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Sites	on	the	Connec,cut	
Industrial	Heritage	Trail
Connec,cut’s	abundant	
streams	and	rivers,	
kickstarted	the	industrial	
age.
American	Clock	&	Watch	Museum,	Bristol	
100	Maple	Street,	Bristol,	CT	
Open	April-November,	7	days/week,	10-5,	
Weekends	o...
American	Woolen	Company,	Stafford	Springs	
8	Furnace	Ave,	Stafford	Springs,	CT		
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Ame...
Ames	Iron	Works	Historic	Trail	
Housatonic	River	Rd.	Falls	Village,	CT	
Interpreted	trail	–	accessible	every	day	
		
In	19...
Bal,c	Mills,	Sprague		
Main	Street,	BalFc	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
BalFc	was	formed	around	a	cogon	mill...
Benedict	&	Burnham	Mfg	Co,		Waterbury	
Benedict	St.	Waterbury	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Waterbury	owes	much...
Berlin	Historical	Society	
305	Main	Street,	Kensington,	CT	
Open,	Saturday,	1-4	PM,	April	through	December	
or	by	appointm...
Bigelow-HarJord	Carpet	Co.,	Enfield	
55	Main	St,	Enfield,	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
In	1828,	Orrin	Thompso...
Bristol	Historical	Society	Museum	
98	Summer	St.,	Bristol		
Open	Wednesdays	10:00am	-2:00pm	and	on	
Saturdays	Noon-	4:00pm...
Brownell	Twine	Co.	1844,	Moodus	(East	Haddam)	
423	E	Haddam	Moodus	Rd,	Moodus	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Moo...
Canton	Historical	Museum	&	Collins	Axe	Factory,	Collinsville	
11	Front	St.	Collinsville,	CT	
Open	April-November,	Wed.	–	S...
Capewell	Horse	Nail	Company,	HarJord	
70	Charter	Oak	Ave.	
Drive	by	landmark	&	mixed	use	mill	–	no	public	
access	
		
Cape...
Cargill	Falls	Mill,	Putnam	
52	&	58	Pomfret	St	,	Putnam		
Drive	by	landmark	&	mixed	use	mill	–	no	public	access	
		
At	the...
Chamberlain	Grist	Mill,	Woodstock	
IntersecFon	of	Old	Turnpike	&	Dewing	School	Rds,	
Woodstock	
Drive	by	landmark–	restora...
Founded	in	1876,	Chase	Brass	was	one	of	the	manufacturers	that	contributed	to	Waterbury's	
nickname	"The	Brass	City".	The	...
The	first	successful	silk	manufacturers	in	the	United	
States	were	the	Cheney	Brothers.	The	original	mill	was	
begun	as	the...
Chester		Museum	at	the	Mill	of	the	Chester	
Historical	Society	
9	West	Main	St.	Chester	CT	
Open	June	–	October,	Saturdays...
Coltsville	Na,onal	Historic	Site,	HarJord	
140	Huyshope	Avenue,	Harrord,	CT		
Drive	by	landmark–	NaFonal	Park	Visitor	Cent...
Connec,cut	An,que	Machinery	Museum,	Kent	
31	Kent	Cornwall	Rd,	Kent,	CT	
Open	Wed.	-		Sunday,	May-October,	10am-4pm	
		
Th...
Connec,cut	Historical	Society,	“Making	
Connec,cut”	Gallery	
1	Elizabeth	St.	Harrord,	CT	
Open	Friday-Saturday,	9am-5pm;	T...
Cranska	Thread	Mill,	Moosup	(Plainfield)	
70	Main	St,	Moosup	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Drawn	to	Moosup	by...
Danbury	Museum	&	Historical	Society	(hat	
industry	exhibits)	
43	Main	St,	Danbury,	CT	
Open	Monday-Saturday,	10-4	
		
The	...
Deep	River	Historical	Society	
245	Main	Street		
Deep	River,	CT		
Open	by	Saturdays		&	Sundays	2-4pm	during	July	
&	August...
East	Haddam	Historical	Society		
264	Town	St.,	East	Haddam,	CT	
Open	Memorial	Day	through	Columbus	Day,	Saturday	
&	Sunday...
Eli	Whitney	Museum	&	Workshop,	Hamden	
915	Whitney	Ave.,	Hamden,	CT	
Open	Monday-Friday,	9-5,	Saturday	&	Sunday	11-4	
		
T...
Enfield	Historical	Society	
1294	Enfield	St	(rte	5),	Enfield,	CT	
Open	Sundays	2:30-4p,,	May	through	October	
and	by	appointm...
Farrel	Foundry	&	Machine	Co.,	Ansonia	
25	Main	St.	Ansonia	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Farrel	was	founded	...
George	Washington	Jones	blacksmith	shop,	
Bakersville/New	HarJord	
1140	Litchfield	Turnpike	(rte	202)	
Drive	by	landmark–	n...
Gilbert	&	Benne^	Mfg	Co,		Georgetown	
6	Portland	Ave.		Georgetown,	CT	(Wilton/Redding	Line)	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	...
Gurleyville	Gristmill,	Mansfield	
Stonemill	Rd.	Gurleyville	(Mansfield),	CT	
Open	Sundays	from	late	May	–	October	1-5	pm.	
G...
HarJord	Rubber	Works	/	Pope	Manufacturing	
Company,	HarJord		
1478	Park	St.	Harrord,	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	acce...
Hazard	Powder	Co.	/	Hazardville	Ins,tute,	Enfield	
4	North	Maple	St,	Hazardville	(Enfield),	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public...
Hockanum	Mill,	1849,	Rockville	
207	West	Main	St,	Rockville	(Vernon),	CT		
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access,	future	Mix...
Home	Woolen	Works,	Beacon	Falls	
2	North	Main	St.	Beacon	Falls,	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
As	early	as	18...
Lambert	Hitchcock	(1795-1852)	is	famous	for	mass-producing	and	mass-markeFng	the	
Hitchcock	chair.	In	1818,	he	opened	a	fu...
Jocelyn	Firearms	/	Atwood	Machine	Co	Factory,	
Stonington	
32	Water	St,	Stonington,	CT		
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	acce...
Lock	Museum	of	America,	Terryville	
240	Terryville	Rd,	Terryville	(Plymouth),	CT		
Open	May-October,	Tuesday-Friday	1:30-4...
Ma^atuck	Museum,	"Coming	Home"	Gallery,	
Waterbury	
144	West	Main	St.	Waterbury,	CT	
Open	Tuesday-Saturday	10-5,	Sunday	12...
Meriden	Historical	Society’s	Andrews	Homestead	Museum	
424	West	Main	Street,		
Open	Sundays	from	May	and	October	12-4pm	or...
Museum	of	Connec,cut	History,	HarJord	
231	Capitol	Ave,	Harrord.	CT	
Open	Monday-Friday	9-4,	Saturday	9-2	
		
ConnecFcut's...
Na,onal	Wire	Ma^ress	/	Russell	Erwin,	New	Britain	
Corner	of		High	Street		&	Columbus	Boulevard,	near	the	
New	Britain	Pub...
North	Grosvenordale	Mill	District,	Thompson	
920	River	St.	North	Grosvenordale	(Thompson),	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	publi...
New	Britain	Industrial	Museum	
185	Main	St.	(CCSU	Building),	1st	floor,	New	Britain,	CT	
Open	Tuesday,	Thursday,	Friday:	2p...
New	England	Air	Museum,	Windsor	Locks	
36	Perimeter	Rd,	Windsor	Locks,	CT	
Open	10-5,	Tuesday-Sunday	
		
Founded	as	the		C...
Ponemah	Mill,	Tacville	
160	Taeville-Occum	Rd,	Norwich,	CT		
Drive	by	landmark	with	signage	and	interpretaFon	
		
The	Taev...
The	Portland	Brownstone	Quarries,	a	NaFonal	Historic	
Landmarks,	were	an	important	source	for	stonework	used	from	
New	Yor...
The	Remington	Shot	Tower	(1909)		stands	today	as	a	
looming	symbol	of	a	once	dominant	industry.	In	1782,	a	
BriFsh	plumber...
Sharp’s	Mill	/	Ocean	Pearl	Bu^on	factory,	Willington	
212	Luchon	Rd,	Willington,	CT		
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	...
Stanley	Steam	Plant	&	Factory,	New	Britain	
78	CurFs	St.	New	Britain	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
From	the	Sta...
Strouse,	Adler	Corset	Factory,	New	Haven	
84	Olive	St.	New	Haven	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
The	first	corset	...
The		Strong	Manufacturing	Co	was	formed	in	1866..	The	original	stockholders	were	William	L.	
Gilbert,	David	Strong,	Clark	...
Talco^	Brother	Woolen	Mill	and	Historic	trail,	
Vernon	
47	Main	St.	Talcogvillee	(Vernon)	CT	
Interpreted	trail	–	accessib...
Torrington	Historical	Society		
192	Main	St.	Torrington,	CT		
Open	April	15-October	31	Wedn.-	Saturday	12-4	pm	
		
Signific...
United	States	Rubber	Co.,	Naugatuck		
6	Rubber	Ave	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
The	United	States	Rubber	Compa...
Up-Down	Sawmill,	Ledyard	
172	Iron	St.	(Route	214),	Ledyard,	CT	
Open,	April	&	May	/	October	&	November,	
Saturdays,	1-4pm...
Wallace	Silversmiths,	Wallingford	
328	Quinnipiac	St.	Wallingford	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
The	founder	of	...
Wauregan		Co^on	Mills,	Plainfield	
55	South	Walnut	St.	Wauregan	(Plainfield),	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
In...
Whi,ng	Mills	&	American	Mural	Project	Campus,	Winsted,	
Connec,cut	
100	WhiFng	St.,	Winsted,	CT	
Mixed	Use	Mill	–	Open	for...
Winchester	Historical	Society’s	Solomon	Rockwell	
House,	Winsted	
225	Prospect	St.,	Winsted,	CT	
Open	Sundays,	May-October...
Windham	Tex,le	&	History	Museum	/	Williman,c	
Linen	Factory	
411	Main	St.		WillimanFc,	CT		
Open	Fri,	Sat	&	Sun		10	-4		
	...
Yan,c	Falls	Historic	District,	Norwich	
255	YanFc	St.	Norwich,	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
At	YanFc	Falls	the...
Yale	and	Towne	Lock	Co,,	Stamford	
220	Henry	St.	Stamford,	CT	
Drive	by	landmark–	no	public	access	
		
Stamford,	once	know...
Connecticut industrial Trail -List  and Site Profiles - by William Hosley
Connecticut industrial Trail -List  and Site Profiles - by William Hosley
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Connecticut industrial Trail -List and Site Profiles - by William Hosley

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Connecticut Industrial Heritage Trail

The combination of waterpower, proximity to markets and yankee ingenuity made Connecticut one the superpowers of the industrial age. With more patents per capita and thousands of manufactured products. Connecticut’s image and history were shaped by a culture and economy about making thing.

The Connecticut Industrial Heritage Trail, a project of the Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation, was conceived to increase public awareness of the importance of Connecticut’s industrial history – and to build support and awareness for the increasing challenge of preserving the a legacy of the industrial age – a remarkable built environment.

Based on extensive field research and influenced by studies conducted by Matt Roth and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in the 1980s – and with special thanks to Connecticut History Online and Jerry Dougherty’s Connecticut – a massive online, town by town visual data base, sixty preliminary sites have been chosen. They are located in every corner of the state – (though especially concentrated along the three primary watersheds), represent dozens of products and industries – and cover the subject from its origins in the late 18th century with simple saw and grist mills – to the great levianthans of the industrial age – massive industrial complexes in places like Waterbury and Hartford and in eastern Connecticut long the Shetucket River.

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Connecticut industrial Trail -List and Site Profiles - by William Hosley

  1. 1. Sites on the Connec,cut Industrial Heritage Trail
  2. 2. Connec,cut’s abundant streams and rivers, kickstarted the industrial age.
  3. 3. American Clock & Watch Museum, Bristol 100 Maple Street, Bristol, CT Open April-November, 7 days/week, 10-5, Weekends only Dec-March ConnecFcut was the clockmaking capital of world. The museum holds the largest display of American clocks and watches anywhere! As visitors travel through the museum’s eight galleries, these Fmekeeping devices chime and strike upon the hour. Located in the historic "Federal Hill" district of Bristol, the museum is housed in an 1801 Federal-style home with a sundial garden. The Museum opened its doors to the general public in 1954. Visitors will find over 1,500 clocks and watches on display including old adverFsing clocks, punch clocks, grandfather clocks, blinking- eye clocks, railroad clocks and even Hickory Dickory Dock clocks. It's the story of America from the mid-18th century through the mid-20th – seen through the prism of a fascinaFng ConnecFcut industry
  4. 4. American Woolen Company, Stafford Springs 8 Furnace Ave, Stafford Springs, CT Drive by landmark– no public access American Woolen – a rare survival among New England’s once epic texFle manufacturing industry – occupies the mills and sites of the former Warren Mills. Founded in 1853, Warren originally made camelhair as well as woolen fabrics. It became the town’s only surviving texFle mill in 1984, when it bought its last remaining rival, the Cyril Johnson Mills. The complex is evocaFve and was built up and around a core stone mill building from the 1850s. Its longevity is reflected in the architecture with addiFons and expansions at various points in the later 19th and into the mid-20th centuries. Stafford Springs is a classic mill town. Its mineral springs became a desFnaFon in the 18th century – future President an founding father John Adams “took the cure” there in 1771. Water and water power kickstarted ConnecFcut’s industrial age
  5. 5. Ames Iron Works Historic Trail Housatonic River Rd. Falls Village, CT Interpreted trail – accessible every day In 1995, CL&P and the town of Falls Village collaborated on the construcFon of the one-mile Falls Village Historic Trail for the site where the Ames Iron Works forged cannons during the Civil War. Falls Village was known as Amesville, the technological epicenter of ConnecFcut’s iron industry at a Fme when ConnecFcut was a center of the iron industry in America. At its peak three shies of 800 men worked around the clock producing iron. The Housatonic River powered the producFon system and the railroad provided transportaFon and delivery. Signs along the trail explain that, in 1833, Oliver and HoraFo Ames founded the Ames Iron Works. The region’s iron was used in the manufacture of nails, hinges, cooking utensils, hardware, scythes, axes, shovels and other tools, locks, chains, potash pots, plows, mowing machine teeth, stoves, and many other items. Because of its resistance to shock, it was also used in musket barrels, cannon and cannon balls, ship anchors, railroad car wheels, and locomoFve driving wheel Fres. Eli Whitney used it for the thousands of muskets made in Norfolk; Thomas Alva Edison used the local iron for his phonograph needles.
  6. 6. Bal,c Mills, Sprague Main Street, BalFc CT Drive by landmark– no public access BalFc was formed around a cogon mill, at one Fme the largest texFle mill in the United States. Established on the on land purchased in 1856 by former Rhode Island Governor and Rhode Island Governor U.S. Senator William Sprague. The A. & W. Sprague Manufacturing Co. mill burned down in 1887. Subsequently, Frederick Sayles of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, purchased the site and built the BalFc Mills Co. cogon mill, which opened in 1899. The mill conFnued operaFng unFl 1967, when it was closed and the property and equipment were sold. The historic district includes 208 contribuFng buildings and two other contribuFng structures. In 1999, the remains of the mill were destroyed by fire. There was only one building that survived. Its enough to report the news of this once great industrial leviathan and a reminder of the fragility of this history.
  7. 7. Benedict & Burnham Mfg Co, Waterbury Benedict St. Waterbury Drive by landmark– no public access Waterbury owes much of its idenFty to brass. Today, while the brass industry is a thing of the past, Waterbury is sFll known as the Brass City. Benedict & Burnham began in 1812 in Waterbury. As the US went to war with England, Aaron Benedict seized on an opportunity. Soldiers and sailors needed uniform bugons, but England would no longer supply them. Benedict bought up every brass kegle, pan and pot he could find, established a rolling mill and began making bugons for the armed forces. In 1832, Gordon Burnham, entered the firm of Benedict & Coe, which by that Fme was also manufacturing brass and copper utensils. What became The Benedict & Burnham Manufacturing Co., evolved into the largest manufacturer of brass and copper appliances and fixtures in the United States. They produced copper and copper alloys, door handles, furniture knobs, safety pins, rivets, bolt hinges, lamp burners, insulated electric wire, copper wire for telegraph lines, and clocks.
  8. 8. Berlin Historical Society 305 Main Street, Kensington, CT Open, Saturday, 1-4 PM, April through December or by appointment The Berlin Historical Society museum preserves and presents the evidence of a diverse and fascinaFng industrial history. Berlin was an industrial hub in the Megabasset watershed. It claims the first cement mill in country; the first Fnsmiths (1740s) in the country - William & Edmond Papson; a descendant Fn manufacturing giant in Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. that dates back to 1797; an important chapter in the birth of interchangeable parts in the firearms industry in the story of Simeon North; and the famous Berlin Iron Bridge Co . At one Fme Berlin was the home of 26 brick yards. The story and products of the brick industry are fascinaFng and the arFsFc bricks – a local product – beauFful. Founded in 1873, the Berlin Iron Bridge Co., sFll exists as Berlin Steel. Their iron bridges were shipped in parts and assembled on site, throughout New England into western New York and Pennsylvania.
  9. 9. Bigelow-HarJord Carpet Co., Enfield 55 Main St, Enfield, CT Drive by landmark– no public access In 1828, Orrin Thompson built the first of the carpet mills that, for 150 years, brought fame and wealth to the Thompsonville secFon of town. The mill was manned by skilled weavers brought over from Scotland. Early producFon consisted mostly of inexpensive flat- woven ingrain carpeFng. As the mill became established other more expensive weaves, including three-ply ingrain, rugs, and loop Brussels were added. By 1846 there were 230 looms in operaFon at the mill. By 1850 carpet output from the Thompsonville mills had reached 250,000 yards per year. In 1854, a group of Harrord investors bought it and formed Harrord Carpet Company. By 1871 the mill was producing over 7000 yards of carpeFng per day. Improvements to the mill included electricity and a reducFon of the work week to 56 hours for the work force of 1,800. In 1914 the Harrord Carpet CorporaFon merged with the Bigelow Carpet Company of Massachusegs to form the Bigelow-Harrord Carpet Company. This new company peaked with a output of 13,000,000 yards of carpet per year.
  10. 10. Bristol Historical Society Museum 98 Summer St., Bristol Open Wednesdays 10:00am -2:00pm and on Saturdays Noon- 4:00pm The Bristol Historical Society museum is dedicated to the promoFon of interest in Bristol history. It collects, preserves, and interprets significant historical resources to enhance the present community and provide a historical context for future growth. The museum has outstanding exhibiFons on such local industries as Bristol Brass Co., Horton Manufacturing Co (sporFng goods) & the New Departure Bell Co. which developed into the bearing industry and at one point manufactured bicycle parts and, briefly, automobiles. The museum is housed in the old high school – an important 1880s architectural landmark.
  11. 11. Brownell Twine Co. 1844, Moodus (East Haddam) 423 E Haddam Moodus Rd, Moodus Drive by landmark– no public access Moodus was the “Twine Capital of America,” with twelve mills in operaFon during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The most successful was Brownell & Company. Moodus was in an ideal locaFon for texFle producFon since it had access to ample water power and shipping (via the ConnecFcut River and the ConnecFcut Valley Railroad), and it was close to an enormous trade center, New York City. Moodus's mills primarily manufactured cogon yarn, duck (canvas fabric used as sail cloth), and twine used in making fish nepng. Twine producFon lasted from 1819 to 1977. The mills also produced certain related products, parFcularly fishing nets and pearl bugons. Brownell was a pioneer in the producFon of nylon products, and Brownell sFll manufacturers specialized texFle-related products in Moodus such as archery bowstrings, helicopter cargo nets, and tennis nets. Its 1844 wooden factory building is one of the best surviving examples of that early period of industrial mill building in ConnecFcut.
  12. 12. Canton Historical Museum & Collins Axe Factory, Collinsville 11 Front St. Collinsville, CT Open April-November, Wed. – Sun. 1-4:00pm / December- March Sat- Sun 1-4pm The Canton Historical Society collects and preserves items relaFng to the area's cultural heritage and features a blacksmith shop and an extensive collecFon of 19th Century memorabilia housed on three floors in one of the original Collins Axe Company buildings. Built in 1865, the building was used for finishing agricultural plows. At its peak 100 plows per day were manufactured by the company. The first ready-to- use axes produced in the United States came from the Collins Company, founded in 1826. Prior to the firm’s establishment, consumers either purchased unground axes imported from Europe or looked to a local blacksmith to make axe heads. As the number of laborers grew, the company built housing for workers and their families, a CongregaFonal church, bank, and other structures. The emerging factory town became known as Collinsville. The museum has outstanding collecFons and dioramas related to this local industry. The adjoining mill complex is currently the focus of an adapFve reuse iniFaFve to create The Axe Factory — single-family houses, condos, a bouFque hotel, and retail and office space.
  13. 13. Capewell Horse Nail Company, HarJord 70 Charter Oak Ave. Drive by landmark & mixed use mill – no public access Capewell is a three-story brick industrial complex located near the Coltsville NaFonal Park and Historic Landmark district.. It was built in 1903 by industrialist George Capewell at the corner of Charter Oak Avenue and Popieluszko Court aeer the previous headquarters burned down. Twenty years earlier, Capewell invented a machine that efficiently manufactured horseshoe nails, and his success made Harrord the "horseshoe nail capitol" of the world. The administraFon building is ConnecFcut’s finest example of Dutch Colonial Revival architecture with highly arFculated brick and brownstone details. Through mergers the company conFnued manufacturing at this locaFon unFl 1985. The CorporaFon for Independent Living, a non-profit housing group, acquired the property in 2014 and is converFng it into 72 one, two- and three-bedroom units, plus 5,000 square feet of office or retail space.
  14. 14. Cargill Falls Mill, Putnam 52 & 58 Pomfret St , Putnam Drive by landmark & mixed use mill – no public access At the dawn of the American Industrial age the Cargill Falls Mill was the first in ConnecFcut to produce cogon broadcloth, establishing a standard of excellence for the rest of New England to follow. One building dates to the 18th century, the oldest cogon mill sFll standing in ConnecFcut and the only mill complex in the country that exhibits every style of architecture ever used in cogon mills. Expanded and modified in the mid- nineteenth century to accommodate the producFon of woolen goods, the twenty building complex represents more than 178 years of mill architecture. The Lo/s at Cargill Falls Mill, situated on the westerly edge of Putnam’s downtown business district, is in the process of becoming a mulFple use urban community where residenFal loes exist alongside enclaves of compaFble office, retail and restaurant workplaces. The fourteen buildings that comprise the 140,000 square foot riverfront complex, will include 82 residenFal apartment units along with 30,000 square feet of mixed commercial workspace.
  15. 15. Chamberlain Grist Mill, Woodstock IntersecFon of Old Turnpike & Dewing School Rds, Woodstock Drive by landmark– restoraFon in progress since 2014, accessible & operaFonal by 2017 Chamberlin Mill is a rare example of a water-powered circular sawmill – an early industrial form that once doged stream and mill ponds all across ConnecFcut. This two story post and beam building is supported on a field stone foundaFon which incorporates the penstock and turbine. This sturdy structure sFll houses many of the historic cast iron gears and flat belt pulleys that transferred the power of water via the turbine to the circular saw on the main level. For most of the mill’s lifespan it was powered by water from the adjacent SFll River, which was dammed to form Lower Chamberlin Pond, with a small millpond below the dam. In summer, the water level of Lower Chamberlin Pond was drawn down to grow hay, and in the winter it was raised to provide power to the mill. Today, the dam and ponds remain visible and intact while the surrounding historic neighborhood and landscape contribute to the telling of the mill’s story.
  16. 16. Founded in 1876, Chase Brass was one of the manufacturers that contributed to Waterbury's nickname "The Brass City". The development of the brass industry is one of ConnecFcut’s most remarkable industrial stories. Augustus Chase consolidated several local businesses, including the U.S. Bugon Company (founded 1837) to create an industrial leviathan. His son I HH Henry Sabin Chase succeeded him as president in 1900 and introduced the first brass rolling mill in Waterbury. The Chase Headquarters Building was part of a civic cluster designed by architect Cass Gilbert in 1916, to contrast with the style of the city hall he also designed. During World War II, the Chase Brass and Copper Company made more than 50 million cartridge cases and mortar shells, more than a billion small caliber bullets and, eventually, some of the components used in the atomic bomb. Chase entered the consumer market with a line of chrome Art Deco household items in the 1930s, created by leading designers such as Russel Wright, Rockwell Kent and Walter VonNessen. Look for the disFncFve company logo of a centaur drawing a bow.. The company sold the building to preservaFonists in 1963 for one dollar. It is now known as the Chase Municipal Building and is part of Waterbury's Cass Gilbert Historical District. Chase Brass headquarters building, Waterbury 236 Grand St. Waterbury Drive by landmark– Now City offices – accessible to visitors
  17. 17. The first successful silk manufacturers in the United States were the Cheney Brothers. The original mill was begun as the Mt. Nebo Silk Mills in 1838. The mill used the new Rixford roller that proved to be a revoluFonary improvement. The first products were sewing silk, with silk imported from Asia. In 1844, Ward Cheney learned the main points of silk dyeing from Edward ValenFne of Northampton, Massachusegs. The development of the sewing machine by Singer and others greatly increased the need for stronger sewing thread. Silk was preferred. Investors embraced the idea of locally-grown silk and mulberry trees. By 1913, America was at the forefront of internaFonal silk manufacturing, and the Cheney Brothers dominated the American market. The 1920s was a golden age for the company. Cheney Brothers was the only factory in the world carrying silk all the way from its raw form to a finished product, and employment rolls peaked at over 4,500 workers. The museum is housed in the 1895 Cheney machine shop and is close to the Ribbon Mill (150 Pine), the Velvet Weave Shed (182 Pine) , the Velvet Mill (185 Pine) the Dye House (190 Pine), the Yarn Mill (210 Pine) and the 20+ places to visit in the Cheney Brothers NaFonal Historic Landmark District. Cheney Brothers Silk Mills, Manchester History Center & District 175 Pine St. Manchester, plus Drive by landmarks– museum accessible for special tours and by appointment
  18. 18. Chester Museum at the Mill of the Chester Historical Society 9 West Main St. Chester CT Open June – October, Saturdays 1-4 p.m., Sundays 10-4 pm, plus Friday of Thanksgiving In 2001, the Chester Historical Society assured preservaFon of the last factory on the South Pagaconk Brook by buying the 1870s C.L. Griswold Shop and beginning its restoraFon as a future site for the Society’s offices and museum. It was one of the fist local historical organizaFons in ConnecFcut to single our industrial history as its primary emphasis. The museum opened in 2010 in the historic 1850s Griswold Mill site, overlooking a waterfall and the Pagaconk Brook. Two exhibits filling both floors of the museum, tell the story of the life, development and growth of Chester, since it was first home to the Wangunk Indians. The award-winning long-term exhibit, Streams of Change: Life Y& Industry along the PaBaconk. is on the second floor. A Made in Chester exhibit deals with local trades and manufacturers, including screw augers, small tools and the Sullivan portable ink wells.
  19. 19. Coltsville Na,onal Historic Site, HarJord 140 Huyshope Avenue, Harrord, CT Drive by landmark– NaFonal Park Visitor Center forthcoming Samuel Colt’s legendary revolving firearms were manufactured in the South Meadows factory complex that Colt reclaimed from the ConnecFcut River flood plain in 1855. In one of the boldest real estate development campaigns in Harrord's history, Colt acquired and surrounded 250 acres of land with two miles of dyke to protect against flooding. Here, by 1856, Colt built and occupied: the largest Armory in the world (500' long and 4 stories tall), worker's housing, wharf and ferry faciliFes on the ConnecFcut River, and a gathering place named "Charter Oak Hall" for the instrucFon and amusement of his employees. Crowning the hilltop in the northwest corner of the complex was "Armsmear", the enormous Italian Villa dream house Colt built for himself and his new bride Elizabeth Hart Jarvis in 1857.The Church of the Good Shepherd (1868) and Caldwell Colt Memorial Parish Hall (1894), at the north end of Coltsville, were built as family memorials by Elizabeth Colt.
  20. 20. Connec,cut An,que Machinery Museum, Kent 31 Kent Cornwall Rd, Kent, CT Open Wed. - Sunday, May-October, 10am-4pm The ConnecFcut AnFque Machinery AssociaFon museum is dedicated to the preservaFon, restoraFon and demonstraFon of anFque machinery from our rich industrial and agricultural past. Industrial Hall houses a large collecFon of staFonary steam engines. One of their finest examples is the late 1800's Noble T. Greene engine used to power the Tiffany & Pickeg Company wood products mill in Winsted, CT. The site also contains the Connec,cut Museum of Mining and Mineral Science. ConnecFcut's complex geologic past provided our forefathers with a substanFal mineral legacy. Significant iron ore deposits, copper ore, garnets, marble, limestone, basalt and brownstone all provide or have provided for profitable mining operaFons in our state. At one Fme ConnecFcut had more than 200 brickmaking companies. The history of brickmaking in the state is explored in a special secFon of the museum.
  21. 21. Connec,cut Historical Society, “Making Connec,cut” Gallery 1 Elizabeth St. Harrord, CT Open Friday-Saturday, 9am-5pm; Tuesday- Thursday, 12-15pm Established in 1825, the ConnecFcut Historical Society is the state’s historical society. CHS’s collecFon includes more than 4 million manuscripts, graphics, books, arFfacts. “Making ConnecFcut” is colorful, interacFve, and filled with more than 500 historic objects, images, and documents. Themes of daily life, clothing, transportaFon, sports and leisure, work, and social change run throughout the exhibit. It is especially strong in showcasing the products and processes associated with the industrial age. Occasional changing exhibiFons, programs and publicaFons also explore aspects of ConnecFcut’s industrial age.
  22. 22. Cranska Thread Mill, Moosup (Plainfield) 70 Main St, Moosup CT Drive by landmark– no public access Drawn to Moosup by its easily accessible source of water power, the Cranska Thread Mill and nearby former mill of the Uniondale cogon industry are each housed in large brick buildings, surrounded by workers’ tenement houses. The business was founded by Floyd Cranska (1849-1920) who, aeer a decade with the Grosvrnor Dale Manufacturing Co in his naFve Thompson, CT, bought out the cogon mill founded in 1832 by Joseph Gladding. There he manufactured cogon thread yarns. The mill expanded in 1886 with a 112 x 42’, three story stone addiFon, It doubled in size in 1907 and again in 1916. Cranska was a relentless modernizer seeking out the best machinery. At the Fme of his death the mill contained 22,000 spindles and employed 160, naFve born and French Canadian immigrants.
  23. 23. Danbury Museum & Historical Society (hat industry exhibits) 43 Main St, Danbury, CT Open Monday-Saturday, 10-4 The Danbury Museum preserves and presents a collecFon of historic sites including the John Dodd hat shop. Danbury was the internaFonal center of the hat making industry in the 19th and 20th centuries. A Danbury resident, Zadoc Benedict , apparently plugged a hole in his shoe with some fur and discovered that fricFon and sweat transformed it into felt. Applying Yankee ingenuity, Benedict used his bedpost to mold and shape the felt into hats. SomeFme around 1780, he opened a shop on Main Street and his iniFal output was a mere three hats per day. By 1800, Danbury was producing more hats than any place else in the United States. By 1887, the 30 factories that had had sprung up in the city were manufacturing five million hats a year. "The Hat Capital of the World," as it was called, was living by the words of its mogo: "Danbury Crowns Them All."
  24. 24. Deep River Historical Society 245 Main Street Deep River, CT Open by Saturdays & Sundays 2-4pm during July & August or by appointment 860-526-1449 Founded in 1938, the Deep River Historical Society’s Stone House museum was donated by Ada Southworth Munson in 1946. It was built of local granite in 1840 by her father Ezra Southworth. The Munson Room contains permanent exhibits of Deep River businesses and products such as an extensive collecFon of Niland cut glass, ivory products of Prag, Read & Co. Inc. and Calvin B. Rogers Co., auger bits of Jennings Co., and samples of Leavers lace (the last lace to be made in ConnecFcut). From 1840 to around 1940, the U.S. was the world's biggest buyer of ivory and most of it went to Deep River. The rival Comstock, Cheney & Company was established in Ivoryton, in neighboring Essex in the 1860s. These two largest American ivory manufacturers "commanded a monopoly on all ivory producFon in the United States."
  25. 25. East Haddam Historical Society 264 Town St., East Haddam, CT Open Memorial Day through Columbus Day, Saturday & Sunday 10am-4pm The East Haddam Historical Society preserves and presents the collecFons related to several local industries – the twine industry – which gained naFonal influence, ship-building and Boardman Silver – a significant player in one of ConnecFcut’s major 19h century industries. Luther Boardman & Son was founded in 1840. In 1842 he invented and patented an improved mold for creaFng Britannia silverware. The industry was a huge success and they began to ship their wares down the ConnecFcut River to naFonal and internaFonal markets. East Haddam achieved greater fame as the center of the twine industry. Fieeen separate mills centered mainly in the Moodus secFon of town, each mill employed from from a dozen to eighty “hands” many of whom were women. They produced twine, duck or canvas and gill nepng. At one point Moodus produced a substanFal porFon of the naFonal market for nepng. The museum presents the stories of these industries.
  26. 26. Eli Whitney Museum & Workshop, Hamden 915 Whitney Ave., Hamden, CT Open Monday-Friday, 9-5, Saturday & Sunday 11-4 The Eli Whitney Museum and Workshop, established in 1979, preserves the site where Whitney constructed the first American factory in 1798. Painters, journalists and presidents visited Whitneyville. The famous 1827 view by of Whitneyville by William Giles Munson is shows an evolving factory village that is organized, peaceful, and in harmony with the river and hills that surround it. It recalls a benign beginning, human scale and dignity not yet darkened by smoke. The site includes the mill river, dam, waterfall, and Ithiel Town's famous 1820 lapce-truss bridge design, and, across the street, the 1816 barn and workmen’s boarding house. The museum features a firearms collecFon, a collecFon of products associated with A,C, Gilbert Company, and large dynamic working model of the 1825 factory. Eli Whitny and his son Eli Jr. both played important roles in the birth of ConnecFcut’s firearms industry.
  27. 27. Enfield Historical Society 1294 Enfield St (rte 5), Enfield, CT Open Sundays 2:30-4p,, May through October and by appointment 860-745-1729 The Old Town Hall Museum of the Enfield Historical Society contains three floors of exhibits that illustrate many facets of Enfield's history. Thousands of arFfacts, ranging from dinosaur tracks to household items to farming implements to industrial machinery represent life in Enfield - both before and aeer the arrival of humans. Among them the exhibits collecFons related to The Hazard Powder Company - gunpowder kegs, Fns, photos, and other arFfacts of Colonel Hazard's industrial empire; The Carpet Mills of Thompsonville The industry, founded in Enfield by Orrin Thompson, has moved out of Enfield, but not before leaving an indelible mark on our history - and a huge number of mementos and arFfacts, including a rare Axminster loom with the carpet sFll in it - just as it was lee the last Fme it was shut down.
  28. 28. Farrel Foundry & Machine Co., Ansonia 25 Main St. Ansonia CT Drive by landmark– no public access Farrel was founded in 1848 as a foundry by Almon Farrel. During the Civil War, they produced bayonets and cannon barrels. In 1927, Farrel Foundry merged with Birmingham Iron Foundry of Derby, ConnecFcut. The plant of the Farrel Foundry & Machine Co., of Waterbury, was started in 1851, and in 1857 was consolidated in connecFon with the Ansonia Foundry under the name of the Farrel Foundry & Machine Co., and so conFnued unFl 1880. The shop like many others in New England undertook a varied assortment of work in order to keep the business profitable. Among other things they built verFcal millers, traversing head shapers, and other machine tools. Machinery for rolling mills, wire drawing, tube making, thread rolling and cold heading is made in many forms and sizes. AutomaFc nut machines, power presses, shears, automaFc forging drops, hinge machines, cartridge machinery, hydraulic tools, presses, accumulators and pumps, special machinery for the manufacture of cigars, cigareges, were all made here. In 2015, the foundry closed for good.
  29. 29. George Washington Jones blacksmith shop, Bakersville/New HarJord 1140 Litchfield Turnpike (rte 202) Drive by landmark– no public access – development in program by NHHS Blacksmith shops were seminal incubators of industrializaFon, machining, and technological innovaFon. Although ubiquitous in early ConnecFcut life – they were also essenFal and their proprietors mastered skills that the emerging industrial technology evolved out of. The GW Jones blacksmith shop (ca. 1830) is arguably the best-documented, most intact blacksmith shop in New England, possibly the naFon. It was built and operated conFnuously through the mid-1950s and remains in the family together with extensive collecFons, acccountbooks and documentaFon. The New Harrord Historical Society is (slowly) working with the family on a preservaFon plan that should bring this fully into the public domain.
  30. 30. Gilbert & Benne^ Mfg Co, Georgetown 6 Portland Ave. Georgetown, CT (Wilton/Redding Line) Drive by landmark– no public access Benjamin Gilbert was a leather craesman who envisioned a market in horsehair sieves and the manufacture of horse, cagle and hog hair filler for furniture, In 1830, he purchased what became known as the Old Red Shop. Sturges Benneg, joined Gilbert in 1828 to form Gilbert & Benneg. The sales were person to person and on the return trip he'd stop at tanneries and slaughterhouses to collect the hair used in the manufacture of their products. Gilbert invented the first machinery ever used in picking hair in 1826. The company eventually focused on wire products including woven wire cloth for meat safes, the first insect wire screening, and poultry nepng. As the business grew improvements were made: a three-story addiFon was built; a mill dam was built and a small pond was formed about 100 feet long and 60 feet wide. During the Civil War Gilbert and Benneg's southern sieve and carriage cushion markets dried up. Inventory piled up. An invenFve employee decided to give the sieve wire a coat of protecFve paint and offer it for sale as a window screen- a vast improvement over the cheesecloth previously used. The invenFon shieed the mill's focus to the manufacture of window screens. Gilbert & Benneg celebrated its first 75 years at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, as an exhibitor. The company supplied 3 miles of woven fencing, and about 8 acres of nepng, which hung under the fair buildings' glass ceiling. The company exhibited: Wire Cloth, Galvanized Nepng, Wire Fencing, Gates, Ornamental Wire Work, Screens, and Home Furnishing Wire Goods.
  31. 31. Gurleyville Gristmill, Mansfield Stonemill Rd. Gurleyville (Mansfield), CT Open Sundays from late May – October 1-5 pm. Groups by appointment 860-429-9023 The Gurleyville Gristmill, located on the Fenton River, offers a unique opportunity to observe rural 19th century gristmill technology. It contains a complete system of preserved milling equipment. This is not a restoraFon; here visitors see the equipment as it was operated over many decades. A sawmill was built on this site in 1723 and the gristmill was added around 1750. The lager was replaced in the 1830s by the present mill that conFnued to operate unFl 1941. The gristmill, constructed of stone, remains in a remarkable state of preservaFon. Visitors can observe and operate a minature working model of the mill that allows visitors to see how the mechanism of the mill used to operate. The Gurleyville Gristmill was for some years operated by the family of Wilbur Cross, a four-term governor of ConnecFcut. The nearby miller’s cogage was his birthplace.
  32. 32. HarJord Rubber Works / Pope Manufacturing Company, HarJord 1478 Park St. Harrord, CT Drive by landmark– no public access Albert Augustus Pope incorporated began manufacturing of bicycles in Harrord in 1878, at the Weed Sewing Machine Company factory. Pope manufactured bicycles, motorcycles, and automobiles. The incorporaFon documents stated the company's intended business acFviFes, "to manufacture and sell air pistols and guns, darning machines, lathes, cigarege rollers” For several years, the company was a major player in the emerging automobile industry, Pope Manufacturing acquired the Harrord Rubber Works in 1892 as part of a verFcal integraFon strategy. Founded by John Gray in 1885, Harrord Rubber Works imported raw material from Sumatra and produced solid Fres. Later the factory produced cushion and pneumaFc Fres. Harrord’s claims as one of the birthplaces of the automobile industry is in its associaFon with Pope.
  33. 33. Hazard Powder Co. / Hazardville Ins,tute, Enfield 4 North Maple St, Hazardville (Enfield), CT Drive by landmark– no public access – prospect of a signed walking trail Gunpowder was manufactured by mixing ground water, sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter and then grinding this mix using heavy verFcal roller wheels rolling through a circular bed trough. The mix had to be wet or grinding would cause it to explode. In 1843 the Hazard Powder Company was incorporated with Colonel Augustus Hazard as principal owner. He moved to Enfield, built a mansion and was visited by luminaries including Daniel Webster, Samuel Colt, and Jefferson Davis. The gunpowder business was booming. The war with Mexico in 1846, the 1849 California gold rush, and the 1854 Crimean War all brought huge orders for gunpowder. It was a million dollar business by the outbreak of the Civil War. WarFme capacity reached 12,500 pounds per day. January 14, 1913 a huge explosion heavily damaged the plant and killed two workers. - damage so extensive that the mill was permanently closed. In 1869, Hazard donated land for the construcFon of the Hazardville InsFtute, recently restored by the Hazardville InsFtute Conservancy.
  34. 34. Hockanum Mill, 1849, Rockville 207 West Main St, Rockville (Vernon), CT Drive by landmark– no public access, future Mixed Use Mill The Hockanum Mill is the oldest surviving mill building in Rockville, on a site first developed for water power manufacturing in 1814. The Bingham & Nash Mill was one of first to manufacture saFnet, a cloth made of cogon warp and woolen filling. In 1858 they began producFon of high grade cassimeres from domesFc and imported wool. The high quality cloth produced there became legendary. President William McKinley’s inaugural suite was made from cloth manufactured in the Hockanum Mills. By 1903, 400 workers were employed. It survived the World War II era by making cloth for military uniforms. It shut down in 1951. In 2012 Kaplan Mill Works LLC received a $2 million loan from the state to clean up the Hockanum Mills brownfield site so it can be redeveloped for commercial use. The goal is to restore 10 buildings, 150,000 square feet for commercial and industrial space on the 11 acre property. The site will be the home of a proposed New England Motorcycle Museum. The Town of Vernon is a partner in this redevelopment.
  35. 35. Home Woolen Works, Beacon Falls 2 North Main St. Beacon Falls, CT Drive by landmark– no public access As early as 1836, companies explored water power on the Naugatuck river, in Beacon Falls. In 1863, the Home Woolen Company bought the American Hard Rubber Company’s plant built. The facility consisted of a three- story factory, about 30 houses, a boarding house and 250 acres of land. Under the supervision of John Wolfe, the Beacon Falls agent of the Harrord-based Home Woolen Company, the enterprise installed new machinery. By the following year, Home Woolen had 50 looms, 125 workers and was making 1000 yards of double-width cloth per day, much of which went into the producFon of woolen shawls. In 1867, the company expanded the main mill— doubling its iniFal size. Aeer producing nearly 13,000 shawls per month, work at the mill temporary halted in December 1876, thanks in part to an American interest in long coats that reduced demand for the woolen shawls made popular during the Civil War. The Home Woolen Company remained in operaFon unFl July of 1887. In 1986, is was to apartments. Beacon Mill Village is a shining example of adapFve reuse.
  36. 36. Lambert Hitchcock (1795-1852) is famous for mass-producing and mass-markeFng the Hitchcock chair. In 1818, he opened a furniture factory on the Farmington River in a village then called Hitchcocksville. Hitchcock mass-produced simple, affordable chairs. Instead of painFng designs on the backs, he used the new and faster technique of stenciling. By the late 1820s, the Hitchcock Chair Company was producing over 15,000 chairs a year. About 1826, Hitchcock built this three-story brick factory. In 1830, it was one of the largest mill buildings in ConnecFcut – a harbinger of a coming wave. The business did not survive past the 1850s. A century later John Kenney came upon the abandoned factory and, with markeFng support from the G. Fox department store in Harrord started a new Hitchcock Chair Company in the same locaFon. That business lasted unFl 2004. In the spring of 2010, Rick Swenson purchased the Hitchcock name, plans, and artwork and is again making a go of it there. Hitchcock Chair Factory, Riverton 13 Rivertown Rd.. Riverton (Barkhampsted), CT Drive by landmark– retail chair factory and showroom, public access
  37. 37. Jocelyn Firearms / Atwood Machine Co Factory, Stonington 32 Water St, Stonington, CT Drive by landmark– no public access In 1851, John F. Trumbull set his granite factory building on Stonington harbor. The building was leased first to a maker of horseshoe nails, then to a fabricator of trinkets for the South Seas trade. But its most notable early tenant was the Joslyn Fire Arms Company, named for Benjamin F. Joslyn, of Worcester, and incorporated locally. During the Civil War, it manufactured 16,500 breechloading carbines, most of which were used by Union cavalry. It closed soon aeer the war. Later the building had a series of short term tenants unFl the arrival in 1876 of the Atwood Machine Company. The Atwood Machine Company was founded by mechanical geniuses, John E. Atwood and his son Eugene, who invented advanced machinery for making silk thread. They moved to Stonington and remained there for seventy years. The company prospered, sepng up offices in New York and selling its machines around the world. What’s lee of the building is today occupied by the La Grua Center a venue for educaFon, the arts, celebraFons, meeFngs and other acFviFes.
  38. 38. Lock Museum of America, Terryville 240 Terryville Rd, Terryville (Plymouth), CT Open May-October, Tuesday-Friday 1:30-4pm & weekends by appointment 860-480-4408 The Lock Museum houses an extensive collecFon that includes a Cannon Ball Safe, 30 early era Fme locks, Safe Escutcheon Plates, Door Locks, Padlocks, Handcuffs and Keys, and more. Located in Terryville, the museum is directly across from the original site of the Eagle Lock Company, founded in 1854. The Eagle Lock room contains over 1,000 locks and keys manufactured from 1854 to 1954. The Corbin-Russwin room (New Britain and Berlin) contains a large display of ornate hardware. A large display of mounted door knobs and escutcheons made by ConnecFcut firms are extensively detailed in styles such as Roman, Greek, French and Italian Renaissance, Gothic, Flemish, and Elizabethan English. The Yale Room features locks manufactured by the Stamford-based company from 1860 to 1950. One of the agracFons here is the original patent model of the MorFse Cylinder Pin Tumbler Lock designed by Linus Yale Jr., in 1865. This device is considered the greatest invenFon in the history of lockmaking. In this fine specialty museum the evidence is overwhelming. ConnecFcut was an internaFonal powerhouse in the lock industry.
  39. 39. Ma^atuck Museum, "Coming Home" Gallery, Waterbury 144 West Main St. Waterbury, CT Open Tuesday-Saturday 10-5, Sunday 12-5 "Coming Home: Building Community in a Changing World," the Magautuck Museum’s primary civic history installaFon is like a machine that manufactures ciFzenship and civic engagement. It’s inspired by the fundamental value of what history is good for and how necessary it is to our collecFve ongoing struggle to make our industrial age ciFes work in for the post-industrial age. Aside from the content and interacFves - the greatest joy about "Coming Home" is that it is overflowing with GREAT stuff. Machines, furniture, ceramics, painFngs, tools, local industrial products, ephemera – everything from teletubby dolls to locally-made firearms and furniture. "Coming Home" presents some powerful and controversial subjects; including horrifying staFsFcs about accidents and loss of fingers and limbs in industrial accidents. It is rich in products and machinery from Watertbury’s industrial age – bugons, Chase brass, Scovill Manufacturing, machines and machine process.
  40. 40. Meriden Historical Society’s Andrews Homestead Museum 424 West Main Street, Open Sundays from May and October 12-4pm or by appointment - 203-639-1913 Chock full of items from Meriden’s past, this museum presents and preserves one of the most important collecFons of locally- made industrial products in ConnecFcut - Meriden produced art objects – pewter, silver, lamps, household utensils, brass furniture, toy banks, firearms, and decoraFve goods. For a century, several of the most famous names in American anFques and decoraFve arts – notably Handel Lamps, Meriden Britannia, Bradley & Hubbard and the Charles Parker Co. produced art goods in Meriden. In 1898, the InternaFonal Silver Co. was formed through the consolidaFon of about a dozen ConnecFcut- based electroplated silver manufacturers. It became the largest producer in the industry internaFonally. In 1984, as the descendant company was going out of business, they donated their corporate collecFon – a remarkable treasure – to the historical society – making it one of the best industrial products displays in the state. Meriden’s dominance in silverplate, originated when pewterer Ashbil Griswold set up shop there in 1807. His work is found here and in some of the leading museums in the country. The museum’s display of these industrial products is wide-ranging and deep.
  41. 41. Museum of Connec,cut History, HarJord 231 Capitol Ave, Harrord. CT Open Monday-Friday 9-4, Saturday 9-2 ConnecFcut's important role in the story of American industry and manufacturing is a major focus of the museum collecFons. ConnecFcut was known for the precision manufacturing of firearms, clocks, hardware and tools. Examples of the products of ConnecFcut inventors and manufacturers such as Whitney, Colt, Terry, Winchester, Stanley and others are highlighted. "ConnecFcut CollecFons" also includes more recently made ConnecFcut products. The Colt Firemarms Mfg CollecFon (donated in 1957) is the largest and most comprehensive in the state – possibly the naFon. In the annals of the history of American firearms development, no name is more recognizable than that of Colonel Samuel Colt (1814-1862). Colt's genius in both invenFon and markeFng helped made ConnecFcut a major center for firearms and precision manufacturing. The collecFon includes Colt-made Gatling guns, shotguns and automaFc weapons. In 1995 the original "Rampant Colt" statue from 1855 was acquired by the museum. It is a "must-see" for both firearms enthusiasts and students of American history.
  42. 42. Na,onal Wire Ma^ress / Russell Erwin, New Britain Corner of High Street & Columbus Boulevard, near the New Britain Public Library Drive by landmark– no public access Here is where the Russell & Erwin and NaFonal Wire Magress Companies stood. The Wire Magress building was erected in the 1880s, the building later housed a company that made ball bearings. New Britain’s idenFty as “the Hardware City” owes to the presence of the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Co. (1851-1902) .Their award-winning hinges, door knobs, latches and locks – captured and internaFonal market and were known – especially in the 1870s through 90s, for arFsFc exuberance. Founded by H.E. Russell and Cornelius B. Erwin, in addiFon to hardware, they made kitchen items including food choppers and muffin pans. By 1895, Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company was “the largest hardware manufacturing company in the world” In 1902, the company merged with the P&F Corbin Company to form the American Hardware Company, which eventually became part of Black & Decker. The NaFonal Wire Magress Co., organized in 1872, adverFsed as the “best spring magress in the world” and “the best bed on earth.” Their products were distributed naFonally.
  43. 43. North Grosvenordale Mill District, Thompson 920 River St. North Grosvenordale (Thompson), CT Drive by landmark– no public access The North Grosvenordale Mill Historic District developed around The Grosvenor Dale Company. It consists of more than 100 houses and other mill-related structures surrounding a large former texFle mill. The district extends northward along the French River, including a mill dam, a large headgate structure, a church, and a canal that carried water to power the mill. The North Grosvenordale Mill, known as Mill No. 2, was built in 1872. It is four stories tall and measures a giganFc 464' x 75’. In 1864, William Grosvenor, a Rhode Island physician and investor, purchased two small texFle mills and associated water privileges along the French River in Thompson. He built large new mills at each site, starFng in 1868. The North Grosvenordale Mill ran 65,000 spindles and employed 850 people in 1882. Employment increased to 1,122 in 1890 and 1,750 in 1900. By concentraFng on high-value goods, the mill's producFvity and employment steadily increased. The Depression of the 1930s was a serious blow; the company reduced workers' wages and, in 1938, sold most of its houses. It limped along under different ownership unFl 1954. Today light industrial and warehousing businesses occupy the buildings. From the beginning the majority of the workers were French Canadians.
  44. 44. New Britain Industrial Museum 185 Main St. (CCSU Building), 1st floor, New Britain, CT Open Tuesday, Thursday, Friday: 2pm-5pm, Wednesday: 12pm-5pm Saturday: 10am-4pm The New Britain Industrial Museum was founded (1990s) on the premise that a museum dedicated to New Britain’s accomplishments could “generate civic pride and inspiraFon and serve as an economic beacon for future industrial development and tourism.” They have now built one of the premiere collecFons of ConnecFcut industrial products and history – largely by concentraFng on New Britain’s contribuFons. The collecFons include products and memorabilia from: The Stanley Works - Organized as a joint stock company in 1857, Stanley Rule & Level; Landers, Frary & Clark (Universal) - incorporated in 1862. Frary & Clark manufactured products to make life easier for the American housewife including food scales, coffee grinders, cake mixers, bread makers, coffee pots and percolators along with tableware of every descripFon. The American Hardware CorporaFon was formed in 1902 as a holding company for the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Company and P. & F. Corbin; North & Judd - in 1812 a company was started by Alvin North, H.C. Whipple and Seth North to make plated wire and arFcles from that wire such as hooks and eyes. They became prominent in the manufacture of saddlery and harness hardware including bits and spurs.
  45. 45. New England Air Museum, Windsor Locks 36 Perimeter Rd, Windsor Locks, CT Open 10-5, Tuesday-Sunday Founded as the ConnecFcut AeronauFcal Historical Society in 1959, the Museum has been at its present locaFon since 1981.Today, the Museum houses one of the world's most outstanding collecFons of historic aviaFon arFfacts: more than 80 aircrae and an extensive collecFon of engines, instruments, aircrae parts, uniforms and personal memorabilia – including the last remaining four-engine Sikorsky VS-44A, the Bunce-CurFss Pusher (1912), the oldest surviving ConnecFcut-built airplane; the Sikorsky S-39, the oldest surviving Sikorsky aircrae; and a Kaman K-225 helicopter, the oldest surviving Kaman-built aircrae. Exhibits and collecFons relevant to the ConnecFcut industrial story include Pra^ & Whitney - Innovators Who Changed Our World – the inspiring story of how a handful of entrepreneurs and engineers moved to ConnecFcut and founded Prag & Whitney, one the world’s greatest aerospace companies. The Igor Sikorsky Memorial Exhibit is a comprehensive tribute to the great aviaFon pioneer who started his aviaFon work in Czarist Russia and then in the United States with the development of amphibians and flying boats, culminaFng with his design and building the world’s first pracFcal helicopter.
  46. 46. Ponemah Mill, Tacville 160 Taeville-Occum Rd, Norwich, CT Drive by landmark with signage and interpretaFon The Taeville Cogon Mill, was built on the Shetucket River at a spot where a large dam could be built to provide power. The large mill building (Building No. 1, 1866)), was one of the largest weave-sheds, 750’ x 74’, under one roof at that Fme. It was completed in 1875. It closed in 1972, one of the last great New England mills to shut down. The name “Ponemah” was taken from HW Longfellow’s Poem, Song of Hiawatha meaning “our hope.” The mill owners built a village to house their workers, naming it Taeville aeer the principal investors, Edward and Cyrus Tae of Providence. At its peak the Ponemah Mill employed 1600 workers and produced over 20 million yards of cloth a year. They were the first importers and users of EgypFan cogon in the United States, and the first mills in this country to manufacture fine fabrics. A developer is presently involved in a planned $26.6 million adapFve reuse renovaFon. The Loes at Ponemah Mill, owned by Ponemah Riverbank LLC, will receive grants and loans to rehabilitate the historic Ponemah Mill complex. This Second Empire style “cathedral of industry” is one of the most impressive landmarks from the industrial age anywhere in America. Its scenic allure make it a compelling stop on the industrial heritage trail.
  47. 47. The Portland Brownstone Quarries, a NaFonal Historic Landmarks, were an important source for stonework used from New York to Maine and beyond during the “Brown Decades” (1865-95) in fashionable high-end building construcFon. Stone from these quarries was used in a number of landmark buildings in Chicago, Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, New Haven, ConnecFcut, and Harrord, ConnecFcut. Quarrying on this site began in 1690 by James Stanclie. Used for foundaFons and gravestones, it was one of ConncFcut’s early export industries – known in Boston as “ConnecFcut Stone.” Commercial quarrying started in 1783 when the Brainerd Quarry Company began operaFons. During the peak of the brownstone era, more than 1500 workers were employed by the quarries, which shipped stone on their own ships. Proceeds from the quarrying business were deeded to Wesleyan University from 1833 through 1884, and stone from the quarries was used to build many campus buildings. A flood in 1936 and a hurricane in 1938 flooded the quarries, ending their operaFons. The quarries have been leased for development as a recreaFon center operated by Brownstone ExploraFon & Discovery Park. Over the years the park has gradually expanded its agracFons to include scuba diving, climbing and rappelling, swimming, snorkeling, canoeing and kayaking, wake boarding, cliff jumping, and giant inflatable toys. Portland Brownstone Quarries / Brownstone Explora,on & Discovery Park 161 Brownstone Ave. Portland, CT Drive by landmark to view or experience
  48. 48. The Remington Shot Tower (1909) stands today as a looming symbol of a once dominant industry. In 1782, a BriFsh plumber discovered that the key to producing perfectly round shots was to drop molten lead from a great height. The surface tension pulls them into a sphere. Shot towers began to spring up when we could no longer import shot from Europe. Remington Arms Company was founded in 1816 in Ilion, New York, as E. Remington and Sons. Remington is America's oldest gun maker. In 1888, ownership of E. Remington & Sons was sold to Hartley and Graham of New York a major sporFng goods chain who also owned the Union Metallic Cartridge Company in Bridgeport, ConnecFcut, and the Winchester RepeaFng Arms Company of New Haven, ConnecFcut. At this Fme the name was formally changed to the Remington Arms Company. The Bridgeport site became the home of Remington's ammuniFon plant. Remington Arms gave up on its Bridgeport complex in the mid-1980s. Subsequent owners used it for manufacturing and also leased parts to a variety of small enterprises. Remington Shot Tower, Bridgeport 914 ArcFc Street, Bridgeport, CT Drive by landmark– no public access
  49. 49. Sharp’s Mill / Ocean Pearl Bu^on factory, Willington 212 Luchon Rd, Willington, CT Drive by landmark– no public access Built at the site of am 1812 grist mill, operated by Albert Sharp and his father, it 1895 it was purchased by William Masinda. Who was part of a substanFal Czech and Hungarian migraFon, known as the great Bohemian land swindle. Hoping to acquire working farms cheap they made do by introducing shell bugon making technology from the old country to the northeast ConnecFcut as a cogage industry. Masinda conFnued operaFng the saw, shingle, and grist mill along with the bugon shop unFl it was destroyed by fire in 1907. He was quick to replace the mill with a smaller one-story bugon mill. During reconstrucFon, the mill was converted to the more efficient turbine source of power and conFnued to operate as the Ocean Pearl Bugon factory unFl 1938. Pearls were shipped from Australia, transferred by rail and then to the mill by a horse drawn wagon. The bugon shop survives largely intact with its equipment, bugon spoil, pond, dam, and turbine. It is in the process of restoraFon for public access as a working turn-of-the-century shop.
  50. 50. Stanley Steam Plant & Factory, New Britain 78 CurFs St. New Britain Drive by landmark– no public access From the Stanley Steam Plant on CurFs Street you can see Stanley factory complex strung along Myrtle St. This steam house provided steam heat for the factories. From here, the famous Stanley yard goat moved goods and cars around the Stanley campus. The company, known for over a century as Stanley Works, got its start as two separate companies. Frederick Stanley’s (1802 –1883) established Stanley's Bolt Manufactory in 1843 which expanded into forging other types of hardware such as hooks and hinges. In 1854, Stanley hired 19-year-old William Hart, a visionary who designed new machinery and invented the process for cold rolling steel. By 1919, the company’s sales had grown from $7,000 a year to $11.3 million. In 1920 this company was merged with Stanley Rule and Level Company founded by Frederick’s cousin Henry Stanley in 1857 to make levels, squares and the famous Bailey Plane. By 1900, it was the largest manufacturer of planes and tools in America. Stanley today remains one of the world's most recognized brands. In the twenFeth century Stanley Works negoFated its way through the era of corporate consolidaFons and mergers and in 2010 merged with hardware giant Black & Decker . They sFll manufacture a few tool lines in New Britain.
  51. 51. Strouse, Adler Corset Factory, New Haven 84 Olive St. New Haven Drive by landmark– no public access The first corset manufacturer in the U.S., the Strouse, Adler Company, were the exclusive makers of “Dr. Scog's Electric Corsets,” which promised to cure nervousness. The company made corsets—and later, girdles—from the late 1800s unFl it ceased operaFons in 1999. Corsets, and the layers of clothes worn over and under them, were a marker of class status in the mid-19th century. Bavarian Jews Max Adler and Isaac Strouse became leaders of New Haven’s corset industry. In 1866 Strouse established the first corset factory in the United States. This led to the Strouse, Adler Company Corset Factory housed in buildings on Olive Street and later known as Smoothie FoundaFon Garments. Toward the end of the 19th century, the factory employed nearly 2,000 people, churning out corsets that promised females 18-inch waists and hourglass figures. In 2001, the building was converted into luxury apartments.
  52. 52. The Strong Manufacturing Co was formed in 1866.. The original stockholders were William L. Gilbert, David Strong, Clark Strong, Joseph Norton and others. The first president was William L. Gilbert. They manufactured burial robes and casket linings, selling goods to undertakers. Many of the arFcles were of great beauty. With their silver-plated coffin handles the designers art vied with the plater’s in producing elaborate elegant arFcles. When President Grant died in 1885, the casket handles, solid silver and the name plate of solid gold were furnished by this company. It also supplied the handles and plate for the caskets of President Harrison and Cornelius Vanderbilt. The company is situated in the heart of the business district. When the company was first organized, it occupied a small wooden building, but in 1873 a new brick factory was buit, then added to in 1886 to become one of the most substanFal of Winsted’s factories. There were many establishments in the country which made coffin trimmings, but the Strong Mf’g Co was the largest and best known. Although the business is long gone, this second empire building at the center of town is being rehabbed for mixed use. Strong Manufacturing Co., Winsted 95 Main St, Winsted, CT Drive by landmark– no public access
  53. 53. Talco^ Brother Woolen Mill and Historic trail, Vernon 47 Main St. Talcogvillee (Vernon) CT Interpreted trail – accessible every day A project of the Vernon Historical Society, The Talcogville Historic District encompasses a 19th-century mill village, including archaeological remnants of very early cogon- spinning faciliFes, an old stone dam, and a major wood-frame mill constructed by the Talcog brothers. Also included in the village are a significant number of mill worker housing units, many daFng to the middle decades of the 19th century, and an 1891 lenFcular pony truss bridge, built by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company. Its walkable, well- signed and interpreted and beauFful. The largest building is the Talcog Brothers Mill, 1870, at 47 Main Street. The District appears today much as it did in the first half of the twenFeth century when the Talcog Brothers Company produced fine woolens. Talcogville is an excepFonally well-preserved example of a nineteenth century factory village.
  54. 54. Torrington Historical Society 192 Main St. Torrington, CT Open April 15-October 31 Wedn.- Saturday 12-4 pm Significant industrial growth began in Torrington to in 1813 when Frederick Wolcog erected a woolen mill. In 1834 Israel Coe and Erastus Hodges began the construcFon of rival brass mills. This was the beginning of the brass industry in Torrington, an industry that became synonymous with the enFre Naugatuck valley. One of the most significant collecFons at the Society is the Manufacturing History CollecJon mostly items manufactured in Torrington from the early 19th century to the present, including products made at industries such as the Coe Brass Company, the Torrington Company, Union Hardware Company, Hendey Machine Company and the Warrenton Woolen Mill. Locally made brass kegles, wooden-works clocks, a reed organ made at the Arvid Dayton factory, needles, bicycles, machinery, tools, woolen cloth, ice and roller skates, household appliances and sporFng goods are featured in state- of-the-art galleries; thanks to Gertrude Hotchkiss who, in 1956, lee her Hotchkiss-Fyler House and estate to the then-fledgling Historical Society.
  55. 55. United States Rubber Co., Naugatuck 6 Rubber Ave Drive by landmark– no public access The United States Rubber Company (Uniroyal) was founded in Naugatuck in 1892. By 1892, there were many rubber manufacturing companies in Naugatuck, ConnecFcut, as well as elsewhere in ConnecFcut. Nine companies consolidated their operaFons in Naugatuck to become the United States Rubber Company. From 1892 to 1913, the rubber footwear divisions of U.S. Rubber manufactured their products under 30 different brand names, including the Wales-Goodyear Shoe Co. The company consolidated these footwear brands under one name, Keds, in 1916, and were mass-marketed as the first flexible rubber-sole with canvas-top "sneakers" in 1917. U.S. Rubber also produced Naugahyde in a Naugatuck factory. The normally peaceful Naugatuck River that flows through Naugatuck overflowed its banks on August 19, 1955. The river cut a path of destrucFon that forever changed the face of Naugatuck.As American manufacturing declined in the late 20th century, the mills closed and the town fell on largely hard Fmes. In 1990, Uniroyal was acquired by French Fre maker Michelin and ceased to exist as a separate business.
  56. 56. Up-Down Sawmill, Ledyard 172 Iron St. (Route 214), Ledyard, CT Open, April & May / October & November, Saturdays, 1-4pm & by apt - 860-464-8740 The historic Up-Down Sawmill is the original water-powered sash sawmill located on the original site on Lee’s Brook in Ledyard. Restored to operaFng condiFon in the 1970s, the mill is open to the public for water powered sawing demonstraFons. It is is one of the few remaining examples in North America of a 19th century sash sawmill. It was first operated by Israel Brown in the 1870s old- fashioned when it was new. By that Fme most of the old style up-and-down sawmills had been replaced by the newer, more efficient circular saw technology. It provides a glimpse into the last days of an old technology that was an important part of the growth of the European colonies in North America and in the young United States. Most of ConnecFcut’s mills are located on sites originally power by water. This represents the age of mills and manufacturing at its most embryonic.
  57. 57. Wallace Silversmiths, Wallingford 328 Quinnipiac St. Wallingford Drive by landmark– no public access The founder of Wallace Silversmiths, Robert Wallace, immigrated from Scotland in the late 18th century. At the age of 16 he became an apprenFce to Captain William Mix, a renowned spoon maker. In 1833 he bought a dilapidated gristmill, and began to produce his own cutlery. IniFally, Wallace did contract work, producing cutlery for a number of firms. In 1875, Wallace introduced the first three sterling pagerns to feature the esteemed Wallace name - Hawthorne, The Crown, and St. Leon. Over the next century, the company conFnued to grow. Wallace and Sons Mfg. Co. invested heavily in new machinery and skilled arFsans. It grew to be the largest manufacturer of flat tableware in the world. On April 1, 1987, Wallace Silversmiths' corporate headquarters were moved from ConnecFcut. The company conFnues to design sterling, silverplate, and stainless steel flatware. This building was the corporate offices. Nearby are several of the producFon faciliFes – repurposed for 21st century needs.
  58. 58. Wauregan Co^on Mills, Plainfield 55 South Walnut St. Wauregan (Plainfield), CT Drive by landmark– no public access In 1850, Amos D. Lockwood, bought the water privileges and surrounding land and Wauregan Mills Company was born. James S. Atwood was hired as superintendent, responsible for sepng up machinery and starFng producFon. The principal product of Wauregan was cogon sheeFng and flannel. Atwood developed a "model hamlet" where his factory's employees "could find agracFve and comfortable homes near their daily tasks." The mill expanded, workers' houses were built, and ameniFes added including 104 company-owned buildings, railroad staFon, a post office, and a company store. Another building housed a firehouse, clubhouse, jail, reading room and library. The mill's labor force was around 750 people. The mill would eventually reach a capacity of 56,616 spindles and 1,464 looms, with an annual output of eleven million yards. Aeer World War II, Wauregan Mills entered a period of decline. In August 1955, Hurricanes Connie and Diane caused many dams along the Quinebaug River to break. The mill was flooded. Workers tried to salvage as much cloth, raw materials and machinery as they could. In 1957, Atwood’s grandson James III, closed it down. Today it is a NaFonal Register Historic District.
  59. 59. Whi,ng Mills & American Mural Project Campus, Winsted, Connec,cut 100 WhiFng St., Winsted, CT Mixed Use Mill – Open for 3rd Sunday Mill & Mural Open House. Tours & Programs – otherwise by appointment or drop in as arFsts and vendors make available. The Winsted Hosiery Company complex is the site of WhiFng Mills, a mixed use mill and art project. Founded in 1882, by 1936, the company was the largest hosiery manufacturer in ConnecFcut. The company made wool and wool/cogon blend hosiery, underwear and sweaters with carding, spinning and weaving operaFon on one site. It was founded by Winsted industrialist William L. Gilbert (1806-90), who had his hand in everything around town. It closed in 1865. In 2004, WhiFng Mills, opened as a mixed- use mill building - home to a variety of arFsts, craespeople, retail shops, small manufacturing companies, and a center for arFsFc, community, and social events. Their semi- annual Open Studio events are a desFnaFon experience. Part of the site will be the future home of the American Mural Project, currently projected to open in 2017. There is already much to experience and see of this enormous mural homage to American work and labor.
  60. 60. Winchester Historical Society’s Solomon Rockwell House, Winsted 225 Prospect St., Winsted, CT Open Sundays, May-October, 1-4pm or by appointment 860-379-8433 The Solomon Rockwell House (1813) of the Winchester Historical Society preserves and presents an outstanding collecFon of local art, arFfacts, family furnishings and an expansive collecFon of products represenFng the town’s various industries. The clock industry was a mainstay from the arrival of Riley WhiFng about 1808 to the final closing the William C. Gilbert Co in the 1960s. Other local industries and products include: American Hoe Co. Thayer Scythe Co, Garter & Baker Machine Co., Winsted Hosiery, Hudson Wire, Union Pin Co., Empire Knife Co., Waring Blender, Ryko, Capital Products, and Fitzgerald’s Magic Maid. William L. Gilbert was one of the foremost clockmakers of 19th-century ConnecFcut. Gilbert’s first company was founded in 1828. A decade later, Gilbert was in business with Chauncey Jerome, one of the most iconic figures in American clockmaking.
  61. 61. Windham Tex,le & History Museum / Williman,c Linen Factory 411 Main St. WillimanFc, CT Open Fri, Sat & Sun 10 -4 The Windham TexFle Museum tells the story of the rise and fall of the texFle industry in WillimanFc and eastern ConnecFcut. The museum occupies the former headquarters, library and meeFng hall of the American Thread Company’s once-giant WillimanFc Mills, across the street. Founded in 1854, as the WillimanFc Linen Company, at its height the WillimanFc Mills was the largest thread mill in North America. Its massive buildings included the iconic Mill Number Four. The company manufactured the first thread specifically designed for sewing machines, and the thread in U. S. army uniforms, NASA spacesuits, and major league baseballs. The city of WillimanFc boomed as America’s Thread City. Tens of thousands of people came from around the world to work in the mills, and to raise their families in the hills of New England. There is no beger spot to reflect and absorb the story of the great era of texFle manufacturing in eastern ConnecFcut. Alas, in 1985, life in WillimanFc, ConnecFcut changed forever. The American Thread Company closed its WillimanFc Mills plant and shieed operaFons to North Carolina.
  62. 62. Yan,c Falls Historic District, Norwich 255 YanFc St. Norwich, CT Drive by landmark– no public access At YanFc Falls there are a series of mills, the oldest one is built of stone c. 1837 as a paper mill. Manufacturing began in 1813 with a factory that cut nails with a newly invented machine. In 1826, the Quinebaug Company was chartered to manufacture cogon and woolen goods. These producFve days conFnued unFl 1837 when many businesses failed in the financial crash that affected the enFre country that year. The Quinebaug Company became the Shetucket Mills, then the AtlanFc Carton Company, and the Thames Manufacturing Company became the Falls Mills. Co. The buildings were expanded as the new companies prospered. As it grew, it purchased rights and privileges in the neighborhood so that by the 1860's it was able to control nearly the enFre waterpower of the YanFc River. For a Fme in recent years, the mill buildings were vacant and falling into disrepair. They are now occupied by the Falls CorporaFon and the Instruteck CorporaFon
  63. 63. Yale and Towne Lock Co,, Stamford 220 Henry St. Stamford, CT Drive by landmark– no public access Stamford, once known as the Lock City, was home to the Yale Lock Manufacturing Co. In 1861, Linus Yale invented the pin tumbler lock. Yale was an inventor and manufacturer of bank locks eager to expand his small business when Henry R. Towne, an engineer, took an interest and saw the potenFal for an important new industry. Yale’s five-pin tumbler lock was compact, offered many combinaFon variaFons, was virtually pick-proof, and had a lightweight key. When Yale died in 1868, Towne pressed ahead and the factory that opened in 1869. In 1883 he renamed it the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company and was company president unFl 1915. The city's largest single employer, Yale & Towne dominated Stamford's economy within 25 years of its establishment and conFnued to do so unFl it departed in the 1950s. In the twenFeth century the company expanded worldwide through purchases, acquisiFons and joint ventures. It employed more than 12,000 people. Today Yale is one of the oldest internaFonal brands and remains as a division of Assa Abloy.

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