Bill Stankiewicz Copy Of Dialog Teacher Guide


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Best Regards,

Bill Stankiewicz
Vice President and General Manager
Shippers Warehouse of Georgia
Office: 678-364-3475

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Bill Stankiewicz Copy Of Dialog Teacher Guide

  1. 1. | teacher’s guide |
  2. 2. Table of Contents 4 Getting Ready Welcome to Dialog in the Dark The Dialog Begins What to Expect on your Field Trip Guide Reference Chart 12 Upper Elementary and Middle School Part 1: Seeing the World Differently Lesson 1: Causes of visual disabilities Lesson 2: Adventures for your senses—hear, smell, feel Lesson 3: Finding your way Lesson 4: How do you do see what I see? Lesson 5: Breaking barriers Part 2: Acceptable & Accessible Lesson 1: Looking back Lesson 2: Famous people Lesson 3: The Americans with Disabilities Act Lesson 4: Enforcing accessibility Answer keys 39 High School Part 1: Seeing the World Differently Lesson 1: Causes of visual disabilities Lesson 2: Adventures for your senses—audition, olfaction, somatosensation Lesson 3: Finding your way Lesson 4: How do you do see what I see? Lesson 5: Breaking barriers Premier Exhibitions, Inc. 3340 Peachtree Road, NE Part 2: Acceptable & Accessible Suite 2250 Atlanta, GA 30326 Lesson 1: Looking back Lesson 2: Famous people Content: Cassie Jones with Cheryl Muré, Mike Johnson, Lesson 3: Evolution of inclusion and Joanna Rotchford. Lesson 4: The Americans with Disabilities Act Special thanks: Andreas Heinecke, Orna Cohen, Susana Ruiz, Consens Ausstellungs GmbH, and Lesson 5: Enforcing accessibility Dialog Education teams around the world. Design: Carrie Jones Answer keys © 2008 Premier Exhibitions, Inc. All rights reserved. Except for educational fair use, no portion of this 73 After the Field Trip guide may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopy, Debriefing recording, or any other without explicit prior permission from Premier Exhibitions, Inc. Multiple copies may only be made by or for Friends with Disabilities the teacher for class use or discussion. In Your Community 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents 81 Resources Timeline and Crossword Puzzle Facts on Visual Disabilities in the U.S. Recommended Reading Additional Projects and Connections to Other Subjects Visual arts Language arts Biographies Science 98 Curriculum Standards National Curriculum Correlations State Curriculum Correlations 3
  4. 4. Getting Ready Welcome to Dialog in the Dark The Dialog Begins What to Expect on Your Field Trip Guide Reference Chart “ It is only with the heart that one can see rightly; what is essential is invisible to the eye. ” —Antoine de Saint-Exupery 4
  5. 5. “ The only way to learn is through encounters. ” –Martin Buber Welcome to Dialog in the Dark Welcome to Dialog in the Dark, a and Character Development classes vision. “Acceptable and Accessible” field trip where there is nothing to will all find relevant activities in the begins with an historical perspective see but much to discover. The concept Teacher’s Guide. These innovative on attitudes towards people with is simple: in completely darkened lesson plans can be used both before visual disabilities. It also discusses rooms, guides who are visually and after your field trip to Dialog in the evolution of disability rights and impaired or blind lead small groups the Dark. opportunities in the U.S. of students through an Exhibition The first section of this Guide tells A section called “After the Field Trip” in which everyday situations are the story of the Exhibition’s creator, helps your students process their experienced altogether differently, Andreas Heinecke. You will also find experience at the Exhibition and without vision. The complete darkness a description of what teachers and extend what they have learned from opens your students’ eyes to new students can expect on their field Dialog in the Dark beyond the ways of experiencing the world trip and a quick-reference chart to classroom. The “Resources” section around them. locate lessons highlighting specific contains a variety of materials and In the dark, the daily routine themes or content areas. The chart references: a timeline activity, facts becomes a new experience and roles also indicates if that lesson contains on visual disabilities in the U.S., a are reversed. Sighted people leave a ready-to-use reproducible activity list of recommended books, and their comfort zones and lose the sense page for your students. additional project ideas. At the end they rely on most. Guides who are This Teacher’s Guide features a of the Guide, teachers will find visually impaired or blind provide variety of methods and projects correlations to the relevant national security, comfort, and direction, while for those educators who strive for curriculum standards as well as to at the same time help students see the differentiated instruction in their their state curriculum requirements. world without pictures. Dialog in classrooms. The lesson plans are Dialog in the Dark has been the Dark changes sighted people’s divided into two grade levels. The experienced by over 5 million people perceptions of what life must be first group is for upper elementary in over 20 countries in Europe, Asia like for people who cannot see by and middle school students; however, and South America. Now, for the demonstrating that for blind and the activities can be easily simplified first time, Premier Exhibitions brings visually-impaired people, the world for lower elementary grades. The next Dialog in the Dark to the U.S. Teachers is not inferior, just different. set is directed towards high school will find something to engage students The sensory experiences of the level students and can also be used of all skill levels and interests on a Exhibition combined with its themes with adult groups. field trip to this Exhibition. Thank you of communication, empathy and In both levels, the lesson plans are for sharing this innovative learning tolerance offer learning opportunities grouped into two themes. In “Seeing experience with your students. We across the curriculum. Teachers of the World Differently” students focus look forward to seeing you at Dialog Science, History, Civics, Physical on how we use our senses and how in the Dark...Your Senses Will Never Education, Language Arts, Visual Arts the world appears to someone without Be The Same. 5
  6. 6. The Dialog Begins: Origins of the Exhibition Andreas Heinecke was born in 1955 Heinecke was fascinated by the and grew up in Baden-Baden, experiences of blind people and Germany. His family was both Jewish shocked by the discrimination against and German, a dichotomy which them, which still exists today. In drove him to explore questions about 1988—the year Dialog in the Dark how and why humans judge one began—he started working with the other as “worthy”. He studied German Stiftung Blindenanstalt (Home for language, literature and history at the Blind Foundation) in Frankfurt Johann-Wolfgang Goethe University am Main, so that he could share the “Dialog in the Dark is connected so closely to me in Frankfurt before he began work as a journalist and documentary writer at the Südwestfunk broadcasting experiences he had gained so far with other broadcasting companies. He teamed up with a large computer and my history that it has corporation. It was here that he was company to develop electronic become an inextricable part asked to train a journalist who had devices for blind people long before of me. ” —Andreas Heinecke lost his sight from a car accident. Heinecke remembers his initial reaction of surprise. the Internet was commonplace. He published an electronic newspaper and digital reference books, and “I had no qualifications or inclination established a database with in this area at all. My basic attitude job announcements. was more to avoid contact with handi- Heinecke was also looking for ways to capped people, and the idea of being engage blind and sighted people in blind scared me. I met this blind young conversations where their interest in man and was deeply touched by his each other would not be hindered by positive personality, his potential, his pity, insecurities and prejudices. The positive outlook on life, his humor obvious solution was to create an and his intelligence. I regarded my opportunity for blind and sighted attitude, consisting of a mixture of people to meet in the dark, which pity, empathy, anxiety and insecurity, meant daring to reverse roles and thus as something shameful. Even my years experiencing each others’ limits and of searching for understanding for the possibilities. In 1996, Heinecke left the acceptance of being different could Stiftung Blindenanstalt in order to form not keep me from judging people’s his own company to spread the idea of lives… A blind person had to come into Dialog in the Dark. Since its inception, my life to open my eyes.” Dialog in the Dark has passed through over 20 countries with stops in the 6
  7. 7. Americas, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. The first permanent version of the Exhibition opened in Hamburg in 2000. Together with his wife, Orna Cohen, he also developed Dialog in Silence—an exhibition similar to Dialog in the Dark, but which explores the world of the hearing impaired. Andreas Heinecke is the CEO of Consens Ausstellungs GmbH which he founded to promote empathy among people without disabilities towards those with visual and hearing impairments. His ultimate goal is for people with disabilities to be integrated as fully-valued employees in the workforce. While one goal of Dialog in the Dark is to open the eyes of sighted people, another goal is to offer employment to a sector of society that is usually overlooked. For many of the visually impaired employees, working at Dialog in the Dark is their first paid job and gives them the confidence, experience, and qualifications to pursue opportunities elsewhere. Heinecke Andreas Heinecke, creator of Dialog in the Dark explains the effects. In recent years, Andreas Heinecke has Entrepreneurship Club (2006) “Being a guide changes the perception won several awards for his efforts: the and in 2007 he was honored as an of themselves and the relations of the “Stevie Wonder Vision Award” in New outstanding global social entre- seeing population; it also increases their York (1998) was followed by “Best preneur by the Schwab Foundation. self-esteem. Blind people gain strength Practice in Universal Design” in Most recently, he became a member in their acting and communicating Japan (2004). He is the first Ashoka of the World Economic Forum’s competence, take responsibility, work Fellow in Western Europe (2005). Global Agenda Council on Social together in a team and learn to defend For his work in social entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship. their interests. Their own income helps Heinecke was awarded the Deutscher them to be independent and strengthens UnternehmerPreis (German Enterprise the respect among family and friends.” Award) by the Harvard Business School Association of Germany’s 7
  8. 8. What to Expect on Your Field Trip Welcome! Students are taken through the Upon arrival, your school group is Exhibition in groups of nine plus greeted by a member of our Education their school chaperone. Each group staff and then led to a preliminary has their own guide who is blind workshop. The students engage in or visually disabled who will lead, discussions and perform activities help, orient, and encourage them to prepare them for their upcoming through the galleries. experience in the dark. The Education Galleries “ staff will also discuss topics like fears, The most beautiful things in As the students enter the Exhibition, stereotypes, and prejudice and how the world cannot be seen or they correlate to darkness. they receive their canes in the Immersion room and experience a even touched; they must Before they enter the Exhibition, short program introducing them to ” be felt with the heart. —Helen Keller students will be asked to leave all bags, purses, cell phones, cameras, etc. at our secure check-in. Anything Dialog in the Dark. After the program, the room grows increasingly darker. When there is complete darkness, else that emits light, such as a pager, the guide greets the group and takes light-up watch, tennis shoes, cell phone over while the Education staff leaves. or iPod, will also need to be removed and checked. Students who wear You begin by making your way glasses may also to wish to check through a park. Then you will them, as they won’t be needed in the experience a wharf and a boat ride, dark. Students should wear closed, a busy street in the city, a grocery low-heeled shoes on this field trip. store, and a café. You will spend Avoid flip flops, clogs, and heels. about 15 minutes in each room. Students line up for their field trip to the Exhibition in Monterrey, Mexico. 8
  9. 9. Sounds, smells, temperatures, and At the End questions about themselves and textures convey the characteristics of Students exit through a Reflection about their experience with these daily environments. room in which they are gradually Dialog in the Dark. In the park, you may encounter returned to a visible, well-lit world. • What will I “see”? trees, a fountain, or a bench. At the After their experience in the Exhibition, Dialog in the Dark submerges you wharf, you will board a boat—be students have the opportunity to into a new world of perception. careful where you step! You will have participate in a variety of follow-up Tasks that used to be so simple to deal with traffic and cross the street exercises and discussions, led by are now challenging. You will safely in the loud, busy city. In the a member of the Education staff. hopefully walk away with a better grocery store, you may be asked to Exercises may include writing a understanding of yourself, beauty find and retrieve a specific item from letter to their guide, learning how that isn’t seen, and an appreciation the shelves. the Braille system works, writing in of people with disabilities. The tour ends in a café where Braille, drawing, and using other drinks and snacks are available for tactile learning aids. Chaperone Responsibilities purchase, so don’t forget to bring What Students As a chaperone, you are responsible some money. In the café you will also for helping your students get the most Want to Know have an opportunity to ask your guide out of this very unique learning questions before he or she returns you • Is it scary? experience. To keep order, you need to an Education staff team member. Certainly not. The dark can teach to stay with your assigned group of us many, many things not only students throughout your visit. about ourselves, but also how to Please supervise your students in adapt to a new and yet familiar the retail area as well. We know that environment. You will be traveling this is a fascinating Exhibition, but in groups and will have a guide please remember that your top who knows the Exhibition very well. priority is to monitor your students • Is it safe? and keep them focused so they will enjoy the Exhibition safely and Yes. You will use your cane and meet their teachers’ expectations. your guide will help direct you along the way. The Exhibition is Each group that goes through the also under constant monitoring Exhibition must have an adult with special cameras and each chaperone. If you are afraid of the gallery has an emergency exit. dark or do not wish to go through the galleries of the Exhibition, let your • Who will be our guide? lead teacher know ahead of time so Each guide is a visually impaired that your school can arrange for the or blind person who teaches you appropriate amount of chaperones. Students learn to use the white canes at how to use your other senses in We greatly appreciate your partici- the Exhibition in Monterrey, Mexico. order to complete ordinary tasks. pation in making this a memorable These individuals tend to be quite field trip for everyone from your school. inspiring. Feel free to ask the guides Thank you! 9
  10. 10. Using the Teacher’s Guide This Teacher’s Guide is designed to Key: be used before and after a field trip to Dialog in the Dark. The lesson plans UES Upper Elementary School level are divided into levels. The first set is for upper elementary and middle MS Middle School level school students. With a few adjust- ments, many of these can also used for HS High School level lower elementary students. The second set is aimed towards the high school level and above. Following the lesson FA Fine Arts plans, the section “After the Field S/T Science & Trip” will help students process and Technology extend their experience. The last part, “Resources” contains additional LA Language Arts activities as well as curriculum correlations for national and state SS Social Studies standards. AA Active Activities Teachers will find connections to many content areas in this guide, including Social Studies, Science, Language EC Empathy & Arts, and Visual Arts classes. Character compassion “ development themes such as LC Leadership & Seeing a known Leadership and Empathy are also courage world in a new featured. A quick-reference chart CS Communication skills way. ” —Dialog in the Dark visitor identifies the subjects and themes addressed by each lesson. It also indicates whether or not a reproducible SA Self-awareness student activity sheet is included. While CA Community action some lessons contain only instructions for the teacher on how to lead the FD For debate lesson, many have pages to reproduce and pass out to students. 10
  11. 11. Lesson Plan Reference Chart Title Level Subjects Themes Page for Students 1.1 Causes of visual disabilities UES & MS S/T EC yes 1.2 Adventures for your senses UES & MS AA, S/T CS, EC, SA yes 1.3 Finding your way UES & MS FA, LA, AA EC, SA yes 1.4 How do you see what I see? UES & MS LA, S/T CS, EC, SA yes 1.5 Breaking barriers UES & MS LA, AA CA, LC yes 2.1 Looking back UES & MS LA, SS na yes 2.2 Famous people UES & MS LA, SS LC yes 2.3 The ADA UES & MS SS FD yes 2.4 Enforcing accessibility UES & MS SS EC, FD yes 1.1 Causes of visual disabilities HS S/T EC yes 1.2 Adventures for your senses HS AA, S/T CS, EC, SA no 1.3 Finding your way HS FA, LA, AA EC, SA yes 1.4 How do you see what I see? HS LA, S/T CS, EC, SA yes 1.5 Breaking barriers HS LA, AA CA, LC yes 2.1 Looking back HS LA, SS na yes 2.2 Famous people HS LA, SS LC yes 2.3 Evolution of inclusion HS SS FD yes 2.4 The ADA HS SS EC, FD yes 2.5 Enforcing accessibility HS SS EC, FD yes Debriefing UES & MS, HS FA, LA CS, EC, LC, SA yes Friends with Visual Disabilities UES & MS, HS na CA, EC, LC no In Your Community UES & MS, HS LA, AA, SS CA, CS, EC, LC, SA yes Timeline and Puzzle UES & MS, HS SS na yes U.S. Facts UES & MS, HS na na no Recommended Reading UES & MS, HS LA, AA, SS CS, EC, LC, SA no Additional Projects UES & MS, HS FA, LA, S/T CS no 11
  12. 12. Upper Elementary and Middle School Part 1: Seeing the World Differently Lesson 1: Causes of visual disabilities Lesson 2: Adventures for your senses— hear, smell, feel Lesson 3: Finding your way Lesson 4: How do you do see what I see? Lesson 5: Breaking barriers Part 2: Acceptable & Accessible Lesson 1: Looking back Lesson 2: Famous people Lesson 3: The American with Disabilities Act Lesson 4: Enforcing accessibility Answer keys “ People get trapped into thinking about just one way of doing things. ” —Erik Weihenmayer 12
  13. 13. Name: Date: “ Just because a man lacks the use of his eyes doesn’t mean he lacks vision. ” —Stevie Wonder 1.1 Seeing the World Differently: Causes of visual disabilities Being blind doesn’t mean that all you see is blackness. Most blind people—about 90%—have a little vision. Some are able to see colors and others see shadows, or at least the difference between light and dark. Only 1% of the people in the U.S. who are blind were born that way. Very few are visually impaired as a result of an accident. Most people lose their sight because of an illness. In parts of the world where medicine is hard to get, people become blind from diseases that can be easily prevented and treated in the U.S. Research the causes of visual disabilities to complete the matching activity that follows. Use these sources: • National Eye Institute • Lighthouse International • World Health Organization Students discuss what it means to be visually impaired. 13
  14. 14. Name: Date: Part 1: Why? What can cause a person to have a visual disability? Match the term to the definition. 1. Macular degeneration A. the lens of the eye gradually becomes cloudy; often affects older people and can be fixed with surgery 2. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome B. a disease that is common in Africa and Central 3. Cataract America; it is passed by black fly bites and is sometimes called “river blindness” 4. Glaucoma C. disease associated with getting older that gradually destroys sharp, central vision (needed for seeing objects clearly, for things like reading 5. Cortical impairment and driving); a leading cause of vision loss in Americans 60 and older 6. Trachoma D. cross-eyed; both eyes cannot focus on the same thing at the same time 7. Strabismus E. the name for a group of diseases that affect the optic nerve; caused when the pressure of 8. Diabetic retinopathy the fluid inside the eye increases and often affects older people 9. Onchocerciasis F. a contagious disease which is easily treated, but the #1 cause of blindness in the world; 10. Retinopathy of prematurity caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis G. disease caused by the microscopic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum; often found in the dirt where there have been bird or bat droppings H. a cause of blindness for small babies born too soon whose eye cells aren’t finished forming; one of the most common causes of blindness for children I. when a vision problem is caused by a problem along the nerve paths between the eye and the brain, instead of by a problem with the actual eyeball J. one of the effects of having diabetes; causes changes in the retina’s blood vessels 14
  15. 15. Name: Date: Part 2: Where, when, how? Find out more. 1. How do the countries where people live affect the reasons why they may have a visual disability? 2. How do people’s ages affect the reasons why they may have a visual disability? 3. To see how certain conditions may affect your vision, try the low-vision simulations at the following sites. • • • A picture of two children as seen with normal vision, on the left, and how it appears to someone with glaucoma, on the right. 15
  16. 16. Name: Date: “ It often seems to me that it’s as if I have four senses and sighted people only have one. ” —Dialog in the Dark Guide 1.2 Seeing the World Differently: Adventures for your senses Introduce the lesson People who are able to see clearly take in 90% of what they know about the world around them through their eyes. That leaves only 10% for all the other senses combined. People with visual disabilities have to pay close attention to what they hear, smell, and feel. They don’t have superhero senses, but they do have a lot of practice listening to what their other senses have to say. With the activities in this lesson, your students will “see” how much they can learn and do without using their eyes. Hear 5. Signature sound: think of 3 sounds that are specific 1. For 2 minutes, students sit quietly and write down to your favorite place or a location in your neighbor- every noise they hear during that time, and then hood. Recreate those sounds, using either props or compare lists. Examples could be voices from the audio on a computer. Ask a partner or your class to next room, someone walking down the hallway, identify “your place.” birds outside the window, hum of the air condition- 6. For this activity you will need an open space. Push ing, etc. Some sounds may only heard by students the chairs and desks to the back of the classroom in a particular area of the room. This activity is or use the gym. also easily done outside. a. Divide the class into groups of 4 or 5. In each 2. Fill small, opaque containers (like plastic eggs or group, one student will be blindfolded. Each group film canisters) with a variety of small objects and also must decide on a strategy, such as a materials. Shake each one. Students try to figure particular sound, they can use to locate each out what is inside each container based only on other when they are split up and spread out. the sound it makes. b. The blindfolded students stand in the middle of the 3. Once the contents from the activity above have room. For 5–8 seconds, the rest of the class been identified, shake the same containers in a spreads out around the room. When time is up, specific order. Pause briefly. Students write down everyone stops and stands wherever they are. the order in which they remember hearing the c. Using only their predetermined strategy, the sounds. This activity can also be done by having the blind person must find the rest of the people students close their eyes while various surfaces in in their group. the room are struck or musical instruments played d. When the blind student locates a group member, in a particular order. the member puts on a blindfold as well and 4. Without the students looking, the teacher creates walks around together with the first student to sound from 3 different objects or actions. For continue rounding up the rest. example, slide a chair, close the door, or turn on a e. The first team to reunite all its members wins. faucet. Students write down what they think is the What made the task easier or harder? How does source each sound, then write or tell a short story the activity relate to events in the daily life of a that incorporates all of the sounds. person with a visual disability? 16
  17. 17. Name: Date: Smell Feel 1. For one day (or a portion of a day for younger 1. Three participants line up. One by one, each person students, such as six hours) students pay atten- says his or her name while shaking hands with the tion to all smells they are able to distinguish. sixth participant who is blindfolded. Then the five Instruct students to write down every smell they people quietly rearrange their order. The blind encounter. The next day, students compare lists. person shakes their hands again and tries to guess Discuss what factual data each smell provides as the identity of each person based only on feeling well as any memories or emotions associated with it. their hands. 2. On a smaller scale, the activity above can be used 2. Place a variety of items inside of individual boxes with a walking tour around the school. or bags so that the items cannot be seen. 3. Hold a “Smelling Bee.” Using the rules of a spelling a. Students reach inside each bag or box to feel the bee, students compete by correctly identifying a object and try to identify what is inside. variety of odors. One way to do this is by putting b. Extend the activity by using items that relate to liquids on cotton balls. Another way is to put the something the class may already be studying in objects in identical opaque containers and pierce science, social studies, or other subject. holes in the lid. 3. Place a variety of smaller items into one box or bag. 4. Using scent samples like those created for the a. A student will reach in without looking and retrieve “Smelling Bee,” students identify the item by smell, a requested item, using only the sense of touch decide how it smells to them (pleasant, bad, neutral, to find it. strong, etc.), and explain any memories associated b. Using the same collection of objects, a student with the scent. randomly selects 3 items from the bag (returning 5. Explore the connections between vision, smell, and the items afterwards for the next student). Use taste by conducting blind taste-tests of the edible all of the chosen items in a creative writing products you are using and see if students can assignment such as a poem or short story. identify them correctly. 4. Students can complete the following worksheet on Suggestions for experiments with the sense of smell: dried herbs, using the Braille alphabet. spices (like ginger and cinnamon), coffee, onion, coco powder, (The answer to #2 is: Louis Braille was fifteen when he invented this alphabet.) baking extracts (like vanilla and almond), garlic, banana, moth balls, orange juice, fruit peels, piece of apple, vinegar, perfume, shampoo, cedar, mint, saw dust, air freshener sprays, baby powder, flowers, dirt, pine needles, peanut butter, bubble gum. 17
  18. 18. Name: Date: “ Discover the world by feeling and listening. ” —Dialog in the Dark visitor 1.2 Seeing the World Differently: Adventures for your senses Reading by Braille Many people with visual disabilities use their sense of touch to read. The Braille alphabet, created by Louis Braille in the 19th century, has combinations of raised dots for letters, numbers, and punctuation. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ch ed er gh ou ow sh th wh and for of the with Louis Braille 18
  19. 19. Name: Date: 1. Write this sentence in Braille, filling in your information: I am [YOUR FIRST NAME] and I go to [YOUR SCHOOL NAME]. 2. What does this say? 3. Make a set of Braille letters. Enlarge the chart above and copy on heavy paper or cardstock. Glue a small bead or sequin on top of each black dot. You can also just use a dot of glue. When it dries, cut out each letter and practice identifying the letters by touch. 19
  20. 20. Name: Date: “ Habit is the sixth sense that dominates the other five. ” —Arab proverb 1.3 Seeing the World Differently: Finding your way Introduce the lesson: Only 35% of the visually impaired people in the U.S. use a white cane and only 2% have a guide dog to help them get around. Knowing where to go and how to get there are challenging when you are visually impaired. Your sense of hearing as well as your memory become very important. Activities 1. This activity requires two participants. There must 2. Each student needs paper and crayons, colored be absolute silence in the room. pencils, or markers. Describe a simple scene with vivid images, like a sunny day at the park with a. Player A sits in a chair blindfolded. Player B children flying kites. begins to slowly and quietly walk up behind Player A (without running into the chair). a. Students close their eyes and imagine the picture in their mind as they listen. b. When Player A believes Player B is standing directly behind the chair, he or she says “stop”. b. When the description is over, the students will draw the picture on paper with their eyes still c. How close did Player B get? Why did Player A closed or blindfolded. When everyone is finished decide it was time to say “stop”? Repeat and they may look at their drawings. switch roles. c. How did everyone portray what they heard? How closely do the finished products match their mental images? Was it possible to use colors realistically? Were the same objects included in everyone’s picture? d. For an alternate version, describe a route from one point to another such as the way from the classroom to the principal’s office. The students will draw the route, blindfolded, as they hear it step by step. e. For younger students, give them a shape (circle, Practicing orientation and mobility— triangle, etc.) to try to draw without looking. knowing where to go and how to get there—enhances communication skills. 20
  21. 21. Name: Date: 3. This activity requires a partner and space to move 4. This human knot game with a twist challenges around. There must be silence in the room. individual spatial awareness and fosters group communication. For an extra challenge, blindfold a. The partners stand face to face, toe to toe, and the students before they even begin to “tie” their raise their hands up to shoulder level, palms knot. Vary the difficulty by having more or less facing out. The partners put their hands against students in the group or by imposing a time limit each other and are then blindfolded. for the untangling. For yet another variation, the b. They separate, each slowly walking backward, students are not blindfolded but they cannot speak away from the other for 8 seconds (adjust time to each other. for age group and space allowances). a. A group of 4–6 students stand close together in c. When time is called they must walk towards each a circle and extend their arms forward into the other and attempt to end up back together where middle of the circle. they started. b. Each student grabs hold of two other students’ d. Did they meet up again? How accurate is their hands (you can’t hold both hands with just one aim on the return trip? Is it hard to walk in a other person). Then each member of the group straight line when you can’t see? is blindfolded. c. The objective is for the students to get them- selves as “untied” as possible without ever letting go of each other and without looking. 21
  22. 22. Name: Date: “ 1,000 steps in the dark brought me a step closer to the world of the visually impaired. ” —Dialog in the Dark visitor 1.3 Seeing the World Differently: Finding your way Map making: Sabriye Tenbarken, a young blind woman from Germany, set up a school for blind children in Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet. Here, she describes the way through the city from her home to the school. (from My Path Leads to Tibet by Sabriye Tenbarken, Arcade Pub., 2004) “I begin my journey on the edge of an open square…To my right there is a street busy with cars, which is my first landmark. I cross over the square always remembering to keep the traffic on my right at the same distance. I now head for a row of market stalls where Chinese vendors offer their fruit for sale at the tops of their voices. As soon as the smell of apples and pears in the summer, and oranges and grapefruits in the winter, reaches my nose, I cautiously turn right to avoid getting in the customers’ way…Quite close to the street, with the noises of the cars to my Raised maps and globes help visually right again, I walk straight ahead until my cane comes up against impaired students learn geography. a kind of curb that is now my new point of direction… My journey leads me past cobblers who have set up their stalls on the roadside—I recognize them because of their constant hammering and the pungent smell of leather. Shortly after that, my route veers to the left. At this point the curb ends and I stop in the middle of the road because we are now in the old part of town. There are fewer vehicles here and they can only move at a snail’s pace. On my right there are hot food stalls; at different times of day the smell of freshly baked bread or meat and noodle dishes pervades in the air…The alleyway ends in a T-junction at which I turn left… In front of a stone wall that blocks the way straight ahead, a street leads to the left…It’s only one and a half meters wide and about fifty meters long. Sighted people often have the impression here that the houses tilt together over their head. In the entrances to these houses sit mostly older people who greet me in a friendly way and warn me about piles of trash and puddles…The alley ends at another T-junc- tion. I turn right. This path is wide and even. It leads to a busy road in a zigzag fashion…The traffic noises are heard only quietly at first and then louder and louder. Since local drivers have often bought their driving license without any driving experience…sometimes I ask people passing by to help me cross the ‘race track’. I then go left behind a building site onto a sandy road, to the left again after an entrance to a courtyard and then in the second courtyard on the right hand side. ” 22
  23. 23. Name: Date: 1. Define these terms: vendor, cobbler, pungent, veer, pervades. Then highlight where they are used in the story. At Dialog in the Dark in Tel Aviv, Israel 2. Make a list of the smells and sounds Sabriye uses to find her way to the school. 3. Based on her description of the route, draw a map of her route. 4. Write out the directions from your house to someplace nearby (like your school, the grocery store, or a friends’ house) in a way that a blind person with a cane would be able to find his or her way. Include specific sounds and smells they may encounter along the way. Do you walk past a bakery? A construction site? A yard with a dog? A coffee shop? 23
  24. 24. Name: Date: “ The highest result of education is tolerance. ” —Helen Keller 1.4 Seeing the World Differently: How do you do see what I see? One of the goals of Dialog in the Dark is for sighted visitors to understand that a person with a visual disability is first and foremost a person. There is a saying that warns us not to judge other people until we have first walked a mile in their shoes. These activities and your trip to Dialog in the Dark will give you a chance to “walk a mile” in the shoes of a person with a visual disability. Part 1: Activities • Get to and from school • ind a can of soup and a box of Cheerios® F 1. List the steps of your morning “getting-ready-for- in the grocery store school” or your “after-school–until-bedtime” routine. Include specific steps like “brush teeth” or • Count your money “pack lunch.” Now go back through the list and • Know when to cross the street describe how each activity would be different if you • Keep your socks together had a visual disability. Try it out: the next time you • Match your clothes get dressed in the morning or change into your • Play soccer or basketball pajamas, keep your eyes closed. • Send an email 2. Working in partners or groups, brainstorm ways • Get to your gate and your seat for a flight in which you would be able to accomplish the • Pick up your luggage after a flight following activities if you had a visual impairment. For tips and suggestions, select the “Search” 3. What adaptations and products are available that option at “Fred’s Head Database”: would help make daily life easier for a person with a visual disability? Make a list of the items you • Play cards or a board game would want or need. Look for them online at sites like and www.human- • Tell time As you list the things you’d want to • Pour a glass of juice purchase, include the prices. What is your total cost? • Measure your room for carpet Hands reading Braille Tactile feature on Baseball Watch for the blind Braille machine Canadian $20 bill 24
  25. 25. Name: Date: 4. (a) What is your favorite TV show? Try to “watch” Part 2: Reflection it blindfolded or with your back to the TV, so you hear it but not see it. Was it harder for you to follow 1. What surprised you the most during your “mile in what was happening? Why or why not? (b) Repeat the another person’s shoes?” process with a partner. This time, listen to only 2. What would be the hardest adjustment for you to 5 minutes of a TV show while your partner tries to make if your vision failed? What would you have describe what is going on visually. Did that help? to do differently? What would you be able to do Why or why not? Reverse roles and try again. the same? 5. Interview a person with a disability in your family or 3. Have your ideas of what people with disabilities are community. Find out about what adaptations he or like changed? How? she makes and what he or she feels are their greatest challenges. 4. Often, a bully is a person who isn’t very good at understanding how other people may see the 6. In May 2008, a court decided that paper money in world. How could a trip to Dialog in the Dark the U.S. discriminates against blind and visually help a bully learn how his or her actions affect impaired people. Coins can be identified by size, other people? weight, and the images engraved on them but paper bills are all the same size and shape in the U.S. Some countries avoid this problem with different sizes and shapes, adding raised dot to the bill, or adding foil that can be felt. You have been hired by the U.S. Treasury Department to help create money that can be identified by touch alone. Revamp the current designs for the $1, $5, $10, and $20 bill ( so that a person who cannot see would be able to tell them apart. For inspiration, check out the first U.S. coin with readable Braille characters: a commemorative silver dollar available in 2009, celebrating the Louis Braille 200th birthday of Louis Braille ( 2009 Commemorative Silver pressroom/index.cfm?action=Photo). Dollar Coin 25
  26. 26. Name: Date: “ Just because you lose your sight, doesn’t mean you lose your vision. ” —Erik Weihenmayer 1.5 Seeing the World Differently: Breaking barriers Would you like to climb a mountain some day? Travel around the world? Sail a boat? Snowboard or ski? Run a marathon? Scuba dive? Compete in the Olympics? These activities require amazing courage and dedication. They are also the careers and hobbies of people with visual disabilities. Part 1: Adaptable activities Pick an activity, sport, or game that interests you. Explore what changes can be made so that people with visual disabilities are able to participate or play, too. Write a short report on how your favorite sport or game has been adapted. Is the equipment different? Are the rules different? How? Include pictures. If you would like, expand your research to include other forms of disabilities. If you learn that your favorite activity doesn’t have an adapted version, invent one and explain how it works in your report. Wheelchair racer participating in a marathon Start with the sites below which mention canoeing, kayaking, hiking, rock climbing, bowling, camping, cycling, golf, gymnastics, judo, power lifting, skiing, snowboarding, mountaineering, swimming, wrestling, sailing, and traveling abroad. • • • • Ready for the 100m Blind climber at Blind horseback race summer camp rider 26
  27. 27. Name: Date: Part 2: Barrier breaking biographies Learn more about a person alive today who is changing the way the world sees people with disabilities. Choose from the list of people below or find another person who interests you. When you present the person’s biography, use one of the formats suggested in the Resources section of the Teacher’s Guide. Pascale Bercovitch Jim Abbott Erik Weihenmeyer Courtesy of Ed Weihenmeyer • fter losing both legs in a train accident at age 17, A • Erik Weihenmeyer is a former middle school Pascale Bercovitch went on to become a docu- teacher who became the first blind person to mentary director, writer, and a world-class athlete summit Mt. Everest, along with several of the in swimming and rowing. world’s other major peaks. Learn more at www. and www.nobarriers- • scar Pistorius is a double-amputee and Paralympic O runner who won the right to try out for the 2008 Olympics against able-bodied athletes. Learn • Sabriye Tenberken is a blind woman from Germany more at who started a school for blind children in Tibet and david_epstein/05/16/Pistorius/index.html. invented a Braille system for their language. Learn more at and • atalie du Tout, who lost one of her legs in a car N accident in 2001, competes against able-bodied swimmers and qualified for the 2008 Olympics. • Tom Dempsey played professional football in the Learn more at 1970s, in spite of having been born with half a right foot and no right hand. Learn more in a 2003 • Jim Abbott, who was born without a right hand, Football Digest article at became a professional baseball pitcher. Learn more articles/mi_m0FCL/is_10_32/ai_102656419. at • For suggestions on other people, read “9 People Who Did It Anyway” at blogs/archives/13601. 27
  28. 28. Name: Date: “ Seek first to understand, then to be understood. —Stephen R. Covey ” 2.1 Acceptable & Accessible: Looking back Use the timeline found in the “Resources” section, on page 82, to complete this lesson. History & Geography 1. Using a long piece of bulletin board paper or poster board, draw a line 21 inches long. Mark off each inch on your line. a. Starting with the year “0” at the very beginning of the line, assign a century to each inch-mark all the way up to 2100. b. Number each CE (AD) year on the list of dates provided, starting with “29: Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a Roman…” as #1. The last year, 2008, will be #63. c. Insert the number for each of these years in their appropriate place on the 21 inch timeline you made. Start by writing “1” where the year 29 should be, between O and 100. d. What patterns do you notice? Which centuries are the busiest? Which centuries are the least busy? Why? 2. On a map, locate all the countries mentioned by name. What patterns do you notice? 3. Explain why Dr. Sebastien Guillié’s comment in 1819 is ironic. 4. How long has the Snellen Eye chart (“the big E”) been used to test vision? 5. When and for what does the U.S. first appear? 6. When did the first training center for guide dogs open in the U.S.? What was the name of the school and where was it located? Snellen Eye Chart 7. In 1931, in what format would “talking books” be available? 8. When is the word “handicap” officially replaced by the word “disability” in the U.S. laws? What is the difference between the two words? Is there a difference between the phrases “a disabled person” and “a person with a disability?” 9. Add the date you were born to the timeline. Are there other events already on the timeline for that year? 28
  29. 29. Name: Date: Vocabulary: • orking with a partner, divide up this list of vocabulary words and find the definition. If a term has more than W one definition, select the one that best fits its context. • Together, find and highlight one place on the timeline where each term is used. 1. Accessible/accessibility 15. Magna cum laude 2. Acuity 16. Mobile (mobility) 3. Amendment 17. Ophthalmology 4. Assyrian 18. Ophthalmoscope 5. Cataract 19. Ordinance 6. Civil Rights 20. Paralympic 7. Correspondence 21. Polytechnic 8. Deafblind 22. Prosthesis 9. Degraded 23. Retina (retinal) 10. Dialog 24. Stereotypemaker 11. Disability/disabled 25. Typhlocomium 12. Discrimination 26. Valedictorian 13. Handicap/handicapped 27. Vegetate 14. Hospice 28. Vocational 29
  30. 30. Name: Date: “ Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far they can go. ” —T.S. Eliot 2.2 Acceptable & Accessible: Famous people Identify the people listed below. Be sure to include who they are or for what they are known, when they lived, and where they lived. Alicia Alonso Elizabeth Goldring Claude Montal Andrea Bocelli Homer Marla Runyan Ray Charles Lemon Jefferson Sabriye Tenberken Arizona Dranes Helen Keller Erik Weihenmayer José Feliciano Claude Monet Stevie Wonder Ray Charles Helen Keller Lemon Jefferson Claude Monet Erik Weihenmeyer Courtesy of Ed Weihenmeyer divisions/music/caption Extension: 1. Find each person’s country on a world map. 2. Add these peoples’ names and dates in the appropriate points on the timeline. 3. Which job, skill, or reason for being well-known shows up most often on the list? Why do you think it is so frequent? 4. Select one person who interests you and learn more about them. Use the Biographies project list from the “Resources” section of the Teacher’s Guide to present your research. 30
  31. 31. Name: Date: “ Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. ” —Martin Luther King, Jr. 2.3 Acceptable & Accessible: The Americans with Disabilities Act Many laws have been passed to make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as anyone else in the U.S. and to make sure they are treated fairly. The most recent one is called the American with Disabilities Act, or the ADA. The ADA became a law in 1990 and has had a few changes made to it since then. Similar laws make sure people are also not discriminated against because of their race, color, gender, national origin, age, sexual orientation, or religion. Different parts of the ADA have to do with being able to do different things: getting and keeping jobs, using govern- ment services, using public transportation, and getting into and moving around in buildings. Many online resources explain how the ADA works, including its own website It is summarized at and on a FAQ at Use these sites to learn about the ADA for the following activities. 1. (a) What is the definition of “disability”? (b) List some of the physical conditions included in the ADA. (c) What mental conditions are covered? 2. You have probably seen a guide dog in a restaurant, close-captioning on TV, or a special section for wheelchairs in a theater. These are all accommodations and adjustments required by the ADA. List other modifications you have seen. What kinds of disabilities do your examples affect? For example, the wider stall in a public bathroom is helpful for a person in a wheelchair. Close-captioning on TV 31
  32. 32. Name: Date: 3. The ADA has very specific directions on how buildings should be constructed in order to make them accessible to everyone. Some examples include having a restroom door wide enough for a wheelchair, including an elevator in a restaurant with a second floor, or announcing subway stops. The ADA’s rules are explained at and Read through some of them. Do the standards for accessible buildings apply more to persons with physical or mental disabilities? 4. Using the website to research the ADA building requirements, choose one particular form of disability and keep that in mind as you look at the rules. Working in groups, find 3 rules and explain how the ADA applies in that particular circumstance to a person with that particular disability. For example, do the rules for “Detectable Warnings” and ”Dressing and Fitting Rooms” help a person with a visual disability? A hearing disability? How? 32
  33. 33. Name: Date: “ We know that equality of individual ability has never existed and never will, but we do insist that equality of opportunity must still be sought. ” —Franklin D. Roosevelt 2.4 Acceptable & Accessible: Enforcing accessibility What happens if you aren’t allowed to try out for a team because of your disability? What if you can’t shop online at your favorite store because the site isn’t usable by someone with your disability? What if a book you need for school isn’t available in a way that you are able to read? Sometimes the laws designed to help people with disabilities are not always followed. The cases used in this activity are all real and involve a variety of disabilities. You can learn more about them at the following sites. • • • • • For each situation, discuss: a. What is the disabled person being stopped from doing or having? b. Do you think the complaint of discrimination is fair? c. What do you think the solution should be? Do you agree with how it was worked out? 33
  34. 34. Name: Date: 1. A deaf person in Colorado said that the sheriff’s 4. In Illinois, a woman with Asperger’s Syndrome office, which is responsible for providing 9-1-1 (a disorder related to autism) said that a symphony emergency services, did not respond to calls made orchestra wouldn’t let her join because of her with a TTY (a telecommunication device for the disability. Although she had already won her audition deaf). Also, the sheriff’s office did not respond the and earned a spot in the orchestra, her membership right way to “silent/no voice contact” calls, which was revoked after they learned about her disability. is when the 911 call is answered but there is no one Resolution: The orchestra adopted a policy against speaking on the line. disability discrimination and made reasonable Resolution: The sheriff’s office took steps to modifications in their policies, practices, and ensure that the rules for responding to 9-1-1 calls procedures so that individuals with disabilities can were followed correctly. participate. The orchestra also agreed to participate in a benefit concert and to pay a fine of $2,000. 2. A patient who uses a service animal (guide dog) said that a doctor’s office in Arizona wouldn’t let 5. A person who is deaf complained that a Florida her service animal go into the examination room doctor’s office did not provide a sign language with her. interpreter for an appointment, making it difficult Resolution: The doctor adopted a written policy for the patient to communicate with the doctor welcoming people with disabilities who have and the office staff. service animals. He made sure that his staff followed Resolution: The office agreed to provide qualified the rules of this policy and placed a sticker on his interpreters upon request, posted a sign in the office door welcoming service animals. office about the availability of interpreters, and trained all staff in complying with the ADA. 3. An inmate who uses a wheelchair complained that people with mobility disabilities could not get 6. A person with a mobility disability found that into the shower stalls at a Florida county jail. people who use wheelchairs couldn’t get around at a family campground in Pennsylvania. Resolution: The jail rebuilt five showers to make Resolution: The campground made changes to them accessible for prisoners in wheelchairs. the camp store and recreation hall by providing accessible entrances and routes for them. They also added an accessible portable toilet and installed accessible electric and water hook-ups at designated campsites. 34
  35. 35. Name: Date: 7. In Florida, a man with a wheelchair said that an accessible hotel guest room, which he had reserved in advance, was not given to him. Instead, the hotel put him in a standard room which meant he had to use the portable toilet in his van since he couldn’t get into the hotel room’s bathroom. Resolution: The hotel installed two fully-accessible guest rooms, including one with a roll-in shower. The hotel also developed a reservation system to ensure that reservations for accessible rooms are held and they trained their staff to make sure that 9. A blind woman in Florida reported that a taxi cab guests’ accessibility requests are met. The owner of driver refused to allow her and her guide dog into a the hotel also apologized and refunded the cab. The driver told her the car was not equipped for night’s stay. transporting animals. Resolution: The cab company promised not to deny 8. A man who is HIV positive (which means he has rides to customers with disabilities and their service the virus that can lead to AIDS) believed he was animals. The company developed a Service Animal discriminated against when the city of Philadelphia Policy and made sure everyone who worked for the refused to provide emergency medical services for company followed the rules. The cab company also him because of his illness. paid the women $1,000 and posted signs stating: Resolution: The city of Philadelphia paid the man “Persons with disabilities accompanied by service $50,000. The city also promised that they would no animals are welcome.” longer withhold emergency medical services from a person because of his or her disability or illness. 10. A national association of blind people sued a large, The city also had to create a program on HIV and popular retail company because it was not possible other infectious diseases that will become part of for a person with a visual disability to shop online the standard training for paramedics and fire with the store’s website. department EMTs. Resolution: The store began to make changes to its website to make it usable by people who are visually disabled. However, the case is still pending and has not been resolved yet. 35
  36. 36. Answer Key: Upper and Middle School 1.1 Seeing the World Differently: Causes of visual disabilities (pages 13–15) Part 1: 1C 2G 3A 4E 5I 6F 7D 8J 9B 10H Part 2: (1) Countries where people have more money, like in North America and Europe, do not have as many problems with causes of blindness from contagious diseases, like in Africa or Asia. Countries like the United States can afford better medical care. (2) Some causes of blindness only happen at certain stages of life, like at a premature birth (ROP) or when a person gets older (glaucoma, cataract). 1.3 Seeing the World Differently: Finding your way, “Map making” (pages 22–23) 1. Suggested definitions vendor: a person who sells things cobbler: a person who fixes and makes shoes pungent: striking your sense of smell or taste strongly veer: turns slightly pervades: present everywhere 2. Smells: fruit (apples, pears, oranges, grapefruit), leather, hot food (baked bread, meat & noodle dishes); Sounds: cars/traffic, vendors and customers, hammering on shoes, people in the entrances to their houses 36
  37. 37. Answer Key: Upper and Middle School (continued) 2.1Acceptable & Accessible: Looking back (pages 28–29) History & Geography 1. (d) Sporadic developments early on, long expanses of time with no events, slowest in the Middle Ages, increases in Industrial Revolution, most in 20th century. 2. Locations are clustered chronologically in the Middle East, Europe, and North America. Countries: Austria, Denmark, Egypt, France , Germany, Great Britain/UK/England, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, U.S. 3. He was responsible for educating, advocating for, and caring for blind people and yet even he feels they are less-worthy humans. 4. 146 years (in 2008). 5. 1829, the 1st school for the blind in the U.S. is chartered. 6. 1919, The Seeing Eye, New Jersey. 7. Phonographs/record albums. 8. 1990; discuss the connotations and denotations of the terms, how they are interpreted subjectively, and why some are considered derogatory. For example, the term handicap comes from “cap in hand,” as in the past disabled people often resorted to begging for their basic needs. Vocabulary: Terms are in most standard dictionaries, including online services like except for “stereotypemaker” and “typhlocomium” which are defined within the text of the timeline. 37
  38. 38. Answer Key: Upper and Middle School (continued) 2.2 Acceptable & Accessible: Famous people (page 30) Name Who/Why When Where Alicia Alonso ballerina & choreographer b. 1920, diagnosed in 1941 Cuba Andrea Bocelli opera singer b. 1958, 1st album in 1994 Italy Ray Charles singer/songwriter/musician 1930–2004 U.S. Arizona Dranes singer, one of the 1st popular gospel artists c.1891–c.1963 U.S. José Feliciano singer, guitarist b.1945, 1st album in 1966 Puerto Rico Elizabeth Goldring artist, writer, helped invent a "seeing machine" b.1945, invention in 2006 U.S. Retinal Imaging Machine Vision System (RIMVS) Homer poet, author of Iliad & Odyssey 8th century BC Greece Lemon Jefferson musician, founder of "Texas Blues" 1894–1929 U.S. Helen Keller author, activist 1880–1968 U.S. Claude Monet artist, impressionist 1840–1926 France Claude Montal piano player, piano tuner, successful business c. 1834 France Marla Runyan marathon runner b.1969, 2000 Olympics U.S. Sabriye Tenberken activist, created Braille Without Borders in Tibet b.1970, opened school in Germany Tibet in 1998 Erik Weihenmayer teacher, mtn climber, summitted Everest b.1968, Everest in 2001 U.S. Stevie Wonder singer/songwriter/musician b.1950, 1st Grammy in 1974 U.S. Extension: 3. musician 2.3 Acceptable & Accessible: The Americans with Disabilities Act (pages 31–32) 1. (a) 42 U.S.C. § 12202(2)(A-C): a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.(b) Physical impairments: 28 C.F.R. § 35.104(1)(i)(A). (c) Mental impairments: 28 C.F.R. § 35.104(1)(i)(B) 3. physical 38
  39. 39. High School Part 1: Seeing the World Differently Lesson 1: Causes of visual disabilities Lesson 2: Adventures for your senses— audition, olfaction, somatosensation Lesson 3: Finding your way Lesson 4: How do you do see what I see? Lesson 5: Breaking barriers Part 2: Acceptable & Accessible Lesson 1: Looking back Lesson 2: Famous people Lesson 3: Evolution of inclusion Lesson 4: The Americans with Disabilities Act Lesson 5: Enforcing accessibility Answer keys “ We should acknowledge differences, we should greet differences, until difference makes no difference anymore. ” —Adela A. Allen 39