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  1. 1. Chapter one An overview of social marketing Chapter objectives • After completing this chapter students will be able to understand: • Concepts and definition of social marketing • Social marketing vs. commercial marketing • Social marketing mix • Social marketing environment
  2. 2. Concepts and Definition of social marketing • Social Marketing is a process that involves (a) carefully selecting which behaviors and segments to target, (b) identifying the barriers and benefits to these behaviors, (c) developing and pilot testing strategies to address these barriers and benefits, and, finally, (d) broad scale implementation of successful programs. (Doug McKenzie-Mohr, 2011 ). • Social Marketing is the activity and processes for understanding, creating, communicating, and delivering a unique and innovative offering to overcome a societal problem. —Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, 2011
  3. 3. COND… • Social Marketing is the use of marketing principles and techniques to promote the adoption of behaviors that improve the health or well-being of the target audience or of society as a whole. (Nedra Weinreich, 2011) • Social Marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles and tools where the primary goal is the public good. (Rob Donovan, 2011)
  4. 4. COND…  As indicated in the above definitions social marketing is: • It is sub discipline of marketing-distinct discipline within the field of marketing. • It involves adoption of commercial marketing philosophy and adaptation of Commercial Marketing Technologies /tools • It aims for voluntary behavior change • Social Marketing Programs Influence Behavior • It Seeks to Benefit Target Consumers and/or the Society as a Whole
  5. 5. Social marketing elements • The following are social marketing elements which are borrowed from the field of commercial marketing. • Audience orientation • To be competitive in a market environment it demands a steadfast commitment to understanding consumers, the people whose behaviour we hope to change. • Primary target audience: a group of individuals whose behaviour needs to change to positively impact the problem, or those who can make policy or environmental changes. • Secondary audience: A group of individuals who exert influence on the primary target audience's behaviour.
  6. 6. • For example, if social marketers wanted children to get more physical activity by walking to school each day, children would be primary audience. They need to change their behaviour to impact the problem (lack of physical activity). But, the majority of the marketers’ program activities may be designed to intervene with parents who play a significant role in influencing the behaviour of their children secondary audience .
  7. 7. • Audience segmentation Social marketers know it is not possible to be “all things to all people. They should avoid a ‘one size fits all’ approach.
  8. 8. • Influencing Behaviour • Social marketing focuses on behaviour (what people actually do, a pattern of actions over time; the action or reaction of something under specific circumstances) . • Social marketers typically want to influence target audiences to do one of four things: • (a) accept a new behaviour (e.g., composting food waste); • (b) reject a potentially undesirable behaviour (e.g., starting smoking), • (c) modify a current behaviour (e.g., increase physical activity from three to five days of the week or decrease the number of fat grams consumed); or • (d) abandon an old undesirable behaviour (e.g., talking on a cell phone while driving
  9. 9. • Competition • Social marketing, like commercial marketing, takes place in a competitive environment. In commercial marketing, competition refers to products and companies that try to satisfy similar wants and needs as the product being promoted. • current or preferred behavior of the target audience and the perceived benefits and costs of that behavior change
  10. 10. • Exchange • For every choice we make, there is an exchange that occurs: we give one thing up in return for something else. Marketing is an exchange.
  11. 11. Commercial Marketing Vs Social Marketing commercial marketing social marketing • the primary aim is financial gain. • aims to sell a tangible product or service • choose target audiences; the greatest volume of profitable sales • competitors as other organizations offering similar goods and services, • The primary aim is individual or societal gain. • Aim to sell a desired behavior. • the greatest amount of behavior • current or preferred behavior of the target audience and the perceived benefits and costs of that behavior change
  12. 12. • The Marketing mix (4 P’s) • Product • The social marketing product might be very intangible like a belief or behavior and it is a lot harder to formulate a product concept. The social product can either represent an idea, a practice or a concrete object.
  13. 13. • Price • Price doesn’t necessarily to be monetary but can also be non monetary like time, effort, and change in life style • Place • Place is where and when the target marketing will perform the desired behavior,
  14. 14. • Promotion • Promotion involves persuasion to influence attitudes or/and behavior • To persuade effectively the social marketer should capture the attention of the target audience
  15. 15. • WHAT SOCIAL MARKETING IS NOT  Don’t confuse social marketing with social advertising.  Understand that the term “social marketing” is not the same as “social networking” or “social media,” although these are promotional tactics that social marketers may use.  Social Marketing is not Legislative Intervention-One approach adopted by governments to change behaviour is to pass legislation
  16. 16. Social Marketing Applicable Areas • Social marketing should be used when voluntary behaviour change is the social marketer’s goal and he/she desire an audience-focused program.  There are four major arenas that social marketing efforts have focused on over the years: health promotion, injury prevention, environmental protection, and community mobilization.
  17. 17. • Health promotion–tobacco use, teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, cancers,, blood pressure, • Injury prevention–drinking and driving, seatbelts, school violence, fires..
  18. 18. • Environmental protection– waste reduction, wildlife habitat protection, forest destruction, water conservation, air pollution from automobiles and other sources • Community mobilization– blood donation, literacy, and animal adoption.
  19. 19. SOCIAL MARKETING ENVIRONMENT objectives • What is marketing environment? • What are the two key marketing environments? 19
  20. 20. • The elements of social marketing mix can be controlled by the social marketer. • all marketing activities are subject to the reactions and influences of the environments in which it is implemented • environmental forces can only be monitored and responded to. • There are two key environments in which marketing operates – the micro environment and the macro environment 20
  21. 21. Conducting situation analysis • The purpose of the environmental analysis is to understand and monitor the environmental factors to predict the impact of these factors on the organisation’s performance and make strategic decisions that will enhance competitiveness 21
  22. 22. Classification 22
  23. 23. The Microenvironment: Internal Factors • It consists of factors related to the organization sponsoring or managing the social marketing effort—ones therefore considered internal. Resources: How are your levels of funding for the project? Is there adequate staff time available? Do you have access to expertise related to the social issue or target populations that you can easily tap? 23
  24. 24. Service Delivery Capabilities: Does the organization have distribution channels available for current products and services or ones you might develop? Are there any concerns with the current or potential quality of this service delivery? Management Support: Does management support this project? Issue Priority: Within the organization, is the social issue your plan will be addressing a priority for the organization? Are there other issues you will be competing with for resources and support, or is this one high on the list? 24
  25. 25. Internal Publics: Within the organization, who is likely to support this effort? Who might not? Are there groups or individuals whose buy-in will be needed in order to be successful? Current Alliances and Partners: What alliances and partners does the sponsoring organization have that could potentially provide additional resources such as funding, expertise, access to target populations, endorsements, message delivery, and/or material dissemination? Past Performance: How is the organization’s reputation relative to projects? What successes and failures are relevant? 25
  26. 26. STRENGTHS • Make a (bulleted) list of major organizational strengths relative to your plan, based at least in part on an audit of the above internal factors. • These points will be ones your plan will want to maximize. • What you should be aware of is that this list will guide you in many subsequent decisions such as  target markets you can best reach and serve,  products (programs and services) you have the resources and support to develop  prices you will (need to) charge, incentives you will be able to afford to offer,  existing alliances you might be able to tap for delivery of products, services, promotional materials, and messages. 26
  27. 27. WEAKNESSES • On the flip side, a similar list is made of factors that don’t look as positive for your effort • This bulleted list is also constructed by reviewing each of the same internal factors, noting ones that stand out as a potential concern for developing and implementing a successful plan. • Most frequently for governmental agencies and non-profit organizations (the likely sponsors of a social marketing effort), concerns are in the area of resource availability and issue priority. 27
  28. 28. The Macro environment: External Forces Cultural Forces: Trends and happenings related to values, lifestyles, preferences, and behaviours often influenced by factors such as advertising, entertainment, media, consumer goods, fashion, religious movements, health concerns, environmental concerns 28
  29. 29. • Technological Forces: • The technological environment refers to the application of science to develop new ways of doing things. • Changes in the technological environment can have a wide ranging impact on social marketing in terms of both the management of social marketing • and the content or focus of social marketing activities 29
  30. 30. Demographic Forces: Trends and changes in population characteristics, including age, ethnicity, household composition, occupation, income, and education Economic Forces: Trends affecting buying power, spending, and perceptions of economic well-being Natural Forces: Forces of “nature,” including ones such as famine, fires, drought, hurricanes, energy supply, water supply, and floods 30
  31. 31. Legal Environment • As is the case for all marketers, there are a number of legal restrictions that social marketers must take into consideration in the creation of any campaign. • Given the sensitive nature of many of the topics that fall within the domain of social marketing, legal restrictions may impede the effective development and implementation of communications and distribution strategies 31
  32. 32. External Publics: Groups outside the organization other than current partners and alliances that could have some impact on your efforts (good or bad) and/or your target audience, including new potential partners 32
  33. 33. OPPORTUNITIES • A major purpose for scanning the external environment is to discover opportunities that you can take advantage of and build into your plan. 33
  34. 34. THREATS • On the other hand, some of these forces will represent potential threats to your project and will be something your plan will want to address or prepare for in the event it happens. 34
  35. 35.  Competitive Environment • Although commercial interests are often intimately involved, competition in social marketing is very different to competition in commercial marketing. • The social marketing product is conceptual therefore the competition is not as clear cut as it is in the case of relatively simple tangible products 35
  36. 36. • Since the ultimate aim of social marketing is behavioural change, the competing product is also behaviour • Again while physical products may facilitate the behaviour that social marketers are trying to change, the physical product and the commercial businesses which produce them are not the competition 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER two SOCIAL MARKETING PLANNING PROCESS Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter students will be able to: Identify and discuss the steps in developing social marketing plan
  38. 38. • To set the stage for developing a tactical social marketing plan In theory, there is a logical process to follow when developing a marketing plan—whether for a commercial enterprise, non profit organization, or public sector agency. 1 Steps in developing a Social marketing plan • This chapter outlines the 10 distinct and important steps to developing a strategic social marketing plan. They are described briefly in this chapter and provide more detailed information on each step.
  39. 39. • Step 1: Describe the Background, Purpose, and Focus • Step 2: Conduct a Situation Analysis • Step 3: Select Target Audiences • Step 4: Set Behaviour Objectives and Goals • Step 5: Identify Target Audience Barriers, Benefits, the Competition, and Influential Others • Step 6: Develop a Positioning Statement • Step 7: Develop a Strategic Marketing Mix (4Ps) • Step 8: Develop a Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation Step 9: Establish Budgets and Find Funding Sources • Step 10: Complete an Implementation Plan
  40. 40. • Although this outline for the most part mirrors marketing plans developed by product managers in for-profit organizations, three aspects of the model stand out: • 1. Target audiences are selected before objectives and goals are established. In social marketing, our objective is to influence the behaviour of a target audience.
  41. 41. • 2. The competition isn’t identified in the situation analysis. Because we haven’t yet decided the specific behaviour that will be encouraged, we wait until Step 4, when we conduct audience research related to the desired behaviour. • 3. Goals are the quantifiable measures of the plan (e.g., number of seniors you want to join a walking group) versus the broader purpose of the plan. In this model, the plan’s purpose statement (e.g., increase physical activity among seniors)
  42. 42. • Step 1: Describe the Background, Purpose, and Focus • Begin by noting the social issue the project will be addressing and then summarize factors that have led to the development of the plan. What’s the problem? What happened?
  43. 43. • Step 2: Conduct a Situation Analysis • Now, relative to the purpose and focus of the plan, conduct a quick audit of factors and forces in the internal and external environments that are anticipated to have some impact on or relevance in subsequent planning decisions. Often referred to as a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).
  44. 44. • Step 3: Select Target Audiences • In this the third step of the plan. Provide a rich description of your target audience using characteristics such as stage of change (readi- ness to buy), demographics, geographic, related behaviours, psychographics...
  45. 45. • Step 4: Set Behaviour Objectives and Goals • Social marketing plans always include a behaviour objective—something we want to influence the target audience to do. It may be something we want our target audience to accept , reject, modify ...
  46. 46. • Step 5: Identify Target Audience Barriers, Benefits, the Competition, and Influential Others • At this point you know who you want to influence and what you want them to do. You (theoretically) even know how many, or what percentage, of your target audience you are hoping to persuade.
  47. 47. • Step 6: Develop a Positioning Statement • In brief, a positioning statement describes how you want your target audience to see the behaviour you want them to buy, relative to competing behaviours. Branding is one strategy to help secure this desired position. Both the positioning statement and brand identity are inspired by your description of your target audience and its list of competitors, barriers, and motivators to action.
  48. 48. • Step 7: Develop a Strategic Marketing Mix (4Ps) • This section of the plan describes your product, price, place, and promotional strategies. It is the blend of these elements that constitutes your marketing mix, Be sure to develop the marketing mix in the sequence that follows, beginning with the product and ending with a promotional strategy.
  49. 49. • Product • Describe core, actual, and augmented product levels. • Price • Mention here any program-related monetary costs (fees) the target audience will pay and, if offered, any monetary incentives such as discount coupons or rebates that you will make available.
  50. 50. Place • In social marketing, place is primarily where and when the target audience will perform the desired behaviour and/or acquire any campaign-related tangible goods.
  51. 51. • Promotion • In this section, describe persuasive communication strategies, covering decisions related to key messages (what you want to communicate), messengers (any spokespersons, sponsors, actors, or influential others you use to deliver messages), and communication channels (where promotional messages will appear). Include decisions regarding slogans and taglines as well.
  52. 52. Step 8: Develop a Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation • Your evaluation plan outlines what measures will be used to evaluate the success of your effort and how and when these measurements will be taken.
  53. 53. Step 9: Establish Budgets and Find Funding Sources • On the basis of draft product benefits and features, price incentives, distribution channels, proposed promotions, and the evaluation plan, summarize funding requirements and compare them with available and potential funding sources.
  54. 54. • Step 10: Complete an Implementation Plan • The plan is wrapped up with a document that specifies who will do what, when, and for how much. It transforms the marketing strategies into specific actions. Some consider this section “the real marketing plan,” as it provides a clear picture of marketing activities (outputs), responsibilities, time frames, and budgets.
  55. 55. • Thanks…
  56. 56. • Developing Social Marketing Strategies • The Social Marketing Mix • The marketing mix is the core framework of marketing management that has been adopted across all areas of marketing practice. Product • Product is the first element of the marketing mix. Unlike the popular conception of a product as a physical “thing” product in the marketing sense is more broadly defined as being the “bundle of benefits” that the marketer offers to the market for exchange.
  57. 57. • In social marketing the term product refers to the "bundle of benefits" that form the basis of the campaign, and which marketers are hoping that their target markets will adopt. • It refers to the desired behaviour and all of the benefits, services, • And tangible items that lead the target audience to adopt the desired behaviour 57
  58. 58. • It is also the tool the social marketers use to make the behavior easier to adopt or more rewarding when compared to the competition • The ultimate product of any social marketing campaign is a change in behaviour. • However, in order to achieve this change, a series of facilitating products are usually involved which can include physical goods or services 58
  59. 59. • Example: The product is physical activity and all the benefits that children truly want: having fun, being with friends, being cool, and trying new skills • Product Levels 59
  60. 60. Level of social marketing product  There are three levels of a social marketing product.  The "core product" or innermost level is made up of the benefits of the desired behaviour  the "actual product" is the behaviour itself  the "augmented product" contains any objects or services created to support behaviour change.  For example, the behaviour of eating fruits and vegetables would be the actual product, the fruits and vegetables themselves and a new farmer's market that sells fruits and vegetables would be augmented products 60
  61. 61. Components of the Social Product • Social marketing product can consist of 61
  62. 62. • The first step in a social change campaign is convincing the targeted individual that the behavioural change being recommended is worth adopting. • To do this, existing ideas about the issue need to be addressed so that the person moves from being either having no fixed attitude (apathy) or a negative attitude (active opposition) to the proposed change to being persuaded that it is a good idea (positive support) 62
  63. 63. • Behavioural change is the ultimate bottom line of any social marketing campaign. • However attitudinal change is often a pre-requisite to behavioural change. • In the early stages of a social marketing program the emphasis may be on the idea product even though the ultimate product is behaviour 63
  64. 64. element of the idea product which itself is divided into three elements 1. Belief – a belief is what the target market believes to be true about an issue. • Where beliefs amongst the target market are inaccurate, it is not unusual to set the initial focus of the campaign around an education campaign designed to modify beliefs as a pre- requisite for behaviour change. 2. Attitude – refers to what the target market feels towards an issue irrespective of what they know to be true. • Attitudes are therefore more emotionally based than beliefs • Value – values are more deep seated than either beliefs or attitudes and refer to overall ideas as to what is right and what is wrong. 64
  65. 65. Practice • Behavioural change is the ultimate goal of any social marketing campaign and is therefore the true product of the campaign. • It consists of two types of practice: 1. Act: which is a social product that requires a single act to achieve the social outcomes being promoted, for example, presenting a child for immunisation. 65
  66. 66. 2. Behaviour: which refers to ongoing and sustained changes to an individual’s activities • such as modifying diet to include 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day or • taking 30 minutes exercise three times a week, consistently over a sustained time period. • Behaviours are more difficult to 'sell' than acts in that they require ongoing reinforcement and motivation as well as a change in lifestyle 66
  67. 67. Tangible products • The primary product of any social marketing is never a physical product. • However, to achieve the behavioural outcomes of a campaign, physical goods are sometimes required as facilitating products. 67
  68. 68. • Safe drive (minimizing traffic accident) • Effective safe(drive)campaigns rely on an integrated adoption of all levels of the social marketing product. At the idea level, target adopters need to believe that they are at risk and that safe drive practices such as the use of seat belt will reduce level of road accident. • Second, as a precondition to sustained behaviour rather than occasional use (adoption of the positive behaviour), the target market must see the use of seat belt as a positive practice rather than focussing on negative attributes. And use it consistently • as the physical product required to facilitate(safe drive) practices, seat belt, cars must have seat belts and must be readily available and affordable for the target market. 68
  69. 69. Branding • Branding in the commercial sector is pervasive and fairly easy to understand and recognize. A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, or design (or a combination of these) that identifies the maker or seller of a product. • Branding social marketing is not as common, although we would like to encourage more of it, as it helps create visibility and ensure memorability.
  70. 70. • In these cases, brand names that have been used to identify programs and products are used consistently in an integrated way. Most are accompanied by additional brand elements, including graphics and taglines: • The following list includes a few of the stronger brands. • Nutrition: 5 a Day • Waste reduction: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. • Protected sex: Number one condoms • Energy conservation: ENERGY STAR
  71. 71. 5.3 Promotion • Promotion refers to any communication that occurs between the originator of the program and the public • Promotion is communication that uses various methods to reach a targeted audience with a certain message in order to achieve specific objectives 71
  72. 72. • To be successful, a social marketing campaign has to reach people with a message that will help them decide to change their behavior. • If the message isn't understandable, if it doesn't reach its audience, if it scares or offends them too much they won't respond. What is effective social marketing promotion? 72
  73. 73.  Communication is a two-way street. You have to be sure that what your audience understands is the message that you meant to send. • There are several issues that can provide difficulties here. • Language. Is the message in a language that people can understand? • Effective communication may require putting your message in a language of your target audiences 73
  74. 74. • Non-verbal communication. Your body language, tone and pitch of voice, and clothing . 74
  75. 75. • Culture. Different cultures communicate in different ways, so you have to understand the culture of your target audience to communicate effectively • It's important to be culturally sensitive in order both to be understood and not to offend  Communication has to be accessible. No matter how creative and potentially effective your message is, it can't do much good if your audience isn't exposed to it. • message should be placed in the right channels • using the channels they're most likely to pay attention to. 75
  76. 76.  Communication has to be noticeable. • People not only have to be exposed to it, but they have to pay attention to it for it to have any effect. Promotional mix elements • Advertising Paid form of non personal communication about an organization or its products that is transmitted to a target audience through a mass/broadcast medium 76
  77. 77. • marketer total control over the message and placement of the advertisement. • it has less credibility in the market place. • advertising is generally the most cost effective method on a per person reached basis and is therefore very suitable for whole of population campaign • Publicity • publicity is considered a more credible form of communication as it is distributed through a third party, usually the media. 77
  78. 78. • Personal selling • communication methods whereby a marketer or sales person directly speaks with target audience members. • Personal selling has the advantage of being a two way communication process which allows the marketer to modify the message to suit the audience Personal selling is more expensive on a per person reached basis • using volunteers and partners for personal selling, it can be an effective way of spreading social messages. 78
  79. 79. • Web based promotion • The internet provides marketers with a unique ability to simultaneously engage in the mass communication of a single message with the option of creating a unique personal interaction. • Each visitor to a website will read different levels of information according to their needs, thereby customising the message and, if necessary 79
  80. 80. • Direct Marketing • Where an issue has a clearly defined target market which is known and relatively easy to access, direct marketing whether by email or traditional mail, is an effective way of getting information to potential adopters. • Direct marketing is usually accompanied by some form of print material such as pamphlets or brochures which add to persuasive or reminder messages. 80
  81. 81. SALES PROMOTION • Sales promotion describes promotional methods using special short-term techniques to persuade members of a target market to respond or undertake certain activity. • persuade members of a target market to respond or undertake certain activity. • Major Sales Promotion Tools • Samples are offers of a trial amount of a product. Sampling is the most effective—but most expensive— way to introduce a new product. • Some samples are free; for others, the company charges a small amount to offset its cost. 81
  82. 82. • Coupons are certificates that give buyers a saving when they purchase specified products • Advertising specialties are useful articles imprinted with an advertiser's name given as gifts to consumers. Typical items include pens, calendars, key rings, matches, shopping bags, T-shirts, caps, etc 82
  83. 83. 6.2. Place • Social marketing efforts make it easier to change behavior by making sure the necessary supports are not only available, but also easily accessible to the most people possible • Place: Where the audience is located or gathers, performs the desired behavior • It refers to the channels by which behaviour change is promoted, and the places in which the change is supported and encouraged. • It is channels and locations for distributing the product and related information and support services 83
  84. 84. • The following list includes the range of potential distribution channels, with examples related to social marketing: • •Physical location. A community clinic for a malaria screening • •Phone. A domestic violence hotline • •Fax. A physician faxes a patient request for a call to a tobacco quit line • •Mail. An immunization schedule on a wallet-sized card • •Mobile units. To deliver high-yield seeds and fertilizers • •Home delivery/house calls. To observe patients taking tuberculosis drugs •Kiosks/vending machines. Condoms available in vending machines at bars 84
  85. 85. • When tangible objects are included in your campaign or program, a network of intermediaries may be needed to reach your market Channel level • We will use the number of intermediary levels to designate the length of a channel. • There are four channels 1. zero– level channel(direct marketing channel) 2. one level channel 3. two level channel 4. three level channel 85
  86. 86. 1. zero– level channel –consists of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customer. • Example door- to-door sales, home parties,. mail order. • 2. One level channel; contains one selling intermediary, such as retailer. 86
  87. 87. 3. Two- level channel; contains two intermediaries • 4. Three – level channel: contains three intermediaries • M -----A-----W----R------C 87
  88. 88. Chapter four 3. Segmentation in social marketing Chapter Objectives: By the end of this chapter students will be able to: • Understand segmentation • Identify Segmentation criteria in social marketing • Identify barriers to segmentation in social marketing
  89. 89. 3.1. Audience segmentation • Audience segmentation is a process of dividing people into more similar subgroups based upon defined criteria. • In social marketing, audiences are segmented into subgroups and assumed to have similar interests, needs and behavioural patterns and this assumption allows social marketers to design relevant health or social messages that influence the people to adopt recommended behaviours.
  90. 90. STEPS INVOLVED IN SELECTING TARGET AUDIENCES A. Segment the market • First we divided the population into smaller groups who likely require unique strategies in order to be persuaded to change their behavior. • B. Evaluating segments. • Each segment is then evaluated based on a variety of factors that will assist us in prioritizing / perhaps even eliminating some/ segments. C. Choose one or more segments to target
  91. 91. Segmentation and targeting process provide number of benefits 1. Increased effectiveness; address your target audience’s unique wants and preference 2. Increased efficiency; outcomes relative to outputs/resource expended/ are also likely to be greater 3. Input for resource allocation; it will assist you in distributing your resource 4. Input for developing strategies; it will then provide critical insights into what will influence an audience and audience to buy your behavior.
  92. 92. VARIABLES USED TO SEGMENT MARKETS • Segmentation variables typically used to categorize and describe consumer market are also applicable to social marketing environment/ marketplace/ as well. • Demographic segmentation: Demographic segmentation divides the market into groups based on variables such as age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income, occupation, education, religion, race. • Geographic segmentation • Geographic segmentation divides a market according to geographic areas, such as continents, countries, states, , regions, cities and neighborhoods...
  93. 93. • Psychographic segmentation. • Psychographic segmentation divides the market in to different groups on the bases of social class, lifestyle, value, or personality characteristics. • Behavioral segmentation • Behaviour segmentation divides the market on the base of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to the product being sold, segmenting according to occasion (when the product is used or decided on), benefit sought (what the segment wants from using the product), usage levels (frequency of use), readiness stage (relative to buying) and attitude (towards the product/offering).
  94. 94. • Stage of Change A. Precontemplation : ‘’ people at this stage usually have no intention of changing their behavior B. Contemplation: ‘’ people Acknowledge that have a problem and being think seriously about solving it. C. Preparation: ‘‘most people in the preparation stage are(now) planning to take action… and are making the final adjustments before they begin to change their behavior. D. Action: ‘’the action stage is one in which people most overtly modify their behavior and their surroundings. E. Maintenance: ‘’ during maintenance (individuals) work to consolidate the gain attained during the action and other stages and struggle to prevent lapses and relapse F. Termination: ‘‘the termination stage is the ultimate goal for all changers. Here, a former addiction or problem is will no longer present any temptation or treat
  95. 95. • Healthstyles Segmentation • It is another segmentation model used for health- related program planning. This segment incorporates several segmentation variables including demographics, psychographics, and knowledge and attitudes, and current behavior related to personal health.
  96. 96. • Combination variables • It is rare that a market will be segmented using only one variable. However, one base is often used as a primary way to group market ( e.g., age for immunization); then each segment is further profiled, and perhaps narrowed, by using additional important and relevant variables that predict response to strategies( education, income levels within each of the age segments for immunization).
  97. 97. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING SEGMENTS • Once the marketplace has been grouped into meaningful population segments, the next task is to evaluate each segment in preparation for decisions regarding selection of target audiences. • For social marketers, Andreasen cites nine factors for evaluating segments relative to each other. • Segment Size: how many people are in this segment? What percentage of the population do they represent? • Problem Incidence: how many people in this segment are either engaged in the ‘’ problem-related behavior’’ or not engaged in the ‘’ desired behavior’’? • Problem Severity: what are the levels of consequences of the problem behavior in this segment?
  98. 98. • Defenselessness: to what extent can this segment ‘’ take care of themselves’’ versus needing help from others?’’ • Reachability: is this an audience that can be easily identified and reach? • General Responsiveness: how’’ ready, willing, and able’’ to respond are those in this segment? How • Incremental Cost: who do estimated costs to reach and influence this segment compare with those for other segment? • Responsiveness to Marketing Mix: how responsive is the market like to be to social marketing strategies (product, price, place, and promotion)? • Organizational Capabilities: how extensive is our staff expertise or availability to outside resource to assist in the development and implementation of activities for this market
  99. 99. HOW TARGET AUDIENCE ARE SELECTED • Three approaches are typically for commercial sector marketers and are useful concepts for the social marketer to consider:  Undifferentiated marketing: the organization decides to use the same strategy for all segment, focusing on what is ‘’common in the needs of consumer rather than on what is different.’  Differentiated marketing: the organization developed different strategies for different audience.  Concentrated marketing: in this approach, some segments are eliminated altogether, and resources and efforts often concentrate on developing the ideal strategy for one or only a few key segments.
  100. 100. Barriers to segmentation in social marketing • Despite the importance of segmentation, many social marketing programmes employ ‘undifferentiated target marketing’ treating the target group as a relatively homogeneous mass for whom a single strategy is developed, or adopting relatively basic segmentation approaches based on simple demographic variables such as age or gender.  This limited application of segmentation is attributable to a number of factors: • Ambitious objectives. Social marketing is typically concerned with ambitious objectives (e.g. immunization) which involve targeting very large populations (e.g. all parents of children under five).
  101. 101. • The operating environment. Social marketing organizations are much more subject to political and policy demands than commercial organizations. • Culture. There may be cultural and philosophical resistance to the idea of segmentation • Resources. Finally, social marketing organizations may lack an understanding of the potential of more sophisticated segmentation approaches, the information on which to base such approaches, or the skills and resources to implement them.
  102. 102. Pricing in social marketing • The amount of money charged for a product or service, • The price is the cost to adopting the behaviour • The price in social marketing is not always monetary • Social price is the sum of all the different costs that a person incurs to adopt a new behaviour. Eg. loss of time, loss of self-esteem, loss of respect from peers or embarrassment
  103. 103. • Type 1. Psychic prices. the mental cost of having to change an attitude or behaviour Eg. cultural belief in the appropriateness of the activity 2. Time prices. The amount of time required to undertake a behavior. 3. Energy prices: the amount of effort required to undertake the behaviour 103
  104. 104. Managing The monetary and Nonmonetary Costs Of Adoption & Social Marketing Of Services • Increase Nonmonetary Benefits for the Desired • Behavior There are also ways to encourage changes in behavior that don’t involve cash or free discounted goods and services with significant monetary value. Instead, they provide a different type of value. • In the social marketing environment, they often take the form of a pledge/commitment, recognition, and or appreciation acknowledging the adoption of a desired behavior
  105. 105. • Increase Monetary Benefit for the Desired Behavior • Monetary rewards and incentives can take many forms familiar to you as a consumer and include rebates, gift cards, allowances, cash incentives, and price adjustments that reward customers for adopting the proposed behavior
  106. 106. Decrease Monetary Costs for the Desired • Behavior Methods to decrease monetary costs are also familiar to most consumers: discount coupons, gift cards, trial incentives , cash discounts, seasonal discounts, promotional pricing (e.g., price based on geographic locations). Many of these tactics are also available to you as a social marketer to increase sales.
  107. 107. Decrease Nonmonetary Costs for the Desired • Behavior Tactics are also available for decreasing time and physical or psychological costs for suggests reducing usage time by “embedding “a new behavior in to present active ties.
  108. 108. Increase Nonmonetary Costs for the Competing Behavior • Nonmonetary tactics can also be used to increase actual or perceived nonmonetary costs associated with choosing the competing behavior. In this case, you may be creating or emphasizing negative public recognition.
  109. 109. Social Marketing in Services • Social services are an adjunct and instrument of social product marketing. The change agent must not only market an idea, such as quitting smoking, but provide clinics to serve prospective target adopters who want to quit smoking.
  110. 110. Here are four distinguishing characteristics of service-oriented social products • Intangibility • first-time blood donors cannot really sense what giving blood is like. To reduce uncertainty, they will look for signs or evidence of what the service will be like. Therefore, the social marketer’s task is to “manage the evidence,” to “tangibilize the intangible.’ Suppose that a clinic wants to convey the efficiency and safety of donating blood. • To demonstrate efficiency, the clinic would answer telephone calls without delay, schedule appointments efficiently, and admit donors with a minimum of waiting time…
  111. 111. Inseparability • Provider-client interaction is a special feature of service marketing. For example, if a nurse at a blood donor clinic is unfriendly, she can affect the client’s perception of the quality of the entire social campaign or service.
  112. 112. Variability • Services are highly variable because they depend on who provides them and when and where they are provided. Thus, two nurses in the blood-donor clinic can create different impressions of the quality of a clinic. Tangible goods or products, on the other hand, are far more uniform. • Marketers of services can take two steps toward quality control. The first is to invest in high quality personnel and their training. The second is to monitor the satisfaction of customers continuously, by means of suggestion and complaint systems, customer surveys, and comparison shopping to detect and correct faulty service.
  113. 113. Perishability • The perishability of services is not a problem when demand is steady because it is easy to staff the services in advance. When demand fluctuates, service organizations face difficult problems. If they staff for peak demand, their staff and resources will be idle when the demand is not high. • social marketing campaigns, particularly those that market services, must create differentiated benefits and features, offer high quality service, and find ways to increase the productivity of the staff that provides the social products and services.
  114. 114. The Marketing Functions of Pricing • In considering what price to charge for a specific social product, social marketers should be aware of the several functions that prices serve. • The Accessibility Function Pricing affects the ability of the target adopters to acquire the social product. In general, the higher the price, the harder it is to acquire the social product, and the lower the price, the easier it is to acquire the social product. • Product-Positioning Function The rule regarding price is subject to some qualifications. However, Price can serve as a symbol and a surrogate for a product’s quality.
  115. 115. The De-marketing function • Another function served by price is to “de- market” the demand when it is excessive or undesirable. De-marketing occurs when the demand exceeds the capacity of the social program or when the social marketer wants to discourage the use of a product by raising its price, such as cigarettes or alcohol in antismoking or anti drinking campaigns.
  116. 116. Social marketing pricing objectives • a) Maximizing retained earnings where the primary consideration is money making • b) Recovering Costs where revenue is expected to offset a portion of costs (e.g., charging customers Birr 32 for a rain barrel that cost the utility Birr 40) • c) Maximizing the Number of Target Adopters where the primary purpose is to influence as many people as possible to use the service and/or buy the product (e.g., providing free condoms to farm workers). • ).
  117. 117. Methods of Pricing • Cost - based pricing where prices are based on a desired or established profit margin or rate of return on investment (e.g., condoms are sold at community clinics at prices to cover purchase costs). • Competitive – based pricing, where prices are more driven by the prices for competing (similar) products and services • Value – based pricing, where prices are based an analysis of the target adopters’ “price sensitivity,” evaluating demand at varying price points
  118. 118. • Social Equity where reaching underprivileged or high-risk segments is a priority and different prices might be charged according to ability to pay (e.g., a sliding scale fee for bike helmet). • Demarketing where pricing strategies are used to discourage people from adopting a particular social product (e.g., taxes on cigarettes)
  119. 119. 119