II C-II D-II E-II 15,0 14,5 14,0 13,5 13,0 12,5 12,0 11,5 11,0 10,5 10,0 9,5 9,0 8,5 8,0 A-I B-I C-I D-I E-I tpol/ha J
  8. 8. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  -­‐  Defini1on  of  Environments  of  Produc1on   175 150 DEF.HÍDR. 125 MI LÍM ET ROS SOIL EXC.HÍDR. 100 75 50 25 0 CLIMATE   CHUVA EVAP.POT. AGRONOMIC   Management -25 -50 J F M A M J J A S O N WELL  KNONW  FACTORS  OF  CROP  YIELD   D ? Varie7es    +  Best  Agronomic  prac7ces  
  9. 9. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  VARIETY  MANAGEMENT   HOW  WE  CHOOSE  VARIETIES  TO  PLANT???   AGRONOMIC   MANAGEMENT   VARIETIES
  10. 10. BREEDING PROGRAM FLOW CHART YEAR 1 Germoplasm Bank BREEDING (Camamu/BA) YEAR 1 SEEDLINGS PRODUCTION (Piracicaba/SP) PHASE 1 YEAR 2 to 5 DISEASES TRIALS Phase 4: CTC variety recommendation to planting in many different sites.(SEEDS & PD) CTC’S VARIETIES INITIAL SELECTION (In 18 Experimental Stations ) PHASE 2 YEAR 5 to 8 REGIONAL SELECTION VARIETY TRIALS (18 EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS) Trials in different Environments of Production PHASE 3 TWO CUTS RIPENING CURVES
  11. 11. 28  RELEASED  VARIETIES   15-­‐20  %    more  yield  in   specific  sites  
  12. 12. VARIETY  RECOMMENDATION   CTC  9001  -­‐  EXAMPLE   5  SOIL   CATEGORIES   HARVESTING  TIME   5  CLIMATE  CATEGORIES  
  13. 13. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  AGRONOMIC  BEST  PRACTICES   DEDICATED  TO  EXPLORE  ALL  GENETIC  POTENTIAL  INCORPORATED  BY  THE  BREEDING  PROGRAM   AGRONOMIC   MANAGEMENT   BEST PRACTICES
  14. 14. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  AGRONOMIC  BEST  PRACTICES   TPH   Environment  of  Produc1on    B-­‐II     Average  Yield  (ton  Pol)  –  5  cuts  -­‐    Harvest  season    06/07  to  10/11   Fonte  :  Joaquim,  A.C.  et  al  –  Projeto  Sistemas  de  Manejo  Agronômico,  CTC,  2013  
  15. 15. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  AGRONOMIC  BEST  PRACTICES   TPH   Environment  of  Produc1on    C-­‐II     Average  Yield  (ton  Pol)  –  5  cuts  -­‐    Harvest  season    06/07  to  10/11   Fonte  :  Joaquim,  A.C.  et  al  –  Projeto  Sistemas  de  Manejo  Agronômico,  CTC,  2013  
  16. 16. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  AGRONOMIC  BEST  PRACTICES   TPH   Environment  of  Produc1on    D-­‐II     Average  Yield  (ton  Pol)  –  5  cuts  -­‐    Harvest  season    06/07  to  10/11   Fonte  :  Joaquim,  A.C.  et  al  –  Projeto  Sistemas  de  Manejo  Agronômico,  CTC,  2013  
  17. 17. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  WHERE  WE  ARE?   Average,  maximum  and  theore1cal  sugarcane  yields  and  total   dry  maeer  produc1on   (Australia, Colombia, South Africa)   Cane (f wt) (t ha-1 yr-1) Cane (d wt) (t ha-1 yr-1) Percent theoretical maximum Biomass* (RUE)   (t ha-1 yr-1) Biomass (g) per absorbed irradiance, MJ Average (actual) 84 25 27 27%   39 0.78 Commercial maximum (attainable) 148 44 48 69 1.30 Experimental maximum (potential) 212 63 69 98 1.86 308 92 100 142 2.96 Type Maximum (theoretical) Source:  Paul  H.  Moore,  Physiological  Constraints  of  Sugarcane  Yield  Poten7al,  Centro  de  Tecnologia  Canavieira,  Piracicaba,  2013    
  18. 18. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  WHERE  WE  ARE?  
  19. 19. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on  –  WHERE  WE  ARE?  
  20. 20. The  Pillars  of  Agronomic  Produc1on   Final  Comments   •  The  environments  of  produc1on  are  reliable  for  variety  recommenda1on;   •  Un1l  now  the  agronomic  recommenda1ons  –  best  prac1ces  -­‐  are  not  been  used  by   producers  in  a  proper  manner  –  huge  yield  differences  have  been  reported  in  the   same  soil  and  climate  condi1ons  (environments  of  produc1on);   •  Data  survey  (CTC  mutual  control  and  local  observa1ons)  with  producers  have  shown   that  these  yield  differences  are  due  to:     •  i)  lack  of  use  proper  plant  nutri1on;     •  •  ii)  pest  control  and  diseases;   iii)  use  of  flowering  varie1es;   •  iv)  poor  land  prepara1on  and  misuse  of  soil  conserva1on  prac1ces;     •  v)  increase  of  mechanical  harves1ng  with  no  traffic  control  (soil  compac1on   and  traffic  over  plant  rows  –  inter  row  spacement);     •  vi)  use  of  non  suitable  varie1es  for  both  mechanical  harves1ng  and  mechanical   plan1ng;  eg.  RB86-­‐7515;  SP81-­‐3250   •  vii)  mistakes  in  1me  of  plan1ng  and  harves1ng  varie1es  (beginning-­‐middle-­‐ end).  
  21. 21. Acknowledgment   Antonio  Celso  Joaquim  –  CTC  Researcher   Fernando  Cesar  Bertolani  –  CTC  Researcher   Jorge  Luis  Donzelli   R&D  Manager    CTC  Sugarcane  Breeding  Program   jorge.donzelli@ctc.com.br  

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