Heat recovery Ventilation on Low Carbon Housing

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Presentation for Action Renewables Association
Belfast 30th November 2009
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Heat Recovery Ventilation
in
Low Energy / Low CO2
Housing

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Heat recovery Ventilation on Low Carbon Housing

  1. 1. Presentation for Action Renewables AssociationPresentation for Action Renewables Association Belfast 30Belfast 30thth November 2009November 2009 ______________________________________________________________________ Heat Recovery VentilationHeat Recovery Ventilation inin Low Energy / Low CO2Low Energy / Low CO2 HousingHousing Bill QuigleyBill Quigley NuTech Renewables LtdNuTech Renewables Ltd
  2. 2. Carbon emissions and Energy Supply in IrelandCarbon emissions and Energy Supply in Ireland •• It is the considered view by all the EU Member States that ClimaIt is the considered view by all the EU Member States that Climatete Change must now be tackledChange must now be tackled •• Studies have shown that failure to do so could mean a radicalStudies have shown that failure to do so could mean a radical change in life on this planet as we know itchange in life on this planet as we know it •• Most recently the Stern Report in the UK has called for immediatMost recently the Stern Report in the UK has called for immediatee actionaction •• Both Northern Ireland and ROI have a seriousBoth Northern Ireland and ROI have a serious problem in terms of the Security of Supplyproblem in terms of the Security of Supply issueissue –– In the ROI 87% of energy will beIn the ROI 87% of energy will be imported for the next 20 years (Source: SEI)imported for the next 20 years (Source: SEI)
  3. 3. Total Primary Energy Requirement by SectorTotal Primary Energy Requirement by Sector -- ROIROI (Source(Source –– SEI)SEI) Residential is 25% of totalResidential is 25% of total
  4. 4. Energy Use for space heating, ventilation and hot water inEnergy Use for space heating, ventilation and hot water in HousingHousing In a typical house built to satisfy the requirements of the BuilIn a typical house built to satisfy the requirements of the Buildingding Regulations, it is worthwhile looking at how energy is used andRegulations, it is worthwhile looking at how energy is used and heat is lost in housing. Simply put:heat is lost in housing. Simply put: •• 1/3 is heat lost through the fabric of the building1/3 is heat lost through the fabric of the building •• 1/3 is heat lost caused by air infiltration and necessary air fo1/3 is heat lost caused by air infiltration and necessary air forr ventilationventilation •• 1/3 goes to energy to provide domestic hot water1/3 goes to energy to provide domestic hot water Extra insulation can only save a certain amount of energyExtra insulation can only save a certain amount of energy Focus on air infiltration and the domestic hot water loadFocus on air infiltration and the domestic hot water load
  5. 5. Passive Solar HousingPassive Solar Housing In the 1978In the 1978 –– 1980 The Garristown House in Co Dublin1980 The Garristown House in Co Dublin Designer:Designer: John CashJohn Cash Architect:Architect: Duncan StewartDuncan Stewart Other Technologists: DIT specialistsOther Technologists: DIT specialists Solar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of someSolar Wall of some 110 m2110 m2110 m2110 m2110 m2110 m2110 m2110 m2 All fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonablyAll fabric reasonably well insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for thewell insulated for the timetimetimetimetimetimetimetime Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load =Space heating Load = 30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year30 kWh/m2.Year
  6. 6. Passive Solar HousingPassive Solar Housing In the 1983In the 1983 –– 1988 The Knocklyon Project1988 The Knocklyon Project Designer: Bill Quigley / Mark ForkinDesigner: Bill Quigley / Mark Forkin Architect: Turlough OArchitect: Turlough O’’DonnellDonnell Solar RoofSolar RoofSolar RoofSolar RoofSolar RoofSolar RoofSolar RoofSolar Roof –––––––– 40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector40m2 of Air Solar Collector All fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for theAll fabric reasonably well insulated for the timetimetimetimetimetimetimetime Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25Wall = 0.35; Floor 0.25 Roof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.KRoof = 0.20; Windows = 3.0 W.m2.K Tested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologiesTested numbers of different technologies –––––––– Rock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase ChangeRock Bed Heat Stores, Phase Change Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc.Heat Stores, Heat Pumps, etc. Space heatingSpace heatingSpace heatingSpace heatingSpace heatingSpace heatingSpace heatingSpace heating –––––––– 40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and40 kWh/m2.year and reduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with bestreduced to 20 kWh/m2.year with best technologiestechnologiestechnologiestechnologiestechnologiestechnologiestechnologiestechnologies
  7. 7. Effective Insulation ?Effective Insulation ? Cavity WallCavity Wall Thermal LoopingThermal Looping Outside 0 C Inside 20 C Calculated UCalculated U--Value = 0.45Value = 0.45 Actual UActual U--Value = 0.9 ?Value = 0.9 ?
  8. 8. •• No air gaps?No air gaps? •• Both British and Irish Board of Agrement CertificateBoth British and Irish Board of Agrement Certificate •• Firmly held by tie?Firmly held by tie? •• 3mm air gaps = +158%3mm air gaps = +158% •• 10mm gaps = +193%10mm gaps = +193% Journal of the CIB 1990Journal of the CIB 1990 Jan LecompteJan Lecompte
  9. 9. BRE Field Study on actual built housesBRE Field Study on actual built houses (Checking measured U(Checking measured U--Values against calculated onesValues against calculated ones –– June 2001)June 2001) •• Timber FrameTimber Frame –– very good correlationvery good correlation •• Partially filled cavity wallPartially filled cavity wall –– up to twice as largeup to twice as large as calculated. Large variations in wall sectionsas calculated. Large variations in wall sections •• Internally insulated wallsInternally insulated walls –– poor correlationpoor correlation •• Sloping RoofsSloping Roofs –– very poor correlationvery poor correlation
  10. 10. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 kWh/Year House as Designed Gross Space Heating Load = 10,000 kWh /yr House as Built Gross Space Heating load = 20,000 kWh /yr Solar Contribution = 5,000 kWh/yr House as Designed Net Space Heating Load = 5,000 kWh/yr Solar Contribution = 5,000 kWh/yr House as Built Net Space Heating Load = 15,000 kWh/yr Importance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build QualityImportance of Build Quality By doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in realityBy doubling the Energy Demand in reality We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (We can Triple the actual running costs (££££££££))))))))
  11. 11. There are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block SolutionsThere are Block Solutions This system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale LtdThis system is by Springvale Ltd –––––––– A CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiaryA CRH subsidiary
  12. 12. Cold Bridging. • Where structural elements transfer cold from the outside cold area to the inside warm area. • Cold bridging is an enemy of energy efficiency and a negative effect on a house • The lower the Cold Bridging area in the wall the better. • Important to get Thermal Bridging better than the Accepted Construction Details i.e. aim for better than 0.04 W/m2.K (ACD = 0.08 W/m2.K)
  13. 13. NuTech Passive Solar HousingNuTech Passive Solar Housing 26 SunWarm houses at Virginia, Co Cavan26 SunWarm houses at Virginia, Co Cavan [Note: This R&D project was used by SEI to formulate the now[Note: This R&D project was used by SEI to formulate the now successful House of Tomorrow package for builders]successful House of Tomorrow package for builders] Architects: Denis Handy of ROBHArchitects: Denis Handy of ROBH •• Thermodynamic DesignThermodynamic Design •• Hour by hour computer modellingHour by hour computer modelling •• MonitoringMonitoring –– Temp + HumidityTemp + Humidity •• Blower Door testingBlower Door testing –– ACHACH •• Infra Red thermographyInfra Red thermography This projected was coThis projected was co--funded byfunded by Sustainable Energy IrelandSustainable Energy Ireland House of Tomorrow R&DHouse of Tomorrow R&D ProgrammeProgramme
  14. 14. Passive HousesPassive HousesPassive HousesPassive HousesPassive HousesPassive HousesPassive HousesPassive Houses Very Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy DemandVery Low Energy Demand RequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirementsRequirements (a)(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)(a)(a) less than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heatingless than 15 kWh/m2.Year (Space heating –––––––– Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy)Delivered Energy) (b)(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)(b)(b) Less than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating loadLess than 10W/m2 heating load (c)(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)(c)(c) Air Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50PaAir Infiltration 0.6 ACH at 50Pa = 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure= 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure (d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging(d) Thermal Bridging –––––––– minimisedminimisedminimisedminimisedminimisedminimisedminimisedminimised -------- in DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.Kin DEAP less than 0.04 W/m2.K
  15. 15. NuTech Passive Solar Housing for Wicklow CountyNuTech Passive Solar Housing for Wicklow County Council in the village of KnockanannaCouncil in the village of Knockananna
  16. 16. Housing by MKN in Swords in Co DublinHousing by MKN in Swords in Co Dublin
  17. 17. Housing at Killeagh, Co CorkHousing at Killeagh, Co Cork Wall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall U--------Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27Value = 0.27 W/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.K Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20Ground Floor = 0.20 W/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.K Roof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.KRoof = 0.16 W/m2.K Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90Windows = 1.90 Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2Airtightness = < 2 ACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 PaACH at 50 Pa
  18. 18. NuTech Passive Solar Housing at Oldtown forNuTech Passive Solar Housing at Oldtown for Fingal Co County CouncilFingal Co County Council Wall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall UWall U--------Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16Value = 0.16 W/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.K Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16Ground Floor = 0.16 W/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.KW/m2.K Roof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.KRoof = 0.14 W/m2.K Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80Windows = 0.80 Airtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH atAirtightness = 0.60 ACH at 50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa50 Pa BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e.BER: 48 kWh/m2.year i.e. an A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Ratingan A2 Rating
  19. 19. Air Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTech’’’’’’’’ssssssss Minneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower Door
  20. 20. Air Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTechAir Leakage Testing using NuTech’’’’’’’’ssssssss Minneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower DoorMinneapolis Blower Door These are the test results for one of the houses at Oldtown, Co Dublin. These houses are being built by Commins Bros. This house has an air leakage rate of 1.14 Air Changes per Hour at 50 Pa. This equates to an air leakage rate of 0.057 ACH at normal atmospheric pressure (divide the 50 Pa rate by 20 is the accepted rule) We have got these houses down to 0.60 ACH at 50 Pa i.e. This is 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure These houses are the most airtight houses that NuTech has ever tested.
  21. 21. Air Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for VentilationAir Infiltration and the necessary air for Ventilation Use a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation SystemUse a Heat Recovery Ventilation System If air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed fromIf air being removed from ‘‘‘‘‘‘‘‘wetwetwetwetwetwetwetwet’’’’’’’’ rooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20Crooms is at 20C and incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air isand incoming fresh air is at 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh airat 5C then the fresh air going to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house willgoing to the house will be at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heatbe at 18C after the heat exchange processexchange processexchange processexchange processexchange processexchange processexchange processexchange process System MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST beSystem MUST be designed and ondesigned and ondesigned and ondesigned and ondesigned and ondesigned and ondesigned and ondesigned and on commissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTEDcommissioning TESTED to ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfyto ensure airflows satisfy Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006Part F 2006
  22. 22. Housing at Killeagh, Co CorkHousing at Killeagh, Co Cork
  23. 23. Housing at Killeagh, Co CorkHousing at Killeagh, Co Cork
  24. 24. Output from Sunwarm solar panels
  25. 25. Evacuated Tube Solar CollectorsEvacuated Tube Solar Collectors
  26. 26. Evacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTechEvacuated Tube Collectors with NuTech’’’’’’’’s IRESs IRESs IRESs IRESs IRESs IRESs IRESs IRES ControllerControllerControllerControllerControllerControllerControllerController –––––––– The NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House systemThe NuTech Passive Solar House system Boiler can be Oil, Gas, Wood Pellet or an Air to Water Heat Pump
  27. 27. Intelligent Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) ••In very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use ofIn very large Houses we do consider the use of underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc.underfloor heating, radiators, etc. ••Double height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examinationDouble height rooms do need careful examination ••Watch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheatingWatch out for summer overheating Energy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solarEnergy from the solar collectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed intocollectors is fed into the HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system tothe HRV system to heat the house.heat the house.heat the house.heat the house.heat the house.heat the house.heat the house.heat the house. This can now beThis can now beThis can now beThis can now beThis can now beThis can now beThis can now beThis can now be taken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAPtaken into the DEAP Calculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedureCalculation procedure to improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BERto improve the BER Rating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the houseRating for the house
  28. 28. NuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar HouseNuTech Passive Solar House ••Insulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher levelInsulate effectively and to a higher level ••Air tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes peAir tighten the house to a measured level ( < 1.0 Air Changes per Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa)r Hour at 50 Pa) ••Remove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction componentsRemove Thermal Bridging at joints in the construction components ••Use an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV systemUse an effective, designed HRV system ••Utilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated TubeUtilise the energy gains by way of the Thermomax Evacuated Tube Solar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for bothSolar Array for both Hot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV systemHot Water and Space Heating by way of the HRV system ••Use the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to theUse the HRV system as the method of distributing the heat to the house by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and byhouse by day and by nightnightnightnightnightnightnightnight ••Save on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple GlazingSave on Triple Glazing –––––––– well designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequatewell designed Double Glazing is adequate ••Save on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating systemSave on a conventional radiator heating system
  29. 29. Computer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and ActualityComputer Simulations and Actuality We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following:We can predict the following: ••The output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collectorThe output of the air solar collector ••The performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchangerThe performance of the air to water heat exchanger ••The average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperatureThe average house temperature ••The average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinderThe average water temperature in the cylinder ••The overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the systemThe overall energy performance of the system We can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heaWe can test the house for air tightness, measure the overall heat loss cot loss cot loss cot loss cot loss cot loss cot loss cot loss co--------efficient,efficient,efficient,efficient,efficient,efficient,efficient,efficient, monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc.monitor temperatures, energy use, etc. This allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy PerformanceThis allows NuTech to check on the Energy Performance
  30. 30. Computer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer SimulationComputer Simulation -------- TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 00:00 01:20 02:40 04:00 05:20 06:40 08:00 09:20 10:40 12:00 13:20 14:40 16:00 17:20 18:40 20:00 21:20 22:40 Temperature(o C) TH1 TCONC TLW Timber Frame House - insulated, HRV, Air Solar Collectors
  31. 31. A note on Thermal Mass:A note on Thermal Mass: •• Very high Thermal Mass in our climate is not a great idea!!!!Very high Thermal Mass in our climate is not a great idea!!!! •• We need fast response to reasonably small inputs henceWe need fast response to reasonably small inputs hence Balanced Thermal MassBalanced Thermal Mass For Cooling:For Cooling: •• Highly insulated housesHighly insulated houses •• Special Lossnay type HRV systemsSpecial Lossnay type HRV systems •• Keep the sun out (design of glazing + Brise Soleil)Keep the sun out (design of glazing + Brise Soleil) •• Work closely with Architect on designWork closely with Architect on design •• Provide contractors with the solutionProvide contractors with the solution
  32. 32. A word of caution!A word of caution! •• An A3 house or a Code Level 4/5 House sounds greatAn A3 house or a Code Level 4/5 House sounds great …………butbut •• It will use less than 75kWh/m2.yearIt will use less than 75kWh/m2.year……say we have a house that uses lesssay we have a house that uses less than 70 kWh/m2.year of Primary Energy for Heating, DHW & Lightinthan 70 kWh/m2.year of Primary Energy for Heating, DHW & Lightingg •• This means in a 100 m2 house it will use 7,000 kWh of Primary EnThis means in a 100 m2 house it will use 7,000 kWh of Primary Energy forergy for Space Heating, Ventilation, Hot Water and Electric LightingSpace Heating, Ventilation, Hot Water and Electric Lighting •• Now, if we deduct the electricity for lighting, pumps, fans, etcNow, if we deduct the electricity for lighting, pumps, fans, etc –– the balancethe balance is about 4,500 kWh per year for Heating, Ventilation and Hot watis about 4,500 kWh per year for Heating, Ventilation and Hot waterer •• Now change that from primary Energy to delivered Energy and theNow change that from primary Energy to delivered Energy and the totaltotal becomes approx 4,000 kWh per yearbecomes approx 4,000 kWh per year •• 1 litre of oil contains approx 10.5 kWh of energy1 litre of oil contains approx 10.5 kWh of energy •• Therefore the oil usage for Space Heating, Ventilation and Hot WTherefore the oil usage for Space Heating, Ventilation and Hot Water willater will be about 380 litres of oil per yearbe about 380 litres of oil per year •• ThatThat’’s a small amount of oils a small amount of oil –– approx 1/3 of a typical fill of oil!!!approx 1/3 of a typical fill of oil!!! •• Hence, emphasis on workmanship!Hence, emphasis on workmanship!
  33. 33. Mechanical HRV systemsMechanical HRV systems No 1 priorityNo 1 priority –– get the house airtightget the house airtight How airtight is airtight in terms of the air infiltration rate? Passive Houses look for a blower door test result of < 0.6 ACH at 50 Pa This is equivalent to 0.03 ACH at Normal Pressure – this is 1 Air Change every 33 and 1/3 hours by way of air infiltration – that’s airtight! 2 Points – This is difficult to achieve and You now need a properly designed HRV system
  34. 34. Mechanical HRV systemsMechanical HRV systems No 2 priorityNo 2 priority –– get a highly efficient HRV unit with a low Specific Fanget a highly efficient HRV unit with a low Specific Fan PowerPower To design a highly efficient HRV unit you do two things 1. Have a large Heat Exchange Area and 2. Move the air slowly through the heat exchange unit i.e. you are moving less air Passive House Design looks for a Fresh Air input of 0.3 ACH – this is very low. In an 85m2 house its Volume is say 220 m3 and therefore the amount of Fresh Air incoming is 72.6 m3 per hour – that is 20.17 litres of air per second. UK TGD – F guides 0.3 Litres / sec per m2 of floor area = 25.5 litres / sec minimum ASHRAE advise 12 litres of fresh air per person per second Care is required
  35. 35. Mechanical HRV systemsMechanical HRV systems No 3 PriorityNo 3 Priority –– Design for large housesDesign for large houses –– say, 300 m2say, 300 m2 – 300m2 x 0.3 litres/sec (TGD-F) = 90 litres / sec – Most units are designed for small houses of about 100m2 area, hence, unit is running flat out to achieve 90 litres per second and is therefore noisy. – Unit must be designed to give the ‘Designed Air in and Air out’ with the fans running at Low Speed and are therefore quiet. – Check the Fan Curves and check the dB rating for the operational fan speed – Measure the quantities of air in and out when the system is commissioned
  36. 36. Solar CollectorsSolar Collectors No 1 priorityNo 1 priority –– Check the Efficiency and the Heat Loss CharacteristicCheck the Efficiency and the Heat Loss Characteristic Look up sites like SPF in Switzerland [ www.spf.ch ]
  37. 37. Solar CollectorsSolar Collectors No 1 priorityNo 1 priority –– Check the Efficiency and the Heat Loss CharacteristicCheck the Efficiency and the Heat Loss Characteristic If the ηo or the a1 factors are not available from the manufacturers then you must use the Default Values Typically the Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors can have an ηo of 0.78 and an a1 factor as low as 1.1 W/m2.K Flat Plate Solar Collectors can have an ηo of 0.80 BUT their a1 can be as high as 5.0 W/m2.K For Ireland the Evacuated Tube Collector CAN be a superb solution if the low levels of solar radiation can be used
  38. 38. Solar CollectorsSolar Collectors Example Continued: Q = Ac Fr [(τ .α.. I) – UL(Ti – Ta)] Ac = 6m2; Fr = 0.9; τ = 0.92; α = 0.95 I = 200 W/m2 Level of Solar Radiation ; UL = 1.1 W/m2.K Heat Loss from Collector Ti = 30 C Inlet Fluid Temperature; Ta = 5 C Ambient Air Temperature The Q = 795 Watts If air exiting house to the HRV is 20 C and incoming ambient air is 5 the air off the HRV unit will be approx 18 C Assume the air flow through the HRV unit is 103 litres per second (370 m3 / hr) This is heated by the solar water to air heat exchanger and the air to the house is then at approx 24.5 C. NOTE: The incoming air is now warmer than the exiting air. We are now heating the house with the HRV system
  39. 39. Integrated HRV and an EvacuatedIntegrated HRV and an Evacuated Tube Solar Array ( 6.6 m2)Tube Solar Array ( 6.6 m2) 27/11/2009 14:07:38 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0332 Tw305 Tp596 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC341 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:08:40 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0332 Tw304 Tp595 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC341 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:09:42 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0332 Tw305 Tp593 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:10:45 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0332 Tw305 Tp590 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:11:47 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0331 Tw304 Tp586 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:12:49 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0331 Tw305 Tp581 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:13:51 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0333 Tw306 Tp576 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:14:53 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0329 Tw305 Tp572 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:15:56 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0336 Tw305 Tp567 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H 27/11/2009 14:16:58 0000000100010000 001001000101 0000010011011010 Tc0333 Tw305 Tp562 S3 H4 Hp1 RLC241 Solar Vent HP Heating/H Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:Some very recent data:
  40. 40. HRV SystemsHRV Systems –– Final Message!Final Message! In building a Low Energy House 1. Insulate and reduce Thermal Bridging 2. Make it Air Tight – suggest better than 1 ACH at 50 Pa 3. Use a designed HRV to reduce the energy requirement for ventilation 4. Integrate the HRV system with an evacuated tube solar array to provide high levels of comfort AND to double the energy from the solar array
  41. 41. Thank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listeningThank you for listening………………………………………… Bill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill QuigleyBill Quigley NuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech RenewablesNuTech Renewables Tel:Tel:Tel:Tel:Tel:Tel:Tel:Tel: 028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031028 4175 3031 Fax:Fax:Fax:Fax:Fax:Fax:Fax:Fax: 028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151028 4175 4151 eeeeeeee--------mail:mail:mail:mail:mail:mail:mail:mail: bill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.combill.nutech@gmail.com Web:Web:Web:Web:Web:Web:Web:Web: www.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.comwww.nutechrenewables.com

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