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Accessibility by Design
Indiana University, Bloomington Indiana, May 8, 2018
Bill Tyler
Sr. Digital Accessibility Engineer...
My Experience
30+ yrs. of UI/UX Design & Development
12+ yrs. in medical devices
2X dot-com survivor
16+ yrs. in plans & p...
The
Problem
3
No one thinks about accessibility
… EXCEPT the a11y expert
Accessibility comes at END of development
…by TESTING done by t...
5
Typical Development Sequence (by Role)
Add
A11y
Here
6
There’s something very wrong with this picture
Add
A11y
Here
The
Assumptions
7
The Assumptions are:
Developers…
…code accessibility…
using “accessibility-specific”
knowledge.
8
Questioning the
Assumptions
9
Three Questions for Each Success Criterion
Who?
developer
When?
coding
10
Who?
11
Testing Roles
12
Decision Making Roles
• Standard
agile role
• Project
initiator
• Requirements
definer
• Result
approver
• Business
liaiso...
Of a like mind…
14
Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown
• Denis Boudreau / W3C / WAI-Engage Community, April 2012
Source...
Differences in our approach
15
Decision Ownership
• Roles not just identified as part of process
RACI Model Levels
• Level...
RACI (RASCI) Modeling
Responsible – Owns the issueR
Accountable – to Responsible “owner”A
Supportive – but not accountable...
Role Ownership Model
Primary – Individual role with “final approval”P
Secondary – actively involved in decisionS
Contribut...
Example: SC1.4.1 Use of Color
Visual Designer Interaction Designer Business Owner
18
Is it really the Developer?
Who?
19
No.
20
21
Primary Success Criteria Ownership
IX Designer: 37% (14)
Content Author: 24% (9)
Developer: 21% (8)
Vx Designer: 16% (6...
When?
22
Software Design Lifecycle Entry Points
Code (front-end development: HTML, CSS, JavaScript)
Content (text, terminology, and...
Of a like mind…
24
Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown
• Government of Canada, April 2014
Source: https://wet-boew.gith...
Entry Point Level Model
Primary – single, most significant (typical) entry pointP
Secondary – other significant entry poin...
When?
26
Does it really start
with Code?
No.
27
28
Primary Success Criteria Entry Points
Wireframes: 50% (19)
User Story/Std. Req.: 24% (9)
Style Guides: 18% (7)
Code: 5%...
What?
29
Three Criteria Types
30
What?
31
Is it really specific to
Accessibility?
No.
32
33
Success Criteria Types
Best Practices: 53% (20)
Primarily A11y: 39% (15)
Requirements: 8% (3)
Observations
• Over half ...
Examples
34
Example (of what NOT to do): “Press the green button on the right.”
Notes:
• Rare instance of single owner, no secondary o...
Example: “Session times out in 5 minutes. Continue? Yes / No”
Notes:
• Business Owner’s only primary ownership criterion
•...
Example: Search, Site Map, Breadcrumbs, Top-nav, In-page links
Notes:
• One of several Interaction Designer-only primary c...
(Questionable) Example: “Blue on ‘light’ blue”
Notes:
• One of several Visual Designer primary ownership crits
• Visual De...
(Bad) Example: “Missing alt attribute in <img>”
Notes:
• Code reviews should already include code validation
SC4.1.1 Parsi...
Changes to the
Status Quo
40
Opportunities to improve efficiency and quality
for both new and existing sites
Involvement should be early in the design ...
Distributing common issue remediation to other roles means…
• Agile teams become more self-sufficient
• Design roles make ...
<< Shift Left
43
New Projects
44
“Shift Left” Approach for New Projects
QA / A11y Testing
Developers
Content Author
Visual (Vx) Designer
Interaction (IX...
Integrate accessibility early in the design process
Distribute accessibility ownership to key decision makers
Targeted, ro...
SC2.2.1 Timing Adjustable
Session timeouts
• Identify Need
• Select approaches to use
SC2.4.5 Multiple Ways
Initial Requir...
SC2.4.3 Focus Order
Document sequence along with content elements
• Basic overview
• Page- or section-specific as needed
S...
SC1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)
Specify and Test
• Text Colors with…
• Backgrounds
SC2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold
Def...
SC1.3.3 Sensory Characteristic
Inform authors to
• Include non-sensory instructions
Encourage Common Writing Standards tha...
<< Shift Left
50
Existing
Products
51
“Shift Left” Approach for Triage Projects
QA / A11y Testing
Developers
Content Author
Visual (Vx) Designer
Interaction ...
As with new projects, all roles should have targeted role-
based training
As issues are found they should be directed to t...
Expand Team
• Not just developers & testers
• Include designers, content author and (possibly) business owner
Review Check...
Future of
Role-Based
Analysis
54
Offshoot of Education & Outreach Working Group
Approved at CSUN March 2018
• Team lead: Denis Boudreau (Deque)
• Members: ...
Available NOW(!)
Targeted specifically for UX designers – Not A11y experts!
Design Before Code: Thinking About Accessibili...
More of the same
No huge changes but percentage follow the trends…
• Developer decreases
• IX Designer increases
• Vx Desi...
58
Contact information:
Thank you.
Bill Tyler
Sr. Digital Accessibility Engineer
btyler@optum.com
@billtyler
59
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A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 1 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 2 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 3 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 4 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 5 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 6 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 7 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 8 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 9 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 10 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 11 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 12 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 13 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 14 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 15 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 16 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 17 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 18 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 19 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 20 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 21 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 22 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 23 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 24 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 25 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 26 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 27 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 28 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 29 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 30 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 31 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 32 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 33 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 34 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 35 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 36 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 37 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 38 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 39 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 40 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 41 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 42 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 43 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 44 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 45 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 46 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 47 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 48 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 49 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 50 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 51 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 52 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 53 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 54 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 55 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 56 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 57 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 58 A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08 Slide 59
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Slide Deck from Bill Tyler's presentation on Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0 at the Accessible by Design Conference held at Indiana University on May 8, 2018

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A11y by Design 2018 Rethinking Accessibility 2018-05-08

  1. 1. Accessibility by Design Indiana University, Bloomington Indiana, May 8, 2018 Bill Tyler Sr. Digital Accessibility Engineer, Accessibility Center of Excellence, UX Design Services Optum Technology @billtyler btyler@optum.com http:// Rethinking Accessibility: Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0
  2. 2. My Experience 30+ yrs. of UI/UX Design & Development 12+ yrs. in medical devices 2X dot-com survivor 16+ yrs. in plans & providers Started Web 1996 Started Accessibility 2002 Full-time A11y SME 2013 Materials Presented 4+ yrs. of ongoing accessibility research & analysis at Optum Technology Background 2
  3. 3. The Problem 3
  4. 4. No one thinks about accessibility … EXCEPT the a11y expert Accessibility comes at END of development …by TESTING done by the a11y expert All issues found are directed to DEVELOPERS to fix …with HELP from a11y expert Final Result: “Sort of” Accessible Result The Problem: The Usual Approach to Accessibility 4
  5. 5. 5 Typical Development Sequence (by Role) Add A11y Here
  6. 6. 6 There’s something very wrong with this picture Add A11y Here
  7. 7. The Assumptions 7
  8. 8. The Assumptions are: Developers… …code accessibility… using “accessibility-specific” knowledge. 8
  9. 9. Questioning the Assumptions 9
  10. 10. Three Questions for Each Success Criterion Who? developer When? coding 10
  11. 11. Who? 11
  12. 12. Testing Roles 12
  13. 13. Decision Making Roles • Standard agile role • Project initiator • Requirements definer • Result approver • Business liaison • Requirement author • Wireframe creator • UX / Usability expert • Presentation owner • Style expert • Layout creator • Design enforcer • Style guide author • Design comp artist • Image file producer • Author of All Text “Large & Small” Large: sections Small: words • Content proofreader • Includes time- based media • Script writer • Audio & video file creator • Front-End Programmer • Last stop before testing • Primary target for all defects 13
  14. 14. Of a like mind… 14 Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown • Denis Boudreau / W3C / WAI-Engage Community, April 2012 Source: http://www.w3.org/community/wai-engage/wiki/Accessibility_Responsibility_Breakdown – 12 Roles Interactive WCAG 2.0 • Jeremy Fields / Viget, January 2015 Source: http://code.viget.com/interactive-wcag/ – 5 Roles Accessibility is Everyone’s Job: A Role-Based Model for Teams • Mark Palmer / Simply Accessible, June 2016 Source: http://simplyaccessible.com/article/role-based-a11y – 6 Roles
  15. 15. Differences in our approach 15 Decision Ownership • Roles not just identified as part of process RACI Model Levels • Levels of ownership based on impact to deliverable Additional Analysis • Examined (much) more than just ownership (or phases) Actionable • Apply to enterprise distribution of work and responsibility
  16. 16. RACI (RASCI) Modeling Responsible – Owns the issueR Accountable – to Responsible “owner”A Supportive – but not accountableS Consulted – to address issueC Informed – of results, but not consultedI 16 Source: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_raci.html
  17. 17. Role Ownership Model Primary – Individual role with “final approval”P Secondary – actively involved in decisionS Contributor – affect, but not deeply involvedC 17
  18. 18. Example: SC1.4.1 Use of Color Visual Designer Interaction Designer Business Owner 18
  19. 19. Is it really the Developer? Who? 19
  20. 20. No. 20
  21. 21. 21 Primary Success Criteria Ownership IX Designer: 37% (14) Content Author: 24% (9) Developer: 21% (8) Vx Designer: 16% (6) Business Owner: 3% (1) Observations • Developers only own 1 in 5 criteria • Developers are third in ownership • Need to work with other roles
  22. 22. When? 22
  23. 23. Software Design Lifecycle Entry Points Code (front-end development: HTML, CSS, JavaScript) Content (text, terminology, and includes video & audio) Design Comps (page or feature final presentation) Style Guides (site presentation, branding, colors, logos) Wireframes (structure of page, interface, interactions) User Story / Standard Requirements 23
  24. 24. Of a like mind… 24 Accessibility Responsibility Breakdown • Government of Canada, April 2014 Source: https://wet-boew.github.io/themes-dist/GCWeb/demos/arb-rra/arb-rra-en.html – 7 “Production Phases” As with roles, we went further and added levels • Levels based upon expected frequency
  25. 25. Entry Point Level Model Primary – single, most significant (typical) entry pointP Secondary – other significant entry pointsS Impact – other minor sources of design inputI 25
  26. 26. When? 26 Does it really start with Code?
  27. 27. No. 27
  28. 28. 28 Primary Success Criteria Entry Points Wireframes: 50% (19) User Story/Std. Req.: 24% (9) Style Guides: 18% (7) Code: 5% (2) Content: 2% (1) Design Comps: “0%” Observations • 95% of decisions come before code • Half are defined in wireframes • A quarter are in user stories • Nearly a fifth in style guide
  29. 29. What? 29
  30. 30. Three Criteria Types 30
  31. 31. What? 31 Is it really specific to Accessibility?
  32. 32. No. 32
  33. 33. 33 Success Criteria Types Best Practices: 53% (20) Primarily A11y: 39% (15) Requirements: 8% (3) Observations • Over half of decisions are best practices roles should already know • Accessibility training could focus on topics they don’t
  34. 34. Examples 34
  35. 35. Example (of what NOT to do): “Press the green button on the right.” Notes: • Rare instance of single owner, no secondary owner or contributor • Example of a “Never” event SC1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics 35
  36. 36. Example: “Session times out in 5 minutes. Continue? Yes / No” Notes: • Business Owner’s only primary ownership criterion • Rare Standard Requirement case SC2.2.1 Timing Adjustable 36
  37. 37. Example: Search, Site Map, Breadcrumbs, Top-nav, In-page links Notes: • One of several Interaction Designer-only primary criteria SC2.4.5 Multiple Ways 37
  38. 38. (Questionable) Example: “Blue on ‘light’ blue” Notes: • One of several Visual Designer primary ownership crits • Visual Designer has no secondary ownership SC1.4.3 Color Contrast (Minimum) 38
  39. 39. (Bad) Example: “Missing alt attribute in <img>” Notes: • Code reviews should already include code validation SC4.1.1 Parsing 39
  40. 40. Changes to the Status Quo 40
  41. 41. Opportunities to improve efficiency and quality for both new and existing sites Involvement should be early in the design process – “Shift Left” • Includes project intake Where appropriate Distribute & Assign ownership (resolution) to roles other than developer & testers All roles should have training tailored to their role Checklists for reviewing all design deliverables before sign-off Changes: General 41
  42. 42. Distributing common issue remediation to other roles means… • Agile teams become more self-sufficient • Design roles make better decisions preventing issues at the start • Team members can identify & return issues at earlier steps without A11y SMEs • QA testers can do perform a good portion of a11y testing This frees Accessibility SMEs to focus on “difficult” issues that require their expertise Net Result: Reduce the total number of accessibility SMEs across the enterprise • Important for organizations with hundreds of sites Changes: Accessibility Role 42
  43. 43. << Shift Left 43 New Projects
  44. 44. 44 “Shift Left” Approach for New Projects QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner ADD A11Y HERE
  45. 45. Integrate accessibility early in the design process Distribute accessibility ownership to key decision makers Targeted, role-based training • Refresher on existing best practices • Accessibility training only on topics they own or impact Changes: New Projects – “Shift Left” 45
  46. 46. SC2.2.1 Timing Adjustable Session timeouts • Identify Need • Select approaches to use SC2.4.5 Multiple Ways Initial Requirements / Feature Definitions • Site search • Site map 46 Shift Left Criterion Example - Requirements
  47. 47. SC2.4.3 Focus Order Document sequence along with content elements • Basic overview • Page- or section-specific as needed SC2.4.6 Headings & Labels / SC1.3.1 Info & Relationships Document headings & hierarchies • On page or as “table of contents” in notes (SC2.4.6) • Define heading levels (SC1.3.1) 47 Shift Left Criterion Examples - Wireframes
  48. 48. SC1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) Specify and Test • Text Colors with… • Backgrounds SC2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold Define standards • No blinking content of any kind • Color thresholds for animation 48 Shift Left Criterion Examples – Style Guides
  49. 49. SC1.3.3 Sensory Characteristic Inform authors to • Include non-sensory instructions Encourage Common Writing Standards that are AAA • SC3.1.3 Unusual Words • SC3.1.4 Abbreviations • SC3.1.5 Reading Level 49 Shift Left Criterion Examples – Writing Guides
  50. 50. << Shift Left 50 Existing Products
  51. 51. 51 “Shift Left” Approach for Triage Projects QA / A11y Testing Developers Content Author Visual (Vx) Designer Interaction (IX) Designer Business Owner ADDRESS A11Y HERE
  52. 52. As with new projects, all roles should have targeted role- based training As issues are found they should be directed to the correct role owner, not simply the developer • Issues directed to specific roles will demonstrate how previous decisions impacted accessibility Changes: Triage of Existing Sites 52
  53. 53. Expand Team • Not just developers & testers • Include designers, content author and (possibly) business owner Review Checkpoints • Analyze checkpoints • Identify typical owner to resolve issues – Developers & Testers should not “do design” 53 “Shift Left” Remediation
  54. 54. Future of Role-Based Analysis 54
  55. 55. Offshoot of Education & Outreach Working Group Approved at CSUN March 2018 • Team lead: Denis Boudreau (Deque) • Members: Bill Tyler (me), Sean Kelly (Optum), Caitlyn Geier (Deque) In the Future • Working out 3-year plan • Defining deliverables which include decision-tree for groups to do role-based analysis for their own teams • Will be open to review and input 55 W3C RA11y Project
  56. 56. Available NOW(!) Targeted specifically for UX designers – Not A11y experts! Design Before Code: Thinking About Accessibility from the Ground Up by Caitlyn Geier, 2-Part Blog Posting (2017) • https://bit.ly/2I0O3rY – https://www.deque.com/blog/design-code-thinking-accessibility-ground/ Accessibility Heuristics 1.0 by Caitlyn Geier & Denis Boudreau, PDF document (CSUN 2018) • http://bit.ly/a11y-heuristics 56 Shift Left / UX Designer Materials
  57. 57. More of the same No huge changes but percentage follow the trends… • Developer decreases • IX Designer increases • Vx Designer increases • Content author unchanged • Business Owner count unchanged 57 WCAG 2.1
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Contact information: Thank you. Bill Tyler Sr. Digital Accessibility Engineer btyler@optum.com @billtyler 59
  • MelissaAdams72

    Nov. 25, 2021
  • hpidoulas

    May. 3, 2019

Slide Deck from Bill Tyler's presentation on Role-Based Analysis of WCAG 2.0 at the Accessible by Design Conference held at Indiana University on May 8, 2018

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