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Bill Jolly Keo Dubai Sustainability Design Process 19 March 2009

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Bill Jolly Keo Dubai Sustainability Design Process 19 March 2009

  1. 1. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Sustainability S t i bilit Bill Jolly Thursday 19th March 2009
  2. 2. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Contents Introduction Potential MEP Technologies Climate Change Holistic Approach Environmental Targets Thermal Modelling Sustainability Conclusion & Further Work
  3. 3. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Introduction This presentation outlines the requirements for sustainability in the UAE and in particular within Dubai. Climate change is briefly discussed along with the international and local environmental targets. A further description of sustainability and the implications within the built environment are offered along with a detailed description of the potential MEP sustainable technologies. The presentation looks at how sustainable solutions can be provided within the UAE considering the design methodology and implications for all design team members. Finally, the presentation briefly considers the holistic process required to implement the sustainable solutions.
  4. 4. Climate Change Cli t Ch Climate change and global warming are unequivocally the biggest and most fundamental problems facing planet earth and mankind today. Global warming and climate change are expected to have a cataclysmic effect across the globe. The worst effects of climate change can be avoided if greenhouse gases incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere are stabilised instead of being allowed to increase. increase KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Architects Engineers Project & Constr ction Managers Construction
  5. 5. Environmental Targets Kyoto Protocol Cut overall emissions of greenhouse gases by 5 2% below b 5.2% belo 1990 le els b 2008 2012 levels by 2008-2012 United Arab Emirates (UAE) Signed to th Si d up t the KP and h d have ratified their tifi d th i commitment on the 26/01/05. The UAE is a member of the G77 and subsequently does not have any reduction targets as the UAE y g is considered a developing country. Dubai Sheik M h Sh ik Mohammed h a vision whereby construction projects should consider d has i i h b t ti j t h ld id becoming environmentally friendly with no specific international target. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Architects Engineers Project & Constr ction Managers Construction
  6. 6. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers What is S Sustainability? ? Sustainable development (or sustainability) is about enabling all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising the quality of life for future generations. Climate change could compromise future generations and subsequently, from an MEP prospective, design engineers h f ti d i i have a role t play t reduce l to l to d energy consumption and subsequent carbon emission from buildings. The more e e gy e c e a bu d g is the less p a y supp es a e e o e energy efficient building s e ess primary supplies are required and hence less emission to the environment.
  7. 7. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Potential Technologies Wind Turbines Wi d T bi Absorption C li Ab ti Cooling Grey Water Harvesting G W t H ti Photovoltaic Panels Natural Ventilation Automatic Lighting Control Solar Collectors Wind Catchers Heat/Cooling Recovery AHU’s Combine Heat and Power (CHP)
  8. 8. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Wind Turbines Wind power is the most successful and fastest spreading renewable energy technology in Europe. Traditionally, turbines are installed in non-urban areas with a strong trend for large offshore wind farms. Wind turbines generate electricity and smaller scale turbines can be installed on/in buildings, the electricity generated can be utilised b the b ilding Turbines normally connect in parallel to the b ilding and national tilised by building. T rbines normall building grid. In the event of the building not utilising the entire electrical power generated, excess electricity is placed onto the grid and then drawn back later. The grid normally acts as a large central storage battery for the building electricity supply.
  9. 9. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Free electricity from wind Often high capital expenditure Architects like this type of renewable Long pay back period Generate electricity 24 hours/day Noise problems Wind is a cost effective renewable Location constraints Any amount of p y power can be p provided Visual impact p Reliability in correct wind speed Can not parallel connect to national grid Proven performance and durability Structural implications Wind speed and variation is critical Maintenance iissues M i t
  10. 10. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers How to Design Wind Turbines into Buildings: H t D i Wi d T bi i t B ildi 1. The first step is to calculate the electrical TCL for the building 2. Apply a realist diversity (Normally 0.4) to work out the actual load of the building 3. The electrical load profile can be calculated more accurately through thermal modelling 4. Multiply the load by hours of use to determine the annual kWh 5. Set the energy reduction target for the building (say 5% electrical reduction) 6. Calculate 5% of the annual kWh for the building 7. In reasonably windy areas (average wind speed of 6m/s) the expected output from 1kW installed is about 2500kWh annually. 8. 8 Work the calculation backwards to determine the required Wind Turbine size size.
  11. 11. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Photovoltaic Panels Photovoltaic modules convert sunlight directly into DC electricity and can be integrated into buildings. PV is distinct from other renewable energy technologies since it has no moving parts to be maintained and is silent. PV systems can be incorporated into buildings in various ways; on sloped roofs and flat roofs, in facades, atria and shading devices. Modules can be mounted using frames or be fully incorporated into the actual building fabric, for example PV roof tiles are now available which can be fitted as would standard tiles.
  12. 12. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Easy to install Expensive Architects like this type of renewable long pay back period Generate electricity while the sun shines Maintenance issues (Sand) Easy to retro fit to existing buildings Sand prevents electrical generation Simple calculation p p process Battery storage y g Size and quantity can vary local authority interface parallel connect Guaranteed output (no flexible diversity) DC generation (expensive inverters) Can go on facade (plant rooms on towers) Towers offer large surface area for installation
  13. 13. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers How to Design Photovoltaic Panels t B ildi H t D i Ph t lt i P l onto Buildings: 1. The first step is to calculate the electrical TCL for the building 2. Apply a realist diversity (Normally 0.4) to work out the actual load of the building 3. The electrical load profile can be calculated more accurately through thermal modelling 4. Set the energy reduction target for the building (say 5% or 10% electrical reduction) 5. 1kW is produced for 8m2 of PV panels 6. Sun is guaranteed therefore no utilization figures 7. Calculated the required size of the PV installation to achieve target 8. Review the architectural layout for space planning 9. 9 Ensure Ens re panels are not installed in shaded areas of the b ilding and are in direct sunlight building s nlight
  14. 14. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Solar Collectors Solar thermal systems normally operate with a back-up source of heat, such as gas or electricity. The solar system pre-heats the water up to the maximum hot water supply temperature. If there is not enough solar power available to fully heat the water it is heated up to th d i d t t the desired temperature by the b k h t source. Th systems are b t mounted on t b th back-up heat The t best t d sloped roofs with a southerly orientation, although orientations up to 45° east or west of south are acceptable.
  15. 15. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Inexpensive Needs turning off in summer Short pay back periods Additional pipe work required Easy to install Generate hot water while the sun shines Very low maintenance y Readily available Proven performance (Well established) Can be retro fitted to existing buildings
  16. 16. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers How to Design S l Collectors t Buildings: H t D i Solar C ll t iinto B ildi 1. The first step is to calculate the hot water requirement for the building 2. Approach manufacturers to determine the exact kWh output from the solar collector 3. Size the solar collector to suit the application 4. Ensure the space planning implications and solar collector is in direct sunlight 5. Design closed circuit loop through the hot water storage tank 6. Ensure all manufacturers are aware of the solar collector installations.
  17. 17. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ( ) Combine heat and power also know as co or tri-generation can be provided in a number of ways. Firstly, the principle needs to be established. A primary energy source is utilised to drive an engine which in turn drives a generator to create electricity on site. The heat exhaust off the engine can also be utilised in two ways Firstly to a dual fed boiler for hot water (Co generation) ways. (Co-generation) and additionally through vapour absorption chillers for cooling (tri-generation) . The primary fuel source is commonly gas but diesel CHP can also be achieved.
  18. 18. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Tri generation No gas in Dubai (Better for Abu Dhabi) Free cooling Complicated controls Free hot water Additional space required Leasing agreements available Exhaust requirements Cheap electricity from g p y gas Equipment view q p Reduced primary electrical supply size Expensive High maintenance Must need constant electrical requirement
  19. 19. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers How to D i H t Design CHP iinto B ildi t Buildings: 1. Ensure primary energy source (LPG or Diesel) 2. The first step is to calculate the electrical TCL for the building 3. Apply a realist diversity (Normally 0.4) to work out the actual load of the building 4. The electrical load profile can be calculated more accurately through thermal modelling 5. Set the energy reduction target for the building (say 5% or 10% electrical reduction) 6. Size the CHP unit to meet the target 7. Speak with CHP manufacturers to determine the heat exhaust capacity to determine if this can be utilized for hot water generation and or absorption cooling.
  20. 20. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Absorption Cooling p g Absorption cooling is a technology that uses heat to produce a cooling effect instead of using electricity. It is applicable mainly to commercial and industrial buildings. Most are relatively small, gas fired, air-conditioning units but some plants are larger-scale. Absorption cooling is unlikely to replace conventional refrigeration systems on a mass basis but in certain conditions it presents opportunities for environmental benefits. Some favorable factors which reduce carbon emissions include the existence of a CHP plant that operates below maximum capacity, available waste heat.
  21. 21. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Low electrical energy High water consumption Low noise Not proven technology in Middle East Large Equipment (Space Planning) Requires Cooling Tower Very good environmental performance low May require large diesel quantity (check CO2 CO because of low electrical consumption f NFPA restrictions) ) Can be connected with CHP to obtain free heat to run the chiller
  22. 22. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings: wind driven ventilation and stack ventilation. The pressures generated by buoyancy, also known as 'the stack effect', are quite low while wind pressures are usually far greater The majority of effect greater. buildings will rely mostly on wind driven ventilation while stack ventilation has several benefits. The most efficient design for a natural ventilation building should implement both types of ventilation.
  23. 23. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages AC is off during natural ventilation mode Comprehensive controls mixed mode to reduce AC supplies Only works for few months during the year More fresh air to the building Perception with clients it won’t work Possible Night-time Cooling Advantage
  24. 24. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Wind Catchers Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings: wind driven ventilation and stack ventilation. The pressures generated by buoyancy, also known as 'the stack effect', are quite low while wind pressures are usually far greater The majority of effect greater. buildings will rely mostly on wind driven ventilation while stack ventilation has several benefits. The most efficient design for a natural ventilation building should implement both types of ventilation.
  25. 25. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Free ventilation Additional Filters Fits with Middle Eastern Architecture Additional complex mixed mode controls Can create Mixed mode Environment Additional filter maintenance No energy consumption Reduced primary energy and running cost No CO2 emissions Very environmentally Friendly Low Capital Cost
  26. 26. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Grey Water Harvesting y g Greywater, sometimes spelled graywater, grey water or gray water and also known as sullage, is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as dish washing, laundry and bathing. Greywater comprises 50-80% of residential wastewater. Greywater is distinct from blackwater in the amount and composition of its chemical and biological contaminants (from feces or toxic chemicals). Greywater gets its name from its cloudy appearance and from its status as being neither fresh nor heavily polluted (blackwater). According to this definition wastewater containing significant food residues or high concentrations of toxic chemicals from household cleaners etc. may be considered "dark grey" or blackwater
  27. 27. KEO International Consultants Architects, Engineers, Project & Construction Managers Advantages Disadvantages Saves massive amounts of water Additional design necessary Low capital cost Additional maintenance required Assists with LEED and Estidama targets Reduces primary water supplies Can provide irrigation
  28. 28. For More Information on KEO, visit our website at www.keoic.com Thank You for Listening

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