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Intensified Agriculture and its Merits and Demerits

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Intensified Agriculture and its Merits and Demerits

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Intensified Agriculture and its Merits and Demerits

  1. 1. 3/18/2015
  2. 2. History of agriculture
  3. 3. History of agriculture • GOOD we had food to survive • Agriculture was too much labor intensive then came a revolution by change in machinery • Result • Agricultural productivity soared Variety of food Made available Ecnomic conditions got better Living standards increased Populations increased Need of cultivating more land for agriculture
  4. 4. • So more and more land was cleared to increase agriculture. • But the rate was not high as the population was not too much. This brought newer technologies with It World population grew from 1.6 to > 7 BILLION Agriculture which was on 7% land in 1700 covered > 40% land area now The world needs to produce more food than ever before Industrializaiton Post-Industrializaiton
  5. 5. Need to intensify agriculture Obligation for farming Intensify agricultural production To produce more crop and livestock With less land and water and small carbon foot print Land, water and resources b/w agriculture, industry and urbanization Through large scale commercial farming Harsh competition for scarcer
  6. 6. What is agricultural intensification? Just another name for modern industrial farming K. Marx • “the concentration of capital upon the same plot rather than its distribution among several adjoining pieces” of land (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2n d ed., vol. 25, part 2, p. 227) Lenin pointed out that • intensification of agriculture is “not some accidental, local, casual phenomenon, but one that is common to all civilized countries” (Poln. sobr.soch., 5th ed.,vol. 27, p. 168).
  7. 7. Agriculture intensification may occur as a result of :  Increase in the gross output in fixed proportions due to inputs expanding proportionately, without technological changes  Technical progress that raises land productivity  shift towards more valuable outputs
  8. 8. Agriculture intensification is based on: protecting plant mechanization in agriculture and animal husbandry developing irrigation and land Replacing low- yield plantings by high-yield large complexes and factories for agricultural products extensive use of automation and electronics developing intensive cultivated and technical crops Economics of agriculture Increasing mineral and organic fertilizer
  9. 9. Green revolution • Agriculture intensification came to be known as green revolution • The Green Revolution was essentially a package of inputs (fertilizer, high yielding seed varieties, pesticides, mechanization etc.) which were designed to lead to agricultural intensification •
  10. 10. Green Revolution • Credit of green revolution is attributed to NORMAN BORLAUG • Spread worldwide in the 1950 and 1960 • The plants produced were high yield varieties
  11. 11. Impacts of green revolution Fertilizers made GR possible – HYV produced now cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers GR brought irrigation techniques – now water can be stored and Send to drier areas putting more land into agriculture Pesticides were used to protect the plants Tractors and other modern techniques were employed along with Production of genetically modified plants resistant to environmental stress Green Revolution has forever changed the way agriculture is conducted worldwide, benefiting the people of many nations in need of increased food production.
  12. 12. significance • Agricultural intensification itself is usually conceived of as a positive process; something that agricultural systems should be encouraged towards. • However, there may be negative effects of intensification - both in terms of the quantity of livelihoods, and the quality of those livelihoods • while there may be negative effects on the sustainability (environmental, economic etc.) of those livelihoods.
  13. 13. Merits and Demerits of Intensified Agriculture
  14. 14. Merits of intensified agriculture 1. Increased level of macro nutrients in soil 2. Increased level of Plant Production 3. Increased organic matter content in soil 4. Decreased land use pressure 5. Affordable food outputs
  15. 15. Appropriate application of chemical fertilizers, increased the N, P, and K nutrients in the soil, resulting in enhanced soil quality. Increased level of macro nutrients in soil
  16. 16. Wheat RiceMaize Intensified agriculture has also increased the level of plant production by introducing a number of faster growing HYV’s ( High Yielding Variety) allow an extra crop to be grown every year. Increased level of Plant Production
  17. 17. Increased organic matter content in soil Intensified agriculture has also increased the level of plant production which ultimately increases the amount of crop residues that can be returned to the soil to enhance soil organic matter content.
  18. 18. Crop residue provides: Soil cover Reduce soil erosion Maintain the soil organic matter content Increases the soil organic matter content
  19. 19. Decreased land use pressure • Agricultural activities has been intensified mostly on the more productive, relatively level soils, where risk from erosion are not too high. • So, the need for expanding onto more fragile lands has been minimized. • It preserves the soil quality and other related environmental aspects.
  20. 20. With the introduction of intensive farming, farm products such as vegetables, fruits, and poultry products have become less expensive. Affordable food outputs
  21. 21. Merits in Pakistan's perspective • Intensified agriculture leads to a greater, grain and rice production in Pakistan. • Multiple cropping would increase gross national product (GNP) of country.
  22. 22. Pakistan become food self-sufficient and even make modest exports by late 1980s. Per capita caloric intake increases by 20% from 1980s-2000s.
  23. 23. DEMERITS OF INTENSIFIED AGRICULTURE
  24. 24. Demerits • Micronutrient deficiencies • Increased soil acidification • Excessive nutrients as pollutants • Salinization • Role of pesticides & insecticides • Role of herbicides • Unhealthy diet • Plant diseases • Reduce biodiversity • Concentrated animal- feeding operations
  25. 25. Micronutrients removed in the bumper harvests are usually not replaced by standard N-P-K fertilizers, so micronutrients deficiencies may appear, decreasing the soil quality. Micronutrient deficiencies
  26. 26. Intensified agriculture also come-up with heavy use of nitrogen fertilizers, may leads to increased soil acidification, resulting in decreased soil quality. Increased soil acidification
  27. 27. In intensive agricultural activities, N and P usually applied in the quantities, far in excess of plants uptake. When these nutrients level built-up in soil, the excessive nutrients act as pollutants and becomes a part of runoff, drainage water. Excessive nutrients as pollutants
  28. 28. Salinization All irrigation water contains dissolved salts derived as it passed over and through the land, and rain water also contains some salts. These salt get deposited into the soil, decreasing the soil quality and making it unfit for agricultural activities.
  29. 29. Role of pesticides & insecticides Insecticides and pesticides used in intensified agricultural activities adversely affect the soil quality. These broad spectrum organochemicals threatened the biological integrity of soil ecosystem. Some soil treated decades ago with high level copper and arsenic containing insecticides , still contain toxic level of these chemicals
  30. 30. Persistent and relatively mobile herbicides in soil have created major water pollution problem. Intensive use of herbicides may leads to reduce bio-diversity and resilience of the above and below ground soil communities. Role of herbicides
  31. 31. Unhealthy diet Intensified agricultural activities have focused primarily on cereal crops, provides about half of world’s calories. Less attention has been paid to the pulses (beans, peas etc.), fruits and vegetables. It creates health problems, as leafy vegetables rich in proteins, micro-nutrients and essential vitamins.
  32. 32. Monoculture system usually results in a decline in biological productivity mainly because of: Build-up of pathogens Allelochemicals Micronutrient deficiency Plant diseases
  33. 33. Reduce Biodiversity Chemical intensive, monoculture system results in: Reduced genetic diversity within crops Reduced bio-diversity of soil microorganism Reduced bio-diversity of soil macro-organism
  34. 34. Nitrogen Phosphorous Pathogens Growth accelerating hormones Antibiotics In concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), they remove plant products from wide areas and concentrate them into a production factory. Factory waste often pollute the surrounding soil and water systems with N, P, pathogens, growth accelerating hormones and antibiotics. Concentrated animal- feeding operations
  35. 35. Plant biodiversity and agriculture intensification
  36. 36. Genetically Modified Crops • Different new crop varieties have been introduced due to advancement in agriculture (Intensified agriculture).These are formed by inducing some modifications in the genetic material of existing crops varieties. 3/18/2015
  37. 37. Properties of GMCs High yield crops Better response to fertilizers Greater grain size 3/18/2015
  38. 38. Cold resistance Pest resistance High starch Herbicides resistance 3/18/2015
  39. 39. Polyester gene addition Improved sweetness Improved eating quality Better taste 3/18/2015
  40. 40. 3/18/2015
  41. 41. 3/18/2015
  42. 42. GMCs use in the world 2010 2011 2012 GMCs USA 66.8 69 69.5 Maize ,Soyabean,cotton, Papaya, Squash, Sugarbeet Brazil 25.4 30.3 36.6 Soyabeen , Maize Cotton Argentina 22.9 23.7 23.9 Soyabeen , Maize Cotton Canada 8.8 10.4 11.6 Canola,Maize, Soyabean, Sugarbeat India 9.4 10.6 10.8 Cotton China 3.5 3.9 4 Cotton, papaya, poplar tomato, 3/18/2015
  43. 43. • After World War II, when human population rapidly increased, the intensified agriculture provided the food security for this boom in population.This proved wrong the predictions of many experts about starvation of humans and ultimately death. 3/18/2015
  44. 44. 3/18/2015
  45. 45. World Scenario 3/18/2015
  46. 46. On average, across all crops grown in the US. over 90% of the varieties grown 100 years ago are no longer in commercial production or maintained in major seed storage facilities In the Philippines, where small farmers once cultivated thousands of traditional rice varieties, just two Green Revolution varieties occupied 98% of the entire rice growing area in the mid-1980s.
  47. 47. Before intensification of agriculture in China, farmers were growing 10,000 varieties of wheat. Today, 90% of these varieties have disappeared, with only a handful of high yielding wheat variety. 3/18/2015
  48. 48. • According to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, approximately 75 percent of the earth’s plant genetic resources are extinct, with another third of plant biodiversity expected to disappear by 2050. • Crop genetic resources are being wiped out at the rate of 1-2% every year. • Tropical forests are falling at a rate of just under 1% per annum. 3/18/2015
  49. 49. 3/18/2015
  50. 50. Extinct plants species • Pouteria stenophylla • Galapagos Amaranth • Myrcia skeldingii 3/18/2015
  51. 51. Cont: • Indian Monocarp Palm • Yunnan Malva • Pallasana Spurge 3/18/2015
  52. 52. 3/18/2015
  53. 53. Some endangered medicinal plants Sr:No Plants name Medicinal use 1. Blood root plant Treatment of skin disorders and cancer 3. Ginseng root as a soothing agent for coughs, gastrointestinal ailments, and skin irritations. 4. Black cohosh treat a variety of conditions including colds, pain, rheumatism, 5. Alovera Treatment of burns and wounds 6. foxglove Heart failure treatment 7. Monetery pine Full of Antioxidants may protect against age-related decline in mental abilities 3/18/2015
  54. 54. Cont: Sr.No Plants name Medicinal use 8. Oplopanax species Infection cure, diabetes and tuberculosis treatment 9. Autumn crocus Cancer and gout treatment 10. Camphor tree Rheumatic pain relief 11. Cinchona species Malaria and heart- disease treatment 12. Hoodia plant Weight loss 13. Opium poppy Pain relief, cough suppression 14. Xi shu tree Ovarian and lung cancer treatment 3/18/2015
  55. 55. Some endangered medicinal plants. 3/18/2015
  56. 56. Some other endangered plants • Echinacea paradoxa • Glandularia tampensis • Heliconia angusta • Acacia koaia - • Acampe longifolia • Guaiacum officinale • Guaiacum santum - • Lycaste ciliata 3/18/2015
  57. 57. 3/18/2015 Echinacea paradoxa Heliconia angusta Acacia koaia Lycaste ciliata Guaiacum santum Argyroxiphium sandwicense
  58. 58. Pakistan Scenario • A number of plant species in the country have become extinct while many more are on the verge of extinction. • Unfortunately no critical work has been done on threatened plants of Pakistan 580-650 flowering plant species (i.e. 12%) are expected to be threatened. 3/18/2015
  59. 59. Extinct plant species in Pakistan 3/18/2015 Asparagus gharoensis (Sindh) Scaveola plumererii (Sindh coast) Allium gilgiticum (Gilgit) Arabidopsis brevicaulis (Hunza valley) Saxifraga duthei (Baltistan) Taraxacum chitralicum (Chitral)
  60. 60. Cont: 3/18/2015 Sonneratia caseolaris (Indus delta) Nepeta schinidii (Chitral) Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Indus delta) Cousinia matifeldei (Chitral) Scaveola taccada (Sindh coast) Pedicularis caeruleoalbescens (Chitral)
  61. 61. 3/18/2015 Asparagus gharoensis Scaevola plumieri Arabidopsis brevicaulis Sonneratia caseolaris Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Allium gilgiticum
  62. 62. Reasons of declining plant diversity Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the Green Revolution introduced high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat to the developing world, replacing thousands of farmers' traditional crop varieties and their wild relatives on a massive scale. The same process continues today. New, uniform plant varieties are replacing farmer's traditional varieties - and the traditional ones are becoming extinct. 3/18/2015
  63. 63. • Pests have became more resistant against the pesticides and their efficiency to target the crops has been increased. Ultimately traditional crops are more vulnerable to these pests. 3/18/2015
  64. 64. • On the other hand excessive use of pesticides has also killed the natural predator of pests causing more damage to crops than past. • Due to the lake of gene banks efficiency in the best operating order to preserve different plants genes. • Pakistan lacks a botanical survey department, as it exists in many regional countries, including India, and a book on the status of its flora. 3/18/2015
  65. 65. • Wildlife habitat declined with the advent of row-to-row tillage and the adoption of a monoculture system that eliminates crop rotation and leads to loss in plants diversity. • Wetland clearance for agricultural purposes. • Almost 80% wetland has been cleared for agricultural purposes. 3/18/2015
  66. 66. Recall • AI can be defined by three major ways: increasing yields per hectare increasing cropping intensity (i.e. two or more crops) per unit of land changing land use from low value crops or commodities to those that receive higher market prices
  67. 67. AI: a driver of biodiversity loss during last decades Reasons include: Conversion of complex natural ecosystems to simplified managed ecosystems intensification of resource use application of more agrochemicals a generally higher input and output Agronomically important, high-intensity pastures in Germany lost around half of the plant species in post-war Europe and are now extremely species poor seed density in arable soils steeply decreased from 1900 onwards Recent AI also includes GMCs, which offer new opportunities for increased yields in the coming decades, but also risk side-effect species losses are because of both deterministic (by agricultural expansion) and stochastic processes (by habitat fragmentation) decline of biodiversity may affect ecosystem functioning and yield
  68. 68. In Centrral Europe, nature reserves are anthropogenic and endangered by AI Insecticide applications in rice fields of south and Southeast Asia causing removal of predators thus pest resurgence the impact of AI on biodiversity is not uniform and some groups of species are more affected than others In Western Europe, AI effects on plants, beetles and birds.Examples In another study use of insecticides and fungicides had consistent negative effects on biodiversity in Europe
  69. 69. Impact on farmland birds and aquatic specie reduces the number of flowers and plant diversity In the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, nutrient enrichment mainly from fertilizer use in the Mississippi Basin has accounted for the world’s largest hypoxic or dead zone
  70. 70. Sunstainable intensification The goal of sustainable intensification is increase food production from existing farmland Minimise pressure on the environment Increasing demand for food from growing global Populaion It is a response to challenges of In short supply, Over exploited Used unsustainably. In a world where land, water, energy and other outputs are
  71. 71. Sustainable intensification • Main purpose is to meet rising food demand due to population increase using fewer resources and through efficient use of new technologies Drip irrigation, sprinklers, no-till beneficial making productive use of human capital in the form of knowledge social capital to resolve common landscape problems This system is less vulnerable to shocks and stresses
  72. 72. Socio-economic intens.. Building social capital, human capital, sustainable livelihoods Ecological intens.. Intercropping, IPM, O.F Genetic intens.. Higher yields, improving nutrition, resilience to pests, diseases & CC
  73. 73. ExamplesChina: focus is on achieving both high crop productivity and high resource use efficiency ensuring food security and env. Sustainability •this system has been successfully tested and demonstrated •policies for sustainable intensification in cultivated land are also proposed by govt. AI in Africa: benefits for 10.39 million farmers and their families and improvements on approximately 12.75 million ha •Multiplicative food outputs, high yield/ha •Still more gaps to be filled (finance, collaboration among partners, political leadership) Europe is the most intense agriculture producing country and also employing AI
  74. 74. Need of integrated polices and correlation among all sectors Detailed assessment and understanding of AI impacts is imp Globally 4000 plants and animals threatened due to AI Rare and arable species are highly sensitive to AI Low intensity mngt. Tech imp
  75. 75. Link between agriculture and climate change No doubt, Agriculture is seriously effected by climate change But; It also contributes to the problem at the first place • Researchers argue that, with the right practices and incentives, smallholder farmers can boost productivity and help beat climate change.
  76. 76. • Any efforts to ‘intensify’ food production must be matched by a concerted focus on making it ‘sustainable.’ Failing to do so will undermine our capacity to continue
  77. 77. Any

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