Rethinking Accessibility: Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0 - CSUN 2017

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Bill Tyler's presentation of a RACI model applied to WCAG 2.0 success criteria. Presented at 2017 CSUN Assistive Technology Conference

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Rethinking Accessibility: Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0 - CSUN 2017

  1. 1. CSUN 2017, San Diego Bill Tyler March 2, 2017 Rethinking Accessibility: Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0
  2. 2. My Experience 30+ yrs. of UI/UX Design & Development 12+ yrs. in medical devices 15+ yrs. in plans & providers 2X dot-com survivor Started Web 1996 Started Accessibility 2002 Materials Presented 3+ yrs. of ongoing accessibility research & analysis at Optum Technology Background 2
  3. 3. The Problem 3
  4. 4. No one thinks about accessibility … EXCEPT the accessibility expert Accessibility testing comes at END of development …and LONG after other design decisions are made All issues found are directed to DEVELOPERS to fix …with help from accessibility expert Final Result: “Sort of” Accessible Result The Problem: The Usual Approach to Accessibility 4
  5. 5. 5 Typical Development Sequence (by Role) Add A11y Here QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner
  6. 6. 6 There’s something very wrong with this picture Add A11y Here QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner
  7. 7. The Assumptions 7
  8. 8. The Assumptions are: Developers… …code accessibility… using “accessibility-specific” Knowledge. 8
  9. 9. Questioning the Assumptions 9
  10. 10. Three Questions for Each Success Criterion Who? developer When? coding 10
  11. 11. Who? 11
  12. 12. Testing Roles 12
  13. 13. Decision Making Roles • Standard agile role • Project initiator • Requirements definer • Result approver • Business liaison • Requirement author • Wireframe creator • UX / Usability expert • Presentation owner • Style expert • Layout creator • Design enforcer • Style guide author • Design comp artist • Image file producer • Author of All Text “Large & Small” Large: sections Small: words • Content proofreader • Includes time- based media • Script writer • Audio & video file creator • Front-End Programmer • Last stop before testing • Primary target for all defects 13
  14. 14. Of a like mind… 14 Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown • Denis Boudreau / W3C / WAI-Engage Community, April 2012 Source: http://www.w3.org/community/wai-engage/wiki/Accessibility_Responsibility_Breakdown – 12 Roles Interactive WCAG 2.0 • Jeremy Fields / Viget, January 2015 Source: http://code.viget.com/interactive-wcag/ – 5 Roles Accessibility is Everyone’s Job: A Role-Based Model for Teams • Mark Palmer / Simply Accessible, June 2016 Source: http://simplyaccessible.com/article/role-based-a11y – 6 Roles
  15. 15. Differences in our approach 15 Decision Ownership • Roles not just identified as part of process RACI Model Levels • Levels of ownership based on impact to deliverable Additional Analysis • Examined (much) more than just ownership (or phases) Actionable • Apply to enterprise distribution of work and responsibility
  16. 16. RACI (RASCI) Modeling Responsible – Owns the issueR Accountable – to Responsible “owner”A Supportive – but not accountableS Consulted – to address issueC Informed – of results, but not consultedI 16 Source: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_raci.html
  17. 17. Role Ownership Model Primary – Individual role with “final approval”P Secondary – actively involved in decisionS Contributor – affect, but not deeply involvedC 17
  18. 18. Example: SC1.4.1 Use of Color Visual Designer Interaction Designer Business Owner 18
  19. 19. Is it the Developer? Who? 19
  20. 20. No. 20
  21. 21. 21 Primary Success Criteria Ownership IX Designer: 37% (14) Content Author: 24% (9) Developer: 21% (8) Vx Designer: 16% (6) Business Owner: 3% (1) Observations Developers only own 1 in 5 criteria Developers are third in ownership Need to work with other roles
  22. 22. When? 22
  23. 23. Software Design Lifecycle Entry Points Code (front-end development: HTML, CSS, JavaScript) Content (text, terminology, and includes video & audio) Design Comps (page or feature final presentation) Style Guides (site presentation, branding, colors, logos) Wireframes (structure of page, interface, interactions) User Story / Standard Requirements 23
  24. 24. Of a like mind… 24 Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown • Government of Canada, April 2014 Source: https://wet-boew.github.io/themes-dist/GCWeb/demos/arb-rra/arb-rra-en.html – 7 “Production Phases” As with roles, we went further and added levels • Levels based upon expected frequency
  25. 25. Entry Point Level Model Primary – single, most significant (typical) entry pointP Secondary – other significant entry pointsS Impact – other minor sources of design inputI 25
  26. 26. When? 26 Is it Code?
  27. 27. No. 27
  28. 28. 28 Primary Success Criteria Entry Points Wireframes: 50% (19) User Story/Std. Req.: 24% (9) Style Guides: 18% (7) Code: 5% (2) Content: 2% (1) Design Comps: “0%” Observations 95% of decisions come before code Half are defined in wireframes A quarter are in user stories Nearly a fifth in style guide
  29. 29. What? 29
  30. 30. Three Criteria Types 30
  31. 31. What? 31 Is it Accessibility?
  32. 32. No. 32
  33. 33. 33 Success Criteria Types Best Practices: 53% (20) Primarily A11y: 39% (15) User Stories: 8% (3) Observations • Over half of decisions are best practices roles should already know • Accessibility training could focus on topics they don’t
  34. 34. Examples 34
  35. 35. Example (of what NOT to do): “Press the green button on the right.” Notes: • Rare instance of single owner, no secondary owner or contributor • Example of a “Never” event SC1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics 35
  36. 36. Example: “Session times out in 5 minutes. Continue? Yes / No” Notes: • Business Owner’s only primary ownership criterion • Rare Standard Requirement case SC2.2.1 Timing Adjustable 36
  37. 37. Example: Search, Site Map, Breadcrumbs, Top-nav, In-page links Notes: • One of several Interaction Designer-only primary criteria SC2.4.5 Multiple Ways 37
  38. 38. (Questionable) Example: “Blue on ‘light’ blue” Notes: • One of several Visual Designer primary ownership crits • Visual Designer has no secondary ownership SC1.4.3 Color Contrast (Minimum) 38
  39. 39. (Bad) Example: “Missing alt attribute in <img>” Notes: • Code reviews should already include code validation SC4.1.1 Parsing 39
  40. 40. Changes 40
  41. 41. Opportunities to improve efficiency and quality for both new and existing sites Involvement should be early in the design process • Includes project intake • For more: Success Criteria Dependencies & Prioritization: Implication & Use Sean Kelly, Bill Tyler 3:20PM Old Town AB Distribute and assign ownership (resolution) to other roles All roles should have training tailored to their role Checklists for reviewing all design deliverables before sign-off Changes: General 41
  42. 42. Distribute most common issue remediation to roles • Agile teams become more self-sufficient • Design roles make better decisions preventing issues at the start • Trained team members can identify and return issues at earlier steps • Train QA to do basic a11y testing Accessibility SME can focus on difficult issues that require their expertise Net Result: Reduce the total number of accessibility SMEs across the enterprise • Important for organizations with hundreds of sites Changes: Accessibility Role 42
  43. 43. Integrate accessibility early in the design process Distribute accessibility ownership to key decision makers Targeted, role-based training • Refresher on existing best practices • Accessibility training only on topics they own or impact Changes: New Projects 43
  44. 44. 44 New Approach for New Projects QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner ADD A11Y HERE
  45. 45. As with new projects, all roles should have targeted role- based training As issues are found they should be directed to the correct role owner, not simply the developer • Issues directed to specific roles will demonstrate how previous decisions impacted accessibility Changes: Triage of Existing Sites 45
  46. 46. 46 New Approach for Triage Projects QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner ADDRESS A11Y HERE
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Contact information: Thank you. Bill Tyler Sr. Digital Accessibility Engineer btyler@optum.com @billtyler 48

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