How safe you are on road, by B C Das


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it is sharing of knowledge. By Bimal Chandra Das, Rtd. AGM (Safety), Bokaro Steel Plant,/ Bokaro. Kolkata

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How safe you are on road, by B C Das

  2. 2. Traffic Lights Amber - Caution Green - Go onRed - To stop If your have entered Go through thethe traffic the intersection and crossing carefully. Bring your the light turns to You can turn in thevehicle to a amber, move on very direction of thecomplete halt carefully. If you see arrow by givingbehind the stop the amber light indicatorline or cross walk. before entering theWait until the light crossing, stop theturns green. vehicle behind the stop line or cross B C DAS walk. 2
  3. 3. How Safe You Are On Road• Remember that you have responsibilities as well as rights. Consideration for others as well as yourself is the key to safety on roads.• Be careful to children. Accidents to small children are very frequent. You cannot blame them when they are too young to have learnt road sence.• You must be in possession of valid driving licence applicable to the type of vehicle you are driving B C DAS 3
  4. 4. How Safe You Are On Road • Keep well to the left except when you intend to overtake or turn right. Do not hug the middle of the road. • Never cut a corner when turning to the right. • Go slow when passing animals and give them plenty of room. • Make sure that your direction indicatior gives the correct signals and that it is cancelled immediately after use.B C DAS 4
  5. 5. How Safe You Are On Road• Do not expect others to read your mind. Before moving off, slowing, stopping, changing direction or overtaking, give clear and bold signals well in advance. Signals constitute the language of road Speak it clearly for your own and other peoples safety. B C DAS 5
  6. 6. • Do not drive down your vehicle close behind another vehicle. Always maintain a safe distance because VEHICLE CANNOT STOP DEAD without covering sufficient distance.• The chart below will show the distance covered in the THINKING BRAKING at different speeds. Speed MPH Thinking Distance Breaking Distance 20 (32. KMPH) 20 ft. (6.1 M) 20 ft. (6.1 M) 30 (48.3 KMPH) 30 ft. (9.1 M) 45 ft. (15.7M) 40 (64.4 KMPH). 40 ft (12.2M) 80 ft. (24.4M) 50 (80.5 KMPH) 50 ft. (15.2M) 125 ft. (38.1M) B C DAS 6
  7. 7.  IMAGINE — a good driver - a vehicle in perfect condition, good weather, good dry roads, broad day light. Under these conditions a vehicle can rarely stop in distances less than those shown in the chart. On wet roads braking distances may be given double margin. Heavy vehicle may need twice these dis-tances.• Always travel at a speed which will permit you to come to a halt, in an emergency, within the free distance available to you. B C DAS 7
  8. 8. • Do not park your vehicle either in no parking area or on the road turnings.• Do not stop at the middle of the road for either talking or imparting instructions to other persons.• Before opening the right door of the vehicle be sure that no body/ or no vehi-cle may strike against it.• Only one pillion rider is allowed on a scooter or motor cycle. The scooterists and motor-cyclists and even the pillion rider should use proper safety helmets. B C DAS 8
  9. 9. • Do not drive in spirit of competition. The more the haste less the safety.• Speed limits prescribed at different areas should be observed strictly.• Vehicle should not be driven under influe-nce of liquor and drugs.• Do not drive vehicle when you are mentally and physically unfit.• Keep a sharp look out for traffic signs and signals on the road sides. B C DAS 9
  10. 10. Cross Roads (Uncontrolled)• Always slow down when approaching a cross road.• Be careful at cross roads. Always give proper signals. At all road intersection give way to the traffic on your right.• At intersections between roads of equal importance, stop behind the half line and give way to traffic coming from your rightB C DAS 10
  11. 11. Cross Roads (Uncontrolled)• If you have brought your vehicle to a halt, do not creep forward anticipating a right of way in advance.• At intersection between main and minor roads, stop and always give way to traffic on the main road. If in doubt, stop until you are sure to go on.• At junctions look right, then left and then right again. Do not go until you are sure that it is safe to do so. B C DAS 11
  12. 12. Cross Roads (Uncontrolled)• When turning right, signal up your inten-tion and proceed as near as possible to the centre of the road and complete your turn so as to arrive as near as possible to the left hand side of the road which you are entering.• When turning left, signal your intention and drive as close as possible to the left hand side of your road and continue to keep to the left on the road and you are entering. Do not swing out to -the right either before or after making the turn.B C DAS 12
  13. 13. Cross Roads (Controlled by Policeman or Traffic lights)• When approaching such junctions give a clear signal of the direction you wish to go. Watch policemans hand signal and obey them. Move only when positively beckoned by policeman to do so.• At cross roads controlled by traffic lights choose your lane of travel in advance, and obey the appropriate signals.B C DAS 13
  14. 14. Cross Roads (Controlled by Policeman or Traffic lights)• When there is a green arrow filter signal do not enter the filter lane unless you intend to go in the direction shown by the arrow.• Do not move forward even when the light is green if it is clear that by doing so you are likely to block the junction when the signals change. B C DAS 14
  15. 15. Traffic Police Hand SignalsTo start one To stop vehicles To stop vehiclessided vehicles coming from approaching from front behind 15
  16. 16. Traffic Police Hand SignalsTo stop vehicles To stop vehicles To start vehicleapproaching approaching approaching fromsimultaneously simultaneously from leftfrom front and right and leftbehind 16
  17. 17. Traffic Police Hand SignalsTo start vehicles To change sign To start one sidedcoming from right vehiclesB C DAS 17
  18. 18. Traffic Police Hand SignalsTo start vehicles To give VIP salute To manage vehicles onon T-Point T-PointB C DAS 18
  19. 19. Railway Level Crossing.• Before crossing any railway level crossing whether there is a gate or not Stop look both side and then proceed.• Do not stop your vehicle on the railway line under any circumstances Get across as quickly as you can. B C DAS 19
  20. 20. Reversing• Before reversing the vehicle, look at the back and make sure that neither any person nor any vehicle is behind your vehicle. Blow horn while reversing the vehicle.• While reversing always use horn and drive slow. Children often hide or play behind parked vehicle, ff reversing from a parked position, ensure before getting into vehicle that the path is clear.B C DAS 20
  21. 21. Reversing• Do not reverse from a side road or a garage into a main road. If your garage opens on to a main road, try to park by reversing your car into it so that you enter the road driving forward.• If your view to the rear is obstructed/ restricted get help when reversing.B C DAS 21
  22. 22. Over Taking• Do not over take —  at a pedestrian crossing.  where the road narrows.  near a road junction.  near a corner or a bend.  at or when approaching a hump-back.  near narrow bridge.B C DAS 22
  23. 23. Over Taking• Never overtake unless you are sure you can do so without danger to yourself or to any one else.• Overtake only on the right unless the driver in front has signaled that he is turning right.• Never accelerate when being overtaken Always help the overtaking vehicle to do so safely.• Return to your appropriate position on the road as soon as practicable after over-taking, without cutting in sharply in front of the vehicle you have overtaken.B C DAS 23
  24. 24. Stopping And Parking• Always give clear signals before stopping, or turning to park.• while slowing down before stopping, in addition to signaling in advance, pull in as close to the left side of the road as possible.• Wherever required by law, always park in the direction of the flow of traffic.• Where a parking place is provided, use it even if it is a bit farther away from your point of call. B C DAS 24
  25. 25. Stopping And Parking• Do not park or let your vehicle stand :  at or near road junction, bend or comer, the brow of a hill or a bridge parking distance should be minimum 10 M (30 ft.)  on a foot path.  near a pedestrian crossing or near traffic lights.B C DAS 25
  26. 26. Stopping And Parking• Do not park or let your vehicle stand : On a main road or one carrying fast moving traffic except in clearly demar­cated areas. Opposite or nearly opposite another standing vehicle on the other side of the road, or alongside a parked vehicle or other obstruction (in repa­ired roads) Opposite a street island for pedestrians, or where it will obscure a traffic sign.B C DAS 26
  27. 27. Stopping And Parking• Do not park or let your vehicle stand : at or near a bus stop. Parking distance should be minimum 10 M ( 30 ft ) from the bus stop. at or near school and hospital entra­nce. on the wrong side of the road. when stopping in heavy fog or rain keep your side lights on.B C DAS 27
  28. 28. Stopping And Parking• Before opening the door make sure that it will not endanger or inconvenience anybody on the road or foot path. Wherever possible get out from the left hand side of the vehicle. If you must alight on the roadside look behind before opening your door.B C DAS 28
  29. 29. Lights• At night drive well within the limits of your lights.• Always light up in good in time. Lights are not meant only for your visibility but also to warn other road­users of your presence.• When meeting on coming motor vehicles, cyclists, and animal drawn vehicles, dip your head lights.• Dip your head lights when you are driving behind another motor vehicle. B C DAS 29
  30. 30. Lights• If you are dazzled by the headlights of a vehicle approaching from opposite dire­ction slow down or stop. The practice of trying to out­dazzle the other driver and/or cutting across his track is childish and most dangerous.• In day time visibility may be poor due to mist or heavy rains switch on your lights in order to enable other road users to see you more easily. B C DAS 30
  31. 31. Hints To Cyclists• Do not ride close behind a moving vehicle on the road. Maintain a safe distance.• Do not ride abreast with other cyclists.• Always go by the left side of the traffic islands wherever provided.• Before taking a turning ( specially right hand turn ) look at the back and make sure that neither any vehicle nor any cyclist is about to overtake you and then give hand signal for turning sufficiently well in advance Take a turn after making sure that it is safe• Do not stop at the middle of the read crossing, at road turning for talking to other persons. B C DAS 31
  32. 32. Lane Discipline• Keep within lane markings. Do not switch from lane to lane. Move into another lane only after giving the proper signal in advance, and after making sure by looking into your rear­view mirror and looking over your shoulder that it is safe to do so.• In traffic hold­ups do not jump the queue on either side and never cross the central line. B C DAS 32
  33. 33. Lane Discipline• When there is a vehicle line along the middle of the road observe these rules  Never cross or straddle a continuous line.  Do not cross or straddle a broken line except with due care and caution.  When a continuous line is placed parallel and adjacent to a broken line, do not cross the lines from the side of the continuous line.  If necessary, you may cross both lines from the side of the broken line with due care and caution.B C DAS 33
  34. 34. Safety for Pedestrians• On all uncontrolled pedestrian crossings they have right of way. Make it a habit to slow down and stop, if needed to give precedence at such crossings.• At pedestrian crossings controlled by light signals or by policeman do not race ahead when you get the signals to move. Make sure that the pedestrians have reached the other side or central refuge safely.• When turning at a road junction, give way to pedestrian, who may be crossing B C DAS 34
  35. 35. Safety for Pedestrians• Watch for pedestrian who may suddenly come out from behind stationary vehicles or other obstruction. Be especially careful of this, by slowing down near school, and bus stops.• Use pedestrian crossing or zebra crossing wherever provided.• Do not walk abreast with other people on the road.• Always cross the road at right angles.B C DAS 35
  36. 36. Safety for Pedestrians• Do not stop at the middle of the road to talk to other persons.• Never stand on the road, at a blind comer or anywhere where you cannot be seen by approaching drivers.• Never get on or off the bus while it is in motion. B C DAS 36
  37. 37. B C DAS 37
  38. 38. B C DAS 38
  39. 39. B C DAS 39
  40. 40. Hand Signals by Drivers I intend to slow down I intend to stopB C DAS 40
  41. 41. Hand Signals by Drivers I intend to move out to the right or changing the lane or turn rightI intend to move in to theleft or turn leftB C DAS 41
  42. 42. Hand Signals by Drivers Indicating the car following you to overtakeB C DAS 42
  43. 43. Dividing Line Vs Lane LineA "Lane" is the space between two lines (or aline and the kerb) painted to divide the roadinto two or more lines of traffic travelling inthe same direction. A "Laned" road thereforehas at least 2 Lanes. A road without markedlanes is an "Unlaned" road regardless of itswidth. A "Multi-lane" Road is a one-way roador a two-way road with 2 or more markedlanes that are on the side of the dividing stripor median strip (road divider) where the driveris driving and for the use of vehiclestravelling in the same direction. B C DAS 43
  44. 44. A dividing line is a road marking formed by a white/yellow lineor two parallel white/yellow lines (broken or continuous)designed to separate the parts of a road to be used byvehicles travelling in opposite directions.Broken Line (or Broken Line to the left of a Continous Line) You must keep to the left of these lines. You may cross themto overtake or make a turn, but you must only do so if it issafe.B C DAS 44
  45. 45. Single Continuous Line (or Single Continous Line to theleft of a Broken Line)You must keep to the left of these lines. You must notcross these lines to overtake or make a U-Turn but maycross them to enter or leave the road or to go past anobstruction. B C DAS 45
  46. 46. Parallel LinesYou must keep to the left and must not cross these lines, unlessyou have to avoid an obstruction. B C DAS 46
  47. 47. Avoiding an obstructionYou are permitted to cross single or double continuous lines inorder to avoid an obstruction - This does not include a slowermoving vehicle or a vehicle stopped in a line of traffic, but mayinclude a fallen tree, a crashed vehicle, or a car that has brokendown or is illegally parked. Before crossing the line, you musthave a clear view of the road ahead and it must be safe. You mustalso be very sure that you cross safely because the onus is on youto take the risk of danger into account. B C DAS 47
  48. 48. Broken Lane Line: When lanes are marked by broken lines the driver maychange lanes when it is safe to do so by indicating theintention through proper signal. B C DAS 48
  49. 49. Straddling: When driving on a road marked with Lane Lines, youmust keep your vehicle entirely within a lane. It is anoffence to straddle a line. The red car in theillustration is straddling the lane line.B C DAS 49
  50. 50. EDGE LINES:These are continuous lines at the edge of the carriageway andmark the limits of the main carriageway up to which a driver cansafely venture.Yellow Edge Lines:You must not stop or park your vehicle in any area where acontinuous yellow edge line is applied even to pick up or set downpassengers or goods. B C DAS 50
  51. 51. Bare roads will lead to total vehicular confusion. Markings are painted on the road to direct, guide and regulate the road user.Road markings include all lines patters, words and colours applied on or attached to the road surface or kerb, for the said purpose 51
  52. 52. Traffic paints are commonly used for road markings. Othermaterials such as, road studs, cats eyes and thermoplastic strips also find their application in road markings. These markings promote road safety and ensure smooth flow of traffic. Sometimes, roadmarkings are used to supplement the message of road signs and other devices. 52
  53. 53. White is generally used for carriageway (road) markings except thoseindicating restrictions for which yellow markings are used. White or yellow together with black are used for kerb and object marking 53
  54. 54. Centre line : Centre line marking for a two lane road On undivided two-way roads, the centre line separates the opposingstreams of traffic and facilitates their movements. The centre line can be a single broken line, a single continous solid line (barrier line), adouble solid line or a combination of solid line and broken line. Single and double solid lines, whether white or yellow, must not be crossed or even straddled. On a road with two centre lines, of which one is solid and the other broken, the solid line has significance only it it is on the left side of the combination as viewed by the driver. In such a case, the driver must be careful not to cross or straddle the centre line. 54
  55. 55. Lane line : Lane line and broken centrelineline.Centre barrier lines :Centre barrier line marking for a four lane road Centre barrier line marking for a six lane road 55
  56. 56. Double white/yellow lines Double Continuous lines are used where visibility is restricted inboth directions. Neither stream of traffic is allowed to cross the lines. 56
  57. 57. Combination of solid and broken lines If the line on your side is broken, you may cross or straddle it. Over take - but only if it is safe to do so.If the line on your side is continious you must not cross or straddle it. 57
  58. 58. Stop Line A stop line is a single solid transverse line painted before theintersecting edge of the road junction/ intersection.This line indicates where you are required to stop when directed by traffic officer,traffic light of stop sign. Where a pedestrian crossing is provided, the stop line is marked before the pedestrian crossing 58
  59. 59. Mandatory Signs: These signs are used to inform road users of certain laws and regulations to provide safety and free flow of traffic. These include all signs which give notice of special obligation, prohibition or restrictions with which the road user must comply. The violation of these signs is a legal offence. Some of the signs, which fall under this category, are provided as follows.B C DAS 59
  60. 60. Cautionary Signs: These signs are used to warn the road users of the existence of certain hazardous condition either on or adjacent to the roadway, so that the motorists are cautious and take the desired action. Some of the signs, which fall under this category, are provided as follows.B C DAS 60
  61. 61. Informatory Signs:These signs are used to guide road users along routes, inform them aboutdestination and distance, identify points of geographical and historical interestand provide other information that will make the road travel easier, safe andpleasant. B C DAS 61
  62. 62. Roadmarkings are aspecial type oftraffic signs whichare marked on thesurface of the road.Like traffic signsthey can giveorders, warning orinformation.Sometimes theyare used withtraffic signs. B C DAS 62
  63. 63. Road markings giving warning and informationB C DAS 63
  64. 64. Right Hair Right Reverse Right Hand Left Hand Pin Bend Curve Curve Bend Steep Descent Narrow Road Wideness Steep Ascent Road Ahead AheadNarrow Bridge 64
  65. 65. RIGHT/LEFT HAND CURVE: This sign is used where the direction of alignment changes. The sign forewarns the driver to reduce the speed and proceed cautiously along the road.B C DAS 65
  66. 66. RIGHT/LEFT REVERSE BEND: This sign is used wherethe nature of the reverse bend is not obvious to approachingtraffic and constitutes a hazard. If the first curve is to the right, aright reverse bend shall be used. If the first curve is to the left, aleft reverse bend is used. B C DAS 66
  67. 67. NARROW BRIDGE: This sign is erected on roadsin advance of bridges where the clear width betweenthe kerbs or wheel guards is less than normal widthof carriageway. B C DAS 67
  68. 68. NARROW ROAD: This sign is normally found inrural areas where a sudden reduction in width ofpavement causes a danger to traffic. B C DAS 68
  69. 69. ROAD WIDENS: This sign is normally found in ruralareas where a sudden widening of road causes adanger to traffic, such as, a two-lane road suddenlywidening to a dual carriageway. B C DAS 69
  70. 70. B C DasCYCLE CROSSING: This sign is erected in advanceof all uncontrolled cycle crossings. B C DAS 70
  71. 71. SCHOOL: This sign is erected where school buildingsor grounds are adjacent to the road where the trafficcreates a hazard to children. B C DAS 71
  72. 72. MEN AT WORK: This sign is displayed only whenmen and machines are working on the road oradjacent to it or on overhead lines or poles. This signis removed when the work is completed. B C DAS 72
  73. 73. SIDE ROAD LEFT/RIGHT: This sign is displayed in advance of the sideroad intersections where a large volume of entering traffic together withrestricted sight distance is likely to constitute a hazard. The driver is warned ofthe existence of a junction. B C DAS 73
  74. 74. Y-INTERSECTION: These signs are displayed on theapproach to a bifurcation of any road. This sign warns ofthe existence of a junction and no other indication isgiven. B C DAS 74
  75. 75. MAJOR ROAD: These signs are displayed in advance of crossing with the major road, where a sufficiently large volume of traffic with restricted sight is likely to cause a hazard.B C DAS 75
  76. 76. STAGGERED INTERSECTION: This sign is used to indicate junctions where the distance between two junctions is not more than 60 meters.B C DAS 76
  77. 77. T - INTERSECTION: This sign is displayed in advance of T-junctions where the nature of inter-section is not obvious toapproaching traffic. This sign is used to warn the driver of theexistence of a junction. B C DAS 77
  78. 78. ROUND ABOUT: This sign is used where it is necessary to indicate the approach to a roundabout.B C DAS 78
  79. 79. START OF DUAL CARRIAGEWAY: This sign is displayed whena single carriageway ends into a dual carriageway. B C DAS 79
  80. 80. END OF DUAL CARRIAGEWAY: This sign is displayed when adual carriageway is ending and a single carriageway is starting. B C DAS 80
  81. 81. REDUCED CARRIAGEWAY: These signs caution the driver of the reduction in the width of the carriageway ahead. This is displayed on undivided carriageways when some portion of the carriageway is closed or reduced for repairs.B C DAS 81
  82. 82. CROSS ROAD: This sign is displayed in advance of the cross roadwhere a sufficiently large volume of crossing or entering traffic withrestricted sight distance is likely to constitute a hazard. B C DAS 82
  83. 83. TWO WAY OPERATION: This sign is used to caution the driverof a changed pattern of traffic operation of the carriagewayexpected to carry traffic in one direction only. B C DAS 83
  84. 84. TRAFFIC DIVERSION ON DUAL CARRIAGEWAY: warns thedriver of the diversion of traffic from one carriageway to the other. Itis used on dual carriageway when one carriageway is closed. B C DAS 84
  85. 85. FALLING ROCKS: wherever rocks are liable to fall on the roadseasonally or throughout the year. The symbol may be reversedto show the side from which rock fall is expected B C DAS 85
  86. 86. FERRY: This sign is used to warn the drivers about the existenceof a ferry crossing across a river. B C Das B C DAS 86
  87. 87. TRAFFIC SIGNALS: This sign is used to caution the drivers of the presence of traffic signals.B C DAS 87
  88. 88. UNGUARDED RAILWAY CROSSING: This sign is used on the approaches of level crossings where there are no gates or other barriers. An advance warning sign (with two bars) is installed at a distance of 200 meters and second sign (with one bar) is installed near the crossing.B C DAS 88
  89. 89. GUARDED RAILWAY CROSSING: used to warn traffic on the approaches toguarded railway crossing. An advance warning sign (with two bars) at adistance of 200 meters and second sign (with one bar) is installed near thecrossing B C DAS 89
  90. 90. SPEED BREAKER: This sign warns the drivers of the presence of a speed breaker.B C DAS 90
  91. 91. RUMBLE STRIP: This sign is installed in advance of the rumble strips provided on the road to control the speed of the vehicle.B C DAS 91
  92. 92. BARRIER: This sign is erected in advance of a gate controlling entry into a road. A definition plate with words "SLOW BARRIER AHEAD" or "TOLL BARRIER AHEAD" is also displayed on the sign.B C DAS 92
  93. 93. DANGEROUS DIP: This sign is used where a sharp dip in the profile of the road or a causeway is likely to cause considerable discomfort to traffic.B C DAS 93
  94. 94. PARKING PARKING SCOOTER THIS BOTH & MOTOR SIDE SIDES CYCLE NO THROUGH ROAD: This sign is used at the entrance to a road from where there is no exitB C DAS 94
  95. 95. B C DAS 95