The goal of DFA was to explore students ability to work with different representational formats. What underlying, implicit knowledge is needed to be successful.
OPEN Kickoff: OLI Learner Centered Design
OLI Course Design & Learning Principles
Why a “learner-centered” approach? Learning results from what the student does and thinks and only from what the student does and thinks. The teacher can advance learning only by influencing what the student does to learn (Herb Simon, 2001). It’s not teaching that causes learning. Attempts by the learner to perform cause learning, dependent upon the quality of feedback and opportunities to use it (Grant Wiggins, 1993).
Data on student thinking is criticalto effective instruction … example Which problem type is most difficult for Algebra students? Story Problem As a waiter, Ted gets $6 per hour. One night he made $66 in tips and earned a total of $81.90. How many hours did Ted work? Word Problem Starting with some number, if I multiply it by 6 and then add 66, I get 81.90. What number did I start with? Equation x * 6 + 66 = 81.90
Algebra Student Results: Story Problems are Easier! 80% 70% 61%Percent Correct 60% 42% 40% 20% 0% S tory W ord Equation Problem Representation
The Expert’s Blind SpotExpert intuitions about student difficulties areoften wrong, systematically biased 100 90 80 70 % Making 60 Correct 50 Ranking 40 (which problems 30 hardest) 20 10 0 Elementary Middle School High School Teachers Teachers Teachers Nathan, M.J. & Koedinger, K.R. (2000). Teacher’s and researchers beliefs of early algebra development. Journal of Mathematics Education Research, 31(2), 168-190
The Course Design Triangle Objectives Descriptions of what students should be able to do at the end of the course Assessments Tasks that providefeedback on students’ knowledge and skills Instructional Activities Contexts and activities that foster students’ active engagement in learning 6
The Triangle Exemplified Learning Objective … the students should be able to write a clear topic sentence Categorize example sentencesInstructional Activities Revise poor examples Practice at writing topic sentences Generate a clear topic Assessment sentence for a new topic 7
Using The Course Design Triangle To Guide CC-OLI Design Objectives Student Centered & Measurable Applicable in Many Community Colleges AssessmentsOpportunities to learnSupport monitoring of learningAffordances of OLI technology Activities Principles of Learning Multi-Media Design Principles Affordances of OLI technology 8
The Principles From the Eberly Center for Teaching Excellencehttp://www.cmu.edu/teaching/principles/learning.html
A Quick DetourUser Experience Matters• Interfaces can get in the way of learning• Tools need a purpose – technology should play a supporting role
Practice and FeedbackGoal-directed practice and targeted feedback are critical to learning.Practice that is...• directed toward a specific level of performance• continually monitored• informed by previous feedbackFeedback that is...• related to performance criteria• timely, frequent and constructive• linked to opportunities for further practice
OLI MiniTutors• Goal-directed practice and targeted feedback are critical to learning
OrganizationThe way students organize knowledge determines how they use itCan facilitate retrieval and use of knowledge and further learning when...• knowledge is organized around meaningful principles• relationships between and among concepts are clear• knowledge includes conditions and contexts for useCan interfere when knowledge is...• fragmented or disconnected• linked inappropriately (causal, correlational)• missing conditions and contexts for use
Big PictureThe way students organize knowledge determines how they use it.
MasteryStudents only learn what they practice, so they must• practice component skills and knowledge• practice synthesizing skills• practice when and how to apply knowledge and skillsotherwise students will unable to transfer them to a new context
StatTutor• The way students organize knowledge determines how they use it.• Goal-directed practice and targeted feedback are critical to learning.• Mastery involves developing component skills and knowledge, and synthesizing and applying them appropriately.
Principles of E-Learning 1. Multimedia 2. Contiguity 3. Coherence 4. Modality 5. Redundancy 6. PersonalizationClark, R. & Mayer, R., e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: ProvenGuidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, 2005
Principles of E-Learning Resources: oli.cmu.edu (especially after June 7) youtube.com/cmuoli @cmuoli @NormanBier @BillJerome @JohnRinderleClark, R. & Mayer, R., e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: ProvenGuidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, 2005