The Wireless Library Palinet Spring2005


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  • The Wireless Library Palinet Spring2005

    1. 1. Wireless Libraries Bill Drew SUNY Morrisville College Library [email_address]
    2. 2. From Unshelved:
    3. 3. Need help? <ul><li>Have you been wondering when/whether your library should consider adopting wireless technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning to remodel or build and need to understand the networking options for the future, short- and long-term? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Rules for this workshop <ul><li>Ask questions! There are no stupid questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me to slow down if I go too fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupt me to ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know everything so feel free to add your ideas. </li></ul>
    5. 5. What we will cover: <ul><li>What is a Wireless Network? </li></ul><ul><li>History. </li></ul><ul><li>How it works. </li></ul><ul><li>Standards & Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Why do it or possible uses? </li></ul><ul><li>Myths. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Wireless Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning . </li></ul><ul><li>Resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The Future. </li></ul>
    6. 6. What is a Wireless Network? <ul><li>Enables your device to stay connected to your wired network without a wire or network cable. </li></ul>
    7. 7. A Brief History <ul><li>1894 – Marconi experimented with radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>1901 – signals transmitted across the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>1942 – Frequency Hopping Patent. </li></ul><ul><li>1939 - broadcast TV started. </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – first public mobile telephone. </li></ul><ul><li>1971 - first wireless LAN. </li></ul><ul><li>1977 – first cellular phone system. </li></ul><ul><li>1982 – commercial cellular. </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – laptops and PDAs. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – IEEE 802.11 Standard. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Hedy Lamar Connection <ul><li>Wireless based on an idea patented by Hedy Lamar and composer George Antheil </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency hopping or spread-spectrum. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Parts of a WLAN Access Point (AP): Wireless LAN transmitter/receiver that acts as a connection between wireless clients and wired networks.
    10. 10. Parts of a WLAN Network Interface Card (NIC): hardware installed in computing device that enables it to communicate on a network.
    11. 11. How wireless works Used with permission of ™ ZDnet PC Magazine, March 28, 2000; ©2001,6755,2482910,00.html
    12. 12. Peer to Peer <ul><li>Two can talk to each other without a formal network </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic courtesy of Proxim </li></ul>
    13. 13. Client and Access Point <ul><li>Connecting to the LAN via WLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic courtesy of Proxim </li></ul>
    14. 14. Multiple Access Points <ul><li>Multiple Access Points and Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic courtesy of Proxim </li></ul>
    15. 15. Extension Points <ul><li>Graphic courtesy of Proxim </li></ul>
    16. 16. Standards <ul><li>1997 - IEEE wireless standard : 802.11 </li></ul><ul><li>Revised in 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a – Not yet widely used – here is why - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 GHz range is not available in every country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>segments controlled by military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>segments used for other purposes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b – widely used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz range is globally available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds up to 11 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 802.11 Standards <ul><li>802.11a - 5GHz- ratified in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>802.11b - 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz, ratified in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>802.11d - World Mode and additional regulatory domains - ratified </li></ul><ul><li>802.11e - Quality of Service – voice, video </li></ul><ul><li>802.11f - Inter-Access Point Protocol - interoperability among different vendors </li></ul><ul><li>802.11g - Higher Data rate (>20 Mbps) 2.4GHz – approved in July 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>802.11h - Dynamic Frequency Selection and Transmit Power Control mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>802.11i - Authentication and security (approved July 2004) </li></ul>
    18. 18. IEE 802.11 b most widely used in U.S. •     Ratified as Standard in Sept, 1999. •     11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz, Direct Sequence •     11 US channels •     Virtually approved for world wide use
    19. 19. IEE 802.11a •     Ratified as Standard in Sept, 1999 •     Provides similar technology to HiperLAN2 •     Data rates to 54 Mbps defined •     Provides 8 indoor WLAN channels •     Regulations differ extensively across countries
    20. 20. IEEE 802.11g – <ul><li>• Approved June 2003 by IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>Provides higher data rates @ 2.4 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>• Similar speeds as 802.11a </li></ul><ul><li>• Backward compatible with 11 Mbps (802.11b) </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Alliance approved many products </li></ul>
    21. 21. Other Standards: Hiperlan/1 and /2 - ETSI <ul><ul><li>5 GHz wireless network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports ATM and Ethernet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with IEEE 802.11a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially 53 Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily a European standard. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><ul><li>ports ATM and Ethernet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with IEEE 802.11a. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially 53 Mbps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily a European standard. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Other Standards- Bluetooth <ul><li>2.4 GHz wireless network. </li></ul><ul><li>range - about 30 feet and speed - 2 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>focused on home and personal area networks (HANs and PANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Connects all the digital gadgets one has to other digital gadgets. </li></ul><ul><li>wireless personal network (wPAN) focusing on the “personal operating space” </li></ul><ul><li>good alternative for localized wireless network. </li></ul>Courtesy of ABA Legal Technology Resource Center
    24. 24. Technologies <ul><li>Infrared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>line of site only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 feet to 20 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually limited to single room </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass through most obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>150-300 feet from access point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoors, outdoors and building-to-building </li></ul></ul>Courtesy of ABA Legal Technology Resource Center
    25. 25. Technologies <ul><li>Frequency Hopping v. Direct Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSSS transmits data faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FHSS limited to 2 Mbps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSSS more resistant to interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSSS has higher potential bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSSS now best option for 802.11b </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Wireless Spectrum 2.4 GHz 5.8 GHz 902 MHz Instrumentation Scientific Medical (ISM) Bands of Radio Spectrum 802.11a Wireless LANs Cordless Phones Microwave Ovens Baby Monitors Garage Door Openers 802.11b Wireless LANs Bluetooth Appliances Home RF Appliances
    27. 27. Why do it?
    28. 28. Why do it or Possible Uses (Part 1)? <ul><li>Flexible configuration of rooms using laptops. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow users to bring in their own wireless devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be cheaper than wired. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater productivity and service. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. – twice as many wireless devices as PCs (Forrester Research). </li></ul>
    29. 29. Why do it or Possible Uses (Part 2)? <ul><li>Access networked resources at meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend virtual reference desk to all users . </li></ul><ul><li>Allow myLibrary service users to keep their myLibrary on their own device. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance experience of users in study groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide printing from anywhere in the library. </li></ul><ul><li>Place computers where needed not just where there is wire. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Why do it or Possible Uses (Part 3)? <ul><li>Web based camera to send video back over network for security. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless devices for OPAC queries and other access. </li></ul><ul><li>Bar coding and other scanning (shelf reading, inventory). </li></ul><ul><li>Allow reference staff to roam with access to network and library resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate laptops / PDAs with wireless. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Security: Look out for Pirates <ul><li>Current protocol uses Wired Equivalent Privacy algorithm, or WEP </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses of WEP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals not encrypted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone walking by with proper equipment could use the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Zdnet News: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    32. 32. Security – what to do? From Secure your WLAN by Chris Kozup, Zdnet Tech Update, Dec. 28, 2001; 0,14179,2835133,00.html <ul><li>Audit: know location of all access points. </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication: require all users to log in. Treat same as physical network. Can use Kerberos, LDAP, RADIUS, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality: encrypt your data . Can be done using VPNs (virtual private networks). </li></ul>
    33. 33. Security Solutions <ul><li>802.11i- new security standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides new encryption and authentication schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available Now from a few vendors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third party solutions available now </li></ul>
    34. 34. Selected Recommendations from NIST <ul><li>Develop a security program. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a complete inventory of all access points. </li></ul><ul><li>Change default settings on access points. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable all security features of your WLAN. </li></ul><ul><li>Use encrypted authentication and VPNs. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using a firewall between WLAN and rest of network. </li></ul>
    35. 35. W.E.P. ? - Wired Equivalent Privacy <ul><li>Uses 10 or 26 character key password </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to set up </li></ul><ul><li>Most equipment requires entering hexadecimal codes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>64A7BFCFC3104A0B98841C3545 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be entered on every computer & access point on the network </li></ul>
    36. 36. W.P.A.? - Wi-Fi Protected Access <ul><li>Uses password ( pre-shared key) – can use regular text to enter it. Use 12 characters or more! </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the key to generate new keys on other devices on the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Wi-Fi certification of equipment since Sept. 2003. All equipment on network should meet that certification. Older equipment may require software update. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up for WPA may be hidden. Look for it! </li></ul>
    37. 37. Myths (from Larry Glover – with permission) <ul><li>It won't work. </li></ul><ul><li>It costs too much. </li></ul><ul><li>I don't know how to hook up a wireless network. </li></ul><ul><li>Anybody can read my data or hook into my network. </li></ul><ul><li>Planes, trains, truckers on their CBs, and storms will cause my network signal to break up. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Myths <ul><li>Only works in metal free buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Unreliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Too slow to surf the web. </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>
    39. 39. Some Wireless Devices Compaq iPAQ 3650 <ul><li>Thin, lightweight, design with brilliant color screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Audio record and playback – Audio programs from the Web, MP3 music, or voice notations </li></ul><ul><li>Rechargeable battery that gives up to 12 hours of battery life </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet wireless card optional. </li></ul><ul><li>32 MB RAM. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Some Wireless Devices Compaq iPAQ 3650
    41. 41. Some Wireless Devices <ul><li>Windows CE 3.0 device </li></ul><ul><li>aimed at original equipment manufacturers sell it under their own brand. </li></ul><ul><li>built-in wireless local area network support. </li></ul>WebDT 380
    42. 42. Some Wireless Devices <ul><li>IBM ThinkPad with Raylink Ethernet card </li></ul>
    43. 43. Some Wireless Devices <ul><li>Palm VIIx </li></ul><ul><li>6.7 oz. </li></ul><ul><li>8 MB. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Case Studies <ul><li>Indiana State University </li></ul><ul><li>Liverpool Public Library </li></ul><ul><li>Morrisville College Library </li></ul><ul><li>Rochester Institute of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library </li></ul><ul><li>Laman Public Library, North Little Rock, Arkansas </li></ul>
    45. 45. Library Mobile Computing Project (Project Mercury) Indiana State University Library Copyright ISU Library
    46. 46. ISU Background <ul><li>Comprehensive university </li></ul><ul><li>11,000 students </li></ul><ul><li>Students from rural areas and lower socioeconomic backgrounds </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    47. 47. ISU Library <ul><li>Current building opened in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1 million volumes on five floors. </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate and faculty carrels are not currently networked. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60 databases available through the library home page. </li></ul>
    48. 48. The Mobile Project Plan <ul><li>Mobile Project Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Planned workstation syncing prototype. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate wireless LAN’s. </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    49. 49. Project Plan Goals & Objectives <ul><li>Team approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems encountered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs. </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Scenario <ul><li>A patron enters the library and using a mobile computing device, the patron: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>searches the on-line catalog, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interacts with others on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes and records notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locates books and other materials </li></ul></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    51. 51. Scenario <ul><li>Parts 1 and 2 – Install wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 1 – “wire” faculty carrels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part 2 – “wire” rest of building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 3 – Test handhelds and PC cards </li></ul><ul><li>Part 4 – Set up mobile web site </li></ul><ul><li>Part 5 – Install reference chat room </li></ul><ul><li>Part 6 – Develop book locator software </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    52. 52. Setting up the network <ul><li>Wireless network access in all faculty carrels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High potential for mobile device usage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower cost than wiring 54 carrels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of 802.11b components from Cisco and Compaq. </li></ul></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    53. 53. Wireless LAN Site Survey Copyright ISU Library
    54. 54. Carrel Wireless Costs <ul><li>Total hardware including 7 Cisco access points, and 10 wireless cards: $8,123.00. </li></ul><ul><li>Total installation costs including wiring, and power: $2,100.00. </li></ul><ul><li>We conducted the site survey ourselves to determine the number and location of access points. </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    55. 55. Rest of Library Wireless Costs <ul><li>Total hardware including 17 Cisco access points, 8 Compaq PCI/software access points cost: $18,042.00. </li></ul><ul><li>Total installation costs including wiring, and power: $5,100.00. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Handheld Specifics <ul><li>Compaq iPAQ 3650 PDA. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes expansion pack for PC cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Compaq WL100 wireless network card. </li></ul><ul><li>Syncs via USB cradle to download workstation. </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    57. 57. Handheld Costs <ul><li>Compaq iPAQ handheld with wireless cards and expansion packs costs 2 @ $720.00: $14200.00. </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    58. 58. Scenario– Part4 – developing a web interface for handhelds only. Copyright ISU Library
    59. 59. Scenario Two, Part 5 – Reference Chat <ul><li>While in the stacks, the student can ask a question of a staff member via chat software. </li></ul><ul><li>Used chat software which could be accessed from more than one workstation. </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted by IP authorization. </li></ul>Copyright ISU Library
    60. 60. Scenario Two – Part 6 Book Locator <ul><li>While in the stacks the user can search the catalog for a book, find a call number, then use Book Locator to determine which floor and shelf the book occupies. </li></ul>
    61. 61. Conclusions <ul><li>Mobile computing in the library is feasible and may serve users better than wired networking in specific cases. </li></ul><ul><li>The library is a good place to prototype mobile computing on campus. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Liverpool Public Library Statistics* <ul><li>Founded 1822 </li></ul><ul><li>Pop: 55,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Circ: 497, 827 </li></ul><ul><li>Income: $2,921,166 </li></ul><ul><li>Holdings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bks: 101,619 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per Subs: 463 </li></ul></ul>From American library directory; : a classified list of libraries in the United States and Canada, with personnel and statistical data. New York,:Bowker . 2002.
    63. 63. Liverpool Public Library <ul><li>Partnering with school district. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses same hardware as school. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible by Apple Powerbook using an Airport card. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Liverpool Public Library <ul><li>Accessible also via any Windows laptop with a 802.11 compatible card. </li></ul><ul><li>Students from high school can use their laptops in the public library. </li></ul><ul><li>Also loan laptops. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Liverpool Public Library <ul><li>&quot;The goal of the laptop partnership is to give Liverpool Central School District students transparent access to network resources using their laptops in the library.&quot; -- Library Director Sharon Nottingham. </li></ul>
    66. 66. Liverpool Public Library <ul><li>Costs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 blueberry iBooks: $14,990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Airport cards: $890 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airport base station: $269. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco Access Point 340: $927. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bretford laptop storage cart : $464. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Able to use fund balance, not budget. </li></ul>
    67. 67. Liverpool Public Library Update <ul><li>Currently one Cisco 340 and three Apple AirPort access points. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace with new Cisco 1100 series. </li></ul><ul><li>1100 supports VLANs and are upgradeable to future flavors of 802.11 and hardware-based security. Can also receive power over Ethernet so no need to worry about electrical outlets. </li></ul>
    68. 68. Morrisville College <ul><li>Residential college of agriculture and technology offering two- and four-year degrees in more than 70 academic programs and options. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 2,900 full time students </li></ul><ul><li>More than 102 full-time faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: provide access to quality Post-secondary education to all who can benefit. </li></ul>
    69. 69. Morrisville College Library: The Laptop Program <ul><li>All in a laptop program get IBM laptop ( T40 ) and Raytheon wireless card </li></ul><ul><li>Over 27 curriculums </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50% of the student body </li></ul><ul><li>Can be covered by financial aid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 GHz Pentium-M Centrino  Processor (2.0 GHz equivalent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Lithium Ion Battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>512 MB of Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 USB Ports (v 2.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  40 GB Hard Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  14.1&quot; TFT XGA Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>56 K Modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  CDRWDVD Combo Drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  32 MB ATI Mobility Radeon 7500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  4.9 LBS total weight </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Morrisville College Library <ul><li>more than 90,000 books; 12,000 microfilms; 400 serial titles; 1,500 audio and video cassettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Open 82 hours per week. </li></ul><ul><li>OnLine Catalog: ALEPH 500 </li></ul><ul><li>5 full time librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Online databases and full text resources </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless and network connections for users </li></ul>
    71. 71. Morrisville College Vision “ The State University of New York College of Agriculture and Technology at Morrisville aspires to be an academically challenging , business-oriented, technology-focused entrepreneurial learning community.”
    72. 72. Morrisville College: Network and Computing Infrastructure <ul><li>Backbone : Gigabit Ethernet. </li></ul><ul><li>To the Desk Top: 10 base T (100 Megabit capable). </li></ul><ul><li>All class rooms wired with at least one port. </li></ul><ul><li>All Faculty and Staff Offices wired. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless – all academic buildings and dorms plus all dining areas. More to follow. </li></ul>
    73. 73. Morrisville College: Network and Computing Infrastructure - Wireless <ul><li>Raytheon Raylink Card </li></ul><ul><li>2 Mb Shared (IEE 802.11 Standard) </li></ul><ul><li>Covers entire college </li></ul><ul><li>70 times faster than phoneline </li></ul>
    74. 74. Morrisville College Library: Conclusions & the Future <ul><li>Changed Library Instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigned website to better fit laptop. </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians using laptops and wireless. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive instead of reactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities not problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in trials of Pocket PCs </li></ul><ul><li>Carry instruction to the faculty and students; not just in the library any more. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to use the new technology ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at Bluetooth and other new things on the horizon. </li></ul>
    75. 75. Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) <ul><li>7 Colleges </li></ul><ul><li>12,500 students </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Programs </li></ul><ul><li>AAS-Ph.D. programs </li></ul><ul><li>Career-Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Technology based </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    76. 76. RIT: Wallace Library Stats 2000-01 <ul><li>Holdings (vols.) 400,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44 permanent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>120+ student workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Budget $4.3 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Subscription $800,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Books $300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Media $450,000 </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    77. 77. RIT: Project Description <ul><li>Experiment with wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Use Laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate from reserve desk </li></ul><ul><li>Test for campus wide use </li></ul><ul><li>Explore network management issue </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    78. 78. RIT: Project Description Requirements <ul><li>Had to be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scaleable </li></ul></ul>Copyright RIT
    79. 79. RIT: WHY? <ul><li>Mobility possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of fixed connections </li></ul><ul><li>Service to users </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership on campus </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    80. 80. RIT: HOW: the big picture <ul><li>Ad hoc group- Library and Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Environment scan- on/off campus </li></ul><ul><li>Tied into the Bookstore </li></ul><ul><li>Test bed for broader initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Raised general interest on campus </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    81. 81. RIT: HOW: operational view <ul><li>Systems Support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>floor coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP allocations-DHCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security on hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insuring software stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>additional hardware/ supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>software availability </li></ul></ul>Copyright RIT
    82. 82. RIT: HOW: operational view <ul><li>Circulation Support </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>length of time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>replacement cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>check out mechanics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recharge/refresh </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright RIT
    83. 83. RIT: Results <ul><li>Lots of use </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of good PR </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of visibility for the library </li></ul><ul><li>Puts us on the wireless path </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage space- after hours </li></ul><ul><li>Campus wide initiative </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    84. 84. RIT: Results: Circulation of laptops <ul><li>Checkouts Jan 1 -Sep 25, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>> PC Laptop 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>> MAC Laptop 400 </li></ul><ul><li>roughly 220 a month </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    85. 85. RIT: Lessons Learned: <ul><li>Freedom/mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of space and functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Increased service </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with the technology </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    86. 86. RIT: Lessons Learned <ul><li>Speed of connection </li></ul><ul><li>Changing fast </li></ul><ul><li>Does cost time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility across other wireless devices </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and user support </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    87. 87. RIT: Lessons Learned <ul><li>Sometimes it’s just luck </li></ul><ul><li>Timing important </li></ul><ul><li>Tie into community important </li></ul><ul><li>Students are clever </li></ul><ul><li>Students very receptive to the service </li></ul><ul><li>Ahead of the user curve </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    88. 88. RIT: Futures <ul><li>Circulate cards </li></ul><ul><li>Add more laptops and cheaper devices </li></ul><ul><li>Campus wide installations </li></ul><ul><li>Plan on upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Look at other standards </li></ul>Copyright RIT
    89. 89. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library <ul><li>8 Dell laptops with wireless access to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Use own laptop on wireless network with card purchased from library. </li></ul><ul><li>Use own laptop after getting own card registered in library. </li></ul>
    90. 90. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Getting to Wireless <ul><li>1. Library Director informed Department Heads that CU Technology Funds were available for small projects.  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Education/LRC Department Head asked for ideas from department staff and faculty.  Proposal for Wireless Transmitters and 10 Laptops with NIC cards was chosen by Director and his cohorts in the Office of Academic Affairs as the most likely to be funded.  </li></ul><ul><li>3. Specific budget information is put together -- original budget needed boosting since ESS wanted to be included. </li></ul>
    91. 91. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Getting to Wireless <ul><li>4. Proposal is co-written by Director of ESS and Education/LRC Dept. Head and approved for funding. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Campus Network Services gets involved They feel that they need to approve the project and spend months on the following:   - telling us that we don't really understand wireless & that it won't work   - comparing and testing products   - finally, they approve the very product that we had originally proposed. </li></ul>
    92. 92. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Getting to Wireless <ul><li>6. Wireless Transmitters, Laptops, NIC cards are ordered. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Wireless Transmitters are installed in the library and tested ad infinitum. </li></ul>
    93. 93. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Getting to Wireless <ul><li>8. Education/LRC Department spends months getting the laptops with NIC cards to work with our network, creating borrowing rules, creating instructional handouts, building a Web page, and holding Brown Bag sessions to introduce the service.  </li></ul>
    94. 94. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Getting to Wireless <ul><li>9. Announcing to our users that we're ready to go...then waiting for people to check things out.  We announced this service the week of June 18 and we've had 4 checked out so far -- not bad for summer session. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Project Status Report will be presented to Library Director in December of this year. </li></ul><ul><li>Comments from E-mail exchange with Lisa Traditi,, Head, Education and Learning Resources Center, Denison Library. </li></ul>
    95. 95. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Possible Uses <ul><li>Work in quieter areas of the library, eg Study Rooms, Back Stacks </li></ul><ul><li>Search citation databases in close proximity to the Denison journals collection </li></ul><ul><li>Save all your work to zip or floppy disks, eliminating the need to tote your own laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Software includes MS Office 2000, Netscape, Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Files may be saved to the c: drive, however the laptops will be cleaned up and files removed on a weekly basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Print to laser printer either in LRC or in 1st Floor Reference. 10¢/page with copy card </li></ul>
    96. 96. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Policy <ul><li>Library Use Only! </li></ul><ul><li>4 hour checkout, renewable twice </li></ul><ul><li>Checkout & Return in 3rd Floor LRC ONLY (not 1st floor Circulation Desk) </li></ul><ul><li>Never leave a laptop unattended </li></ul><ul><li>Every component of the laptop will be checked out on our system including power cord, peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>LAPTOPS MUST BE RETURNED AT LEAST 1 HOUR BEFORE LIBRARY CLOSING. </li></ul><ul><li>Legally, the laptops fall under the same laws as anything else you check out from the library. Laptops not returned will be sent to Collections. All users sign this statement when they get their library card: &quot;I acknowledge responsibility for library material borrowed on this card. I understand that I am liable for lost or damaged items and that fines may be assessed on overdue materials.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Users are liable for damages beyond normal wear and tear. </li></ul>
    97. 97. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Observations <ul><li>Connection speed seems faster than through conventional LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 is very reliable compared with Windows 9x </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, it is a good idea to save early & save often, make backup copies of all files </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries will not be issued at full charge. Laptops charge while plugged in; they should charge for at least one hour before you work from the battery alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Count on a full battery running the laptop for 2-3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Switching peripherals takes practice. There are instructions for this process included in the case. The CD-ROMs seem particularly tricky. The main problem with an incorrect switch is that the machine may lock up and you may lose data. A foolproof way to switch peripherals is to power down and switch, instead of trying to hot-swap. </li></ul><ul><li>The battery slots are different than the peripheral slots. You cannot put anything but a battery in the battery slot. </li></ul><ul><li>Switching batteries is a different procedure from switching peripherals. </li></ul>
    98. 98. University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denison Library – Conclusions <ul><li>Conclusion from final report: </li></ul><ul><li>This project has proven that a wireless network is a viable solution to the mobile needs of UCHSC users. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The areas of frustration and delay on this project can be attributed to a lack of interdepartmental communication and trust. LRC faculty and staff had to convince Information Systems staff that we were determined to go forward on this project and that we had done our homework. Lack of communication between Educational Support Services staff and LRC faculty and staff about hardwire and peripheral requirements resulted in delaying the date when the library could begin checking out the laptops. All of these issues could have been resolved through improved relationships with all parties involved. Once the hardware and network were fully installed, we have had very few problems. </li></ul>
    99. 99. Laman Public Library North Little Rock, Arkansas Statistics* <ul><li>Founded 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Pop: 64,388 </li></ul><ul><li>Circ: 230,037 </li></ul><ul><li>Income: $1,532,913 </li></ul><ul><li>Holdings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bks: 141,881 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per Subs: 231 </li></ul></ul>*From American library directory; : a classified list of libraries in the United States and Canada, with personnel and statistical data. New York,:Bowker . 2002.
    100. 100. Laman Public Library North Little Rock, Arkansas <ul><li>Needed more computers but did not want more furniture nor more electrical wiring nor more conduits. </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to go “wireless”. </li></ul>
    101. 101. Laman Public Library North Little Rock, Arkansas <ul><li>For library computers BreezeCom: 802.11B. </li></ul><ul><li>For “free” public network: Linksys 802.11G </li></ul><ul><li>4 different WLANs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrons: patron owned Laptop/PDA to access Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPAC & Internet access for patrons (library owned desktop computers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing for patrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation terminals/ staff use. </li></ul></ul>
    102. 102. Laman Public Library North Little Rock, Arkansas <ul><li>Future – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless bridge between main library and branch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video, voice, data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New computers will all be on wireless network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No down side </li></ul></ul>
    103. 103. Considerations <ul><li>Cost - Per seat cost can be lower. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed - slower than some Ethernet wired LANs (<100 Mbps); Potential of 802.11a is over 100 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless bandwidth is less than wired. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability - limited points of failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Security – encryption. need to use same care as with wired network. </li></ul>
    104. 104. Considerations <ul><li>Mobility - allows a user to move from access point to access point through a building without losing connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility - Products are PC focused and may not include Apple support. </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability - Wi-Fi certified (will work with other WiFi certified equipment). </li></ul>
    105. 105. Planning – some qualifiers <ul><li>Few libraries willing to share planning experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Few planning resources available. </li></ul><ul><li>Small libraries do not need formal planning documents(?). </li></ul><ul><li>Many libraries part of larger institutions and piggy backed on their efforts. </li></ul>
    106. 106. Planning : LAN Requirements <ul><li>Coverage/Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Application Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Users </li></ul><ul><li>End-User Device Types </li></ul><ul><li>Battery Longevity </li></ul><ul><li>System Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Information Security </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul>From :,289483,sid7_gci509511,00.html
    107. 107. Planning – 10 Step Program <ul><li>From: “ Look Ma, No Wires! or The 10 Steps of Wireless Networking” </li></ul><ul><li>by James L. &quot;Larry&quot; Glover , Computers in Libraries , Vol. 21, No. 3 March 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Used with permission of Larry Glover and Computers in Libraries </li></ul>
    108. 108. Planning – 10 Step Program <ul><li>Step 1. Measure the building. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2. Map out your stationary computer stations (i.e., four-top tables and such). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3. Compute your distances vs. bandwidth needs (and remember to find out what's in your wall construction). </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4. Check with your software vendors for any known &quot;issues&quot; regarding wireless transmission of their data. (This is not really a problem with anything in the last 3 years.) </li></ul>
    109. 109. Planning – 10 Step Program <ul><li>Step 5. Order hardware and assorted supplies. (Remember the assorted part.) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6. Pray to the gods of nerds and paychecks. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7. Install. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8. See step 6 again. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9. Turn it on. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 10. Accept the praise of your colleagues and patrons and that nice big new pay raise. </li></ul>
    110. 110. Resources: Discussion Groups (LibWireless) <ul><li>To subscribe, use the web form at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>wireless/libwireless.html </li></ul>
    111. 111. Resources: Wireless Librarian Website <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Article bibliography; links to full text for some. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book bibliography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of libraries with wireless networks with links. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors with links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Being replaced by Wireless Libraries blog. </li></ul>
    112. 112.
    113. 113. Wireless Libraries Blog <ul><li> </li></ul>
    114. 114.
    115. 115. Resources: Organizations -- Vendors, Standards & Trade <ul><li>WLANA (Wireless LAN Association) – </li></ul><ul><li>WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) – </li></ul><ul><li>More at: </li></ul>
    116. 116. The Future <ul><li>Wireless devices as the ultimate thin client. </li></ul><ul><li>Devices talking to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Costs coming way down below wired </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians using laptops and wireless. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry instruction to the user; not just in the library any more. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the new technology ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at Bluetooth and other new things on the horizon. </li></ul>
    117. 117. The Future <ul><li>802.11n, MiMo: Holds promise of increased speeds. Still not approved by IEEE. </li></ul><ul><li>WiMax – 802.16d – long range wireless broadband. Will provide the “last mile” connection. Approved but not quite there yet. </li></ul>
    118. 118. Future Growth
    119. 119. Is this the future of wireless?