Odunjo, A. Dissertation Defense 2011


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Odunjo, A. Dissertation Defense 2011

  1. 1. The Instructional Practice Implications of a School Reform Model versus No School Reform Model on Reading Achievement A Doctoral Dissertation Defense Presented by Adebimpe A. OdunjoDissertation Committee:Rose McNeese, PhD. Tammy Greer, PhD. David Lee, PhD. Wanda Maulding, PhD. Chair Member Member Member October 2011 March M
  2. 2. Chapter I
  3. 3. • Development of Educational Reform began in the late 70’s – early 1980s. The main purpose: to address theIntroduction quality of education. • Most programs avoid measuring instructional practice when explaining student achievement outcomes. (Rowan, Correnti, Miller, Camburn, 2009) • Clear identification and measure of the extentStatement of of a reform program’s instructional practice implementation and its effect on accelerating orthe Problem improving the learner’s achievement outcome regardless of confounding variables. Purpose of • A closer look at the instructional practices that affect an increase in student achievement. the Study
  4. 4. Research Questions1. Is there a difference in reading growth scores between students participatingin the America’s Choice reading program compared to students who are notparticipating in the America’s Choice reading program? 2. Is there a relationship between teaching conditions and teacher’s perception of autonomy in instructional practice?
  5. 5. Hypotheses• 1. There was a difference between reading growth scores of students who are in the America’s Choice program and students who are not in the America’s Choice program.• 2. There was no relationship between teaching conditions and teacher’s perceptions of autonomy in instructional practice.
  6. 6. Theoretical Framework
  7. 7. Significance of StudyTo provide: More evidence from which school districts andstates can make more informed decisions. Clear identification of which interventions toprovide more funding. Documentation of proven instructional practicethat actually impact student achievement. Ways to implement institutional change that willproduce sustained and increased studentachievement.
  8. 8. Chapter IIReview of Literature
  9. 9. What obtainsThere is a need to ensure that American children can effectively participate in thefuture job market. According to 2009 national report of 4th Graders reading ability: Below Basic At Basic Proficient Advanced 8% 34% 25% 33%
  10. 10. Achievement GapOur 15-year-olds trail nearly all other OECD countries math and science. •The U.S. ranks 27th out of 29 wealthy countries in the proportion of college students with degrees in science or engineering •The U.S. 48th out of 133 developed and developing nations in quality of math and science instruction •In American graduate schools, nearly half of students studying the sciences are foreigners
  11. 11. Achievement GapBy 4th grade, the majority of Black and Latino students struggle to read a simple childrens book. This has devastating consequences for their future. Up until the end of third grade, most children are learning to read. Beginning in 4th grade, they are reading to learn. •Up to half of the printed fourth- grade curriculum is incomprehensible to students who read below that grade level. •High school graduation, can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by knowing someones reading skill at the end of third grade. A person who is not at least a modestly skilled reader by that time is unlikely to graduate from high school. Source: 2009 data, National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde; Early Warning! Why Reading by the End of Third Grade Matters (Annie E. Casey Foundation).
  12. 12. The U.S. is among the leaders in college participation but ranks 16th – in the bottom half – in college completion. We only earn ½ a degree per college student, whereas in Portugal, for example, its 1:1.Source: National Report Card on Higher Education, http://measuringup.highereducation.org.
  13. 13. Lack of Preparation students – the ones who go to college – are alarmingly unprepared. • • Close to half of the students who enter college need remedial courses: • -At Cal State, the system admits only students with at least a B average in high school, yet 37% of the incoming class last year needed remedial math, and 45% needed remedial English • According to scores on the 2006 ACT college entrance exam, only 21% of students applying to four-year institutions are ready for college-level work in all four areas tested: reading, writing, math and biology • Lack of preparedness leads to nearly half of all students beginning higher education by attending a community college, which has negative consequences: • -One study showed that 73% of students entering community college hoped to earn four-year degrees, but only 22% had done so after six years • -The Pew Charitable Trusts recently found that three-quarters of community college graduates were not literate enough to handle everyday tasks like comparing viewpoints in newspaper editorials or calculating the cost of food items per ounceSource: At 2-Year Colleges, Students Eager but Unready, New York Times, 9/1/06.
  14. 14. Overarching Goals of CSR Schools of Improvement by Design: build a network of educational laboratories and research development centers to promote the dissemination Program and utilization of innovative Effectiveness designs for teaching practice (Rowan, Correnti, Miller, Camb urn, 2009). Limited availability of Implementation of Practices rigorous, scientific or independent evidence CSR designs effectiveness in either implementation quality or School of Improvement by most critically raising student Design achievement (Ross, Nunnery, Goldfeder, Mc Donald, Rachor, Hornbeck & Fleischman, 2004).
  15. 15. Goals of CSR Correnti (2005) •teacher practice precedes student achievement in the causal chain of Findings on Instructional events Practice •Evaluating program effectiveness: case studies research overly- rely on results from standardized tests. Student Effects of •Attending to the technical core of Achievement Leadership schooling only may be insufficient to change pedagogy. Schools have failed to effectively use their institutional incentives to improve teaching practice. Teacher (Sunderman and Nardini (1994) Autonomy
  16. 16. Student AchievementInfluencing factors Instructionism :educational practices that are teacher- Instructionism Constructionism focused, skill-based, product- oriented, non-interactive, and highly prescribed. Meaningful Constructivism: educational Rote Learning Learning practices that are student focused, meaning- based, process- oriented, interactive, and Balanced Literacy responsive to student interest Approach (Johnson, 2009, pp. 90).
  17. 17. Chapter IIIMethodology
  18. 18. Research Design Teacher Surveys Archived data: 3rdUSM & District and school and 5th grade ITBS IRB demographics scores in Reading Mixed Model Report findings Analysis
  19. 19. Participants• Archived 3rd and 5th grade ITBS average school scores made available on the school districts website for elementary schools that currently utilize the America’s Choice program and elementary schools that do not use the America’s Choice program were obtained. District demographics were extracted from the Georgia Department of Education website. 3rd and 5th grade Teachers were asked to complete surveys that contained items to assess the level of implementation of the America’s Choice program and that measure teacher autonomy in instruction
  20. 20. Instrumentation• Implementation Survey developed by Supovit and May (2004) was designed to examine the relationship between implementation and the impact of America’s Choice comprehensive school reform.• Teacher Autonomy Scale developed by (W.W. Charters (1974) was designed to measure perceptions of educators’ autonomy of practice.• The scores from district administered standardized reading assessment tests of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) , obtained from the district’s website, were used to determine growth in reading achievement due to the type of reading reform implemented at the school. Administration of the ITBS assessment allowed the district to compare the performance of its students to that of other students across the nation who took the same test at the same time of year.
  21. 21. ReliabilityOf Survey InstrumentsAmerica’s Choice Implementation Survey TAS• Cronbach’s Alpha for the subscales of the instruments Cronbach’s Alpha (Pearson and were as follow: “(1) Writer’s Workshop Preparation Hall, 1993), for 171 cases was Scale ((1) “Writers Workshop Preparation Scale (α = determined with the total scale (18 .96)a"; (2) “Readers Workshop Preparation Scale (α = items) internal consistency .94)a”; (3) “All Students Can Learn Scale (α = .60)b”; coefficients ranging from .80 to .83. and, (4) Same Standards Should Apply to All Students The reliability coefficients for the Scale (α = .74)b” (Supovit and May 2004). See Appendix subscales indicating general A for a complete list of subscale items. This scale has autonomy and curriculum autonomy been shown to relate to teacher’s attitudinal ranged .80 to.85. The correlation characteristics, teacher’s between the general and curriculum acceptance, experience, receptiveness and teacher self autonomy subscales is moderate (r = reported preparation to teach. .49) (Moomaw, 2005).
  22. 22. Data Analysis This study is a quasi-experimental study with mixed design. Quantitative data analysis procedures will be used to assess the hypothesis of this study.• 1. In order to determine whether there was a difference in reading • 2. In order to determine growth scores between students whether there was a participating in the America’s relationship between Choice reading program compared teaching conditions and to students who are not teacher perceptions of participating in the America’s autonomy in Choice reading program a mixed practice, Pearson’s model ANOVA was conducted with correlation was computed type of test (vocabulary and between scores on the comprehension) scores on the ITBS Teacher Autonomy Scale as a repeated measures variable and Teaching Conditions and participation in the America’s Survey. Process 2 Choice curriculum (yes, no) and grade ( 3 and 5) as grouping variables. Process 1
  23. 23. Chapter IV Results
  24. 24. ResultsQuestion 1Results from the analysis of simple interactions, America’s Choice Participation x Grade, for each type of test were not significant. Tukey’s HSD pairwise comparison of means, however, indicated significant pairwise differences for each AC versus non AC school (HSD = 2.59 for grade 3 and 2.43 for grade 5 verbal and comprehension scores) with both verbal and comprehension scores from the non AC school significantly higher for both third and fifth graders
  25. 25. ResultsQuestion 1• Test X grade interaction• Vocabulary and Comprehension• 3rd grade (F (1,73) = 339.15, p<.001)• 5th grade (F (1,85) = 91.15, p<.001).• Mean differences between vocabulary and comprehension scores• 3 grade (MVocab = 36.16 (1.22) versus MComp = 45.51 (1.24), mean difference = 9.35),• 5th grade (MVocab = 37.40 (1.22) versus MComp = 43.63 (0.97), mean difference = 6.23).• Type of test main effect• - (F (1,312) = 689.14, p<.001)• -Verbal (M = 36.34, SD = 9.96)• -Comprehension scores (M = 44.02, SD =8.65).• Main effect of AC status• (F(1,312) = 6269.39, p< .001)• composite vocabulary and comprehension score averaged across grades 3 and 5• AC schools (M = 36.25, SD =14.41)• Non AC schools (M = 4.12, SD=10.66)
  26. 26. ResultsQuestion 1 60 50 40 30 ØAC AC 20 10 0 Grade 3 Grade 5 Grade 3 Grade 5
  27. 27. Question 2• In the analysis to determine if there is a direct relationship between Teaching conditions and teacher perceptions of autonomy, it was indicated that there was no significant relationship.• (62) = -.092, p< .01
  28. 28. Chapter V
  29. 29. Limitations• Of the eight schools petitioned and that initially agreed to participate in this study, only two AC schools were willing participants.• The sample population for this study was 62.• The Socio economic status of the population selected for this study was below the poverty level.• Access to teachers in AC schools was restricted in all but two schools.• There were noticeable inconsistencies in the type of data requested by the researcher that warranted using archival data rather than live data.• The Area superintendent for the schools used in this study was unwilling to approve the study in a timely manner which affected the collection of time sensitive data.
  30. 30. Response rate Population 312 Total sample 135 Population 312 Total Sample surveyed 135 Responders 62 Responders 46% 62 46% Non responders 73 54% Non responders 73 54%
  31. 31. Relationship to Earlier studies• Research studies exploring the effects of other school reform initiatives on the education of at-risk students have also suggested that higher levels of implementation are associated with greater student performance gains.
  32. 32. What it meansThere are large racial gaps in high school graduation rates. As bad as these numbers are, theyre far worse in many cities. The black male dropout rate is 80% in Indianapolis and Detroit, 69% in Baltimore and Buffalo, and 66% in Atlanta and Cleveland. Source: The Graduation Project, 2006.
  33. 33. What it also meansFew black and Latino students make it to college and even fewer graduate. Sources: U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data, State-level Enrollment and Degree Attainment Data. U.S. Census Bureau, 2003 Current Population Survey, Educational Attainment in the United States, June 2004. Slide courtesy of Education Trust.
  34. 34. The bigger pictureThe failure of so many of our schools costs our society enormously.• If U.S. students had met the educational achievement levels of higher-performing nations between 1983-1998, Americas GDP in 2008 could have been $1.3 trillion to $2.3 trillion higher.• •We are paying higher and higher taxes for the increasing cost of our public schools, yet they are failing to deliver improved performance•• • To compensate for underprepared workers, U.S. industry spends about $25 billion on dropouts yearly on remediation• Illiteracy costs American businesses more than $60 billion each year in lost productivity and health and safety issues• • High school dropouts: • -Are more likely to be unemployed, earn lower wages, and have higher rates of public assistance• • -Cost our society $260,000 each in lost earnings, taxes, and productivity • -Are more likely to be single parents and have children at a young age• •75% of Americas state prison inmates and 59% of federal inmates are high school dropouts• •63% of prison inmates are functionally illiterate• •52% of African-American men who fail to finish high school end up in prison by their early 30s Sources: Harlow, C.W. (2003). Education and correctional populations, bureau of justice statistics special report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice; ProLiteracy; Western, B., Schiraldi, V., & Zienberg, J. (2004). Education and incarceration. Washington, DC: Justice Policy Institute, p. 1; Early Warning! Why Reading by the End of Third Grade Matters (Annie E. Casey Foundation).
  35. 35. DiscussionHow do we fix the problem?• Teacher preparation/selection• Set high expectations and standards, benchmarked against international standards• Use proven curricula• Hire and train great leaders and then empower them• Measure results• Doug Reeves: Hold people accountable
  36. 36. Recommendation for future study• To find an empirical link between levels of implementation of a school reform program and instructional practices that do affect student achievement outcomes.
  37. 37. Conclusion• Schools that do not utilize a school reform program, but are able to develop a culture of network learning, a laser focus on the instructional core and a plan for improving instructional practice on a higher level, have a greater advantage in increasing student achievement outcomes in reading, than do prescribed programs that do not allow for much flexibility in instructional practice, are less likely to be implemented with fidelity and are designed to produce a finite type of learner.
  38. 38. References• Correnti R, (2005) Literacy instruction in CSR Schools: Consequences of Design Specification on Teacher Practice. URL: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?did=982790911&Fmt=2&clientId =79356&RQT=309&VName=PQD• Charters, W. W. (1974). Sense of teacher work autonomy: Measurement & finding. Eugene: University of Oregon, Project MITT, Center for Educational Policy and Management.• Moomaw, W. (2005) Teacher Perceived Autonomy: a Construct Validation of the Teacher Autonomy Scale.• Rowan, B., Correnti, R., & Miller, R. J., Camburrn E. (2009). School Improvement by Design: Lessons from a Study on Comprehensive School Reform Programs• Sunderman, G. L., & Nardini , G. (1999) Institutional Constraints on Implementing School reform: Lessons from Chicago. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association ( Montreal, Québec, Canada. April 19-23, 1999)• Supovit, J.A., & May, H. (2004). A study of links between implementation and effectiveness of the America’s Choice Comprehensive School Reform Design. Journal of Education of Students Placed at Risk, 9(4), 389 – 419.• U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, Policy and Program Studies Service, Evaluation of the Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes: Third-Year Report, Washington, D.C., 2008.
  39. 39. References• Tilson, Whitney (2010) A Right Denied: A critical need for Genuine School reform• U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data, State-level Enrollment and Degree Attainment Data. U.S. Census Bureau, 2003 Current Population Survey, Educational Attainment in the United States, June 2004. Slide courtesy of Education Trust.• Harlow, C.W. (2003). Education and correctional populations, bureau of justice statistics special report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.• Western, B., Schiraldi, V., & Zienberg, J. (2004). Education and incarceration. Washington, DC: Justice Policy Institute, p. 1; Early Warning! Why Reading by the End of Third Grade Matters (Annie E. Casey Foundation).
  40. 40. …Putting the pieces together for our children’s future.Thank you .