Flavour Per MøllerUniversity of Copenhagen firstname.lastname@example.org
Many senses important for perception and appreciation of foods • taste • smell • touch (haptic) • trigeminality (pungency, irritation) • vision • audition • temperature • interoception What is flavour?
Demonstration• Chew and swallow a jelly-bean while you block your nose. What does it ’taste’ like?• Chew a jelly-bean with normal passage of air through your nose. Any difference in ’taste’ from what you perceived above?
Dana Small et al:fMRI experiments have demonstrated:• Differential neural responses evoked by orthonasal vs. Retronasal perception in humans, i.e. Neural recruitment is influenced by whether an odorant represents a food (Small et al. Neuron, Vol. 47, 593-605, 2005)and further• Separable substrates for anticipatory (i.e. sniffing the aroma) and consummatory food chemosensation (Small et al. Neuron, Vol 57, 786-797, 2008)
Benoist Schaal et al: Human foetuses learn odours from their pregnant mother’s DietFrom Schaal et al: Chem. Senses 25: 729-737, 2000
Trigeminal stimulants (strong spices)Two hypotheses• Strong spices increase metabolism (preliminary support for this hypothesis ~15%) - appropriate concentrations ? - other spices than chili ?• Strong spices increase satiety - smaller meals? - is time between meals unaffected?
Influence of chilli on hunger and satiety Hunger-satiety for hot/ordinary soup 10 9 8 7 VASscores 6 5 4 satiety (ordinary soup) 3 satiety (hot soup) 2 hunger (ordinary soup 1 hunger (hot soup) 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 35 40 45 50 55 Time (min)Reisfelt H. H., Møller P., unpublished
Does the ’hot’ soup taste worse? Liking hot/ordinary soup 10 hot 9 ordinary 8 7 VAS-scores 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Tim e (m in) Reisfelt H. H., Møller P. unpublished
Motivation to eat more Wanting hot/ordinary soup 10 hot 9 ordinary 8 7 VAS-scores 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Tim e (m in)Reisfelt H. H., Møller P. unpublished
Flavour – the journalwill:publish interdisciplinary articles on flavour, its generation and perception, andits influence on behaviour and nutrition as well as articles on thepsychophysical, psychological and chemical aspects of flavour including thosewhich take brain imaging approaches.we expect papers ranging from:philosophy, anthropology and economicsoverpsychology and neurosciencetophysics and chemistry.we hope:to make Flavour a journal not only for scientists, but also accessible tochefs and other food professionals who would not normally read thescientific literature.
Some scientific challenges for Flavour• What are the fundamental mechanisms by which we gain pleasure from the flavour of what we eat?• Are there any relationships between the pleasure derived from eating and satiation?• Can one transform a given food into a more healthy one without diminishing the hedonistic aspects• Food pairing principles - which foods go well together and why? Do any of these principles transcend different culinary traditions and cultures? If so, what are the determinants and underlying mechanisms of such universality?• Can humans be addicted to foods? If so, is this a physical or a behavioural addiction?• Can new insights into the physics of the structure and manipulation of food allow us to develop new textures, or textures that change according to the environment or over time while being consumed?• The inverse problem in cooking: from a perceptual and physical description of (the perfect) end result of a cooking process, can we describe the physical treatment(s) of the raw materials that will result in a given (e.g. the optimal) end result?