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  1. 1. Copyright <ul><li>Its origin, and the “American version” </li></ul><ul><li>20 th century developments </li></ul><ul><li>Journalism and the Internet </li></ul>
  2. 2. Copyright: Origin <ul><li>England – 1500’s </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy gave rights to those who printed the books so they could control the information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Copyright: “american” version <ul><li>1789 - The United States Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>“ Section 8 - Powers of Congress: </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress shall have the power … </li></ul>… 8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries …. “
  4. 4. Copyright: 20 th century <ul><li>Copyright Law of 1909 – original copyright law; published works only </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Law of 1976 – all works covered </li></ul><ul><li>1998 – Digital Millenium Copyright Act </li></ul>
  5. 5. Copyright: “american” version <ul><li>U.S. Code – Title 17 </li></ul>Fair Use
  6. 6. Copyright: Fair Use Use of information for the purposes of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research.
  7. 7. Copyright: Fair Use <ul><li>Courts consider the following: </li></ul><ul><li>the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul><ul><li>the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and </li></ul><ul><li>the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Copyright: <ul><li>1983 - President Ford’s memoirs </li></ul><ul><li>1984- 2 Live Crew parody </li></ul><ul><li>2000 - King Estate vs CBS </li></ul>Violations or “ fair use ”?
  9. 9. President Ford’s memoirs <ul><li>The Nation published an excerpt </li></ul><ul><li>Was before publication </li></ul><ul><li>Court ruled that they had published the “heart” of the book </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2 Live Crew’s parody <ul><li>Did parody of the song “Oh Pretty Woman” </li></ul><ul><li>Were sued by the original record company </li></ul><ul><li>Parodies are usually considered to be “fair use” </li></ul>
  11. 11. King Estate vs CBS <ul><li>Dr. King filed for copyright three weeks after giving the speech </li></ul><ul><li>First court ruled in favor of CBS </li></ul><ul><li>Overturned on appeal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Copyright: <ul><li>I nformation is easy to locate and use </li></ul><ul><li>International information is readily available </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: International copyright law is more restrictive than U.S. law </li></ul>The digital age
  13. 13. Internet copyright MYTHS: <ul><li>“ If it’s on the Internet, it’s okay to use it.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: Internet information is protected by the same law as printed information. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If it doesn’t have a copyright notice on it, then it’s in the “public domain” and it’s okay to use it.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: No printed notice is needed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Internet copyright MYTHS: <ul><li>“ You have to register something to get the copyright to it.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: No registration is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If no one makes any money from it, it’s okay to use it.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: Profit is not the only determining factor in any copyright case </li></ul>
  15. 15. Internet copyright myths: <ul><li>“ They own that name.” (I.e., “Apple Records”) </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: Names cannot be copyrighted (but trademarks can). </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s not really a crime to use just a photo or a cartoon character from a website.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: Using protected material without permission is a violation of federal law. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Internet copyright myths: <ul><li>“ They e-mailed me this, so I can use it.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: E-mail is covered by copyright just as any other material is that is “fixed in tangible form.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I can put this website on my website if it’s in a frame and people know it’s not mine.” </li></ul><ul><li>FACT: You can only provide a link to another website </li></ul>