Literacy Based Intervention: From Theory to Practice


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Identify research regarding literacy-based intervention, design literacy-based intervention to address a variety of goals, and create a literacy-based intervention kit

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Literacy Based Intervention: From Theory to Practice

  1. 1. Why use literacy-based intervention? Hybrid approach that works across ages, grades, disorders, languages and cultures
  2. 2. Studies that look at literacy-based intervention and other successful intervention techniques
  3. 3. Development • “Children develop oral and written phonological abilities as a natural consequence of their communicative interactions with adules, including storybook readings (p. 133 Jonathan) • Shared reading activities increase development in multiple areas (Doyle & Bramwell, 2006; Debaryshe, 1993; Burner, 1978) • Shared reading activities promote language development in children with typical development (Teale & Sulzby, 1986; Westby, 1985) and with language impairments (Gillam &
  4. 4. Relation to Literacy Development • Reading to students promotes greater desire to read (Mason & Blanton, 1971) • Reading to students exposes them to printed materials • Students are exposed to positive reading role models • Students are more prepared to learn from classroom lesson that use literacy tools
  5. 5. Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1978) • ZPD is a range of skill level for each student • The bottom of the range is what the student is able to do independently • The top of the range is what the student can do with maximal assistance • As the student learns, their ZPD moves to higher levels
  6. 6. Improved Language Outcomes • Gillam and Loeb, (2010) reported that four  components of language intervention were  associated with successful language outcomes ▫ Intensity ▫ Active Attention  ▫ Feedback ▫ Rewards
  7. 7. Increased Vocabulary • Repetition of Vocabulary words requires exposure of  at least 15 times (Pui Fong, 2010 ) • Longer interventions • Teaching words through definitions and in context  (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986) • More word encounters  • Active processing (Baumann, 2003 and A. Graves, 1986)
  8. 8. Evidence‐based Intervention  Techniques  • Literacy‐based intervention ▫ Imitation ▫ Modeling ▫ Cloze procedures ▫ Binary choice ▫ Expansion ▫ Recast ▫ Scaffolding 
  9. 9. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  10. 10. Developmentally Appropriate Linguistically Appropriate Not errors influenced by another language Start with problems affecting both languages
  11. 11. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and  what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  e.g. Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  12. 12. Early Language Milestones Language  Milestones English Spanish using gestures 9‐12mo 9‐12 mo following simple  commands 12‐15mo 12‐15mo symbolic play 18mo 18mo episodic play 36mo 36mo recognizes familiar  objects when named 7‐12mo 7‐12mo Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  13. 13. Toddler Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish combine 2 words 1‐2yrs 1‐2yrs point to named items in  book/picture 1‐2yrs 1‐2yrs combine 2‐3 words 2‐3yr 2‐3yr follow 2‐step directive 2‐3yr 2‐3 yr present progressive verb  form 2‐3yr 2‐3yr plural use 2‐3yr 2‐3yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  14. 14. Preschool Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish possessives 3‐4yr 3‐4yr negatives 3‐4 yr 3‐4 yr answer simple WH?s 3‐4yr 3‐4yr combine 4+ words 3‐4yr 3‐4yr tells story related to topic 4‐5yr 4‐5yr use of adjective and  descriptors in sentences 4‐5yr 4‐5yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  15. 15. School-Age Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish tell and re‐tell stories in a  logical order  using  complete sentences 6‐7yr 6‐7yr uses more complex  sentence structures 7‐8yr 7‐8yr when not understood can  re‐clarify and explain  their ideas 7‐8yr 7‐8yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  16. 16. English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible The kid (is) buy a frog and the dog see the frog. Now the frog and the boy fell asleep, was sleepy. And the frog go away. [verb error] (And the) and the kid and the dog gray up. And the old one wasn’t there. And the frog is no more allí, not there. (And the, and the) and the kid [said], “Where are you, frog? Koook! (And the) and the dog pull a bucket, house, dog. And a dog fall in the window. And the kid was bad for the dog. And the kid say woooo. And some bees come. And the dog smell the bees. (And the) and the kid say, “kooook.” And there was the dog. And the dog was catching the house bees. LANGUAGE CASE STUDY
  17. 17. English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible And there [was] there was a squirt And the do g catching the bees’ house. And the bees’ house fall. And the, and he, the kid check in the tree. And he, it was (a) a cole (eagle?). And the kid fall. And the bee follow the dog. And the dog was running fast. And the eagle put, and the eagle hit the kid. (And the kid say, “kooook.” And then come a deer. (And the deer) and the deer walk. And the dog was following him. And the dog and the kid fall in the water. And the kid then said there under the water. And the dog and the kid fall in the water and he said he hears a log in the log. It was a frog. And the and the and the kid say, “Shhhh.” LANGUAGE CASE STUDY
  18. 18. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  19. 19. Developmentally Appropriate Linguistically Appropriate Culturally Appropriate Variable Addresses the needs of the classroom
  20. 20. Developmentally appropriate activities are consistent with the way children acquire language knowledge • Accommodation & Assimilation • Semantic Network Connections • Word Association and Concept Mediation
  21. 21. Vocabulary and Cognitive Equilibrium • When we are introduced to new vocabulary, we need to ▫ Assimilate it into a category OR ▫ Accommodate by creating a new category • The FACT approach facilitates this process Piaget, 1972
  22. 22. Semantic Network Model Collins & Quillian, 1969 • Interlinked concept nodes • Activation of semantic information during online Processing • Spreading activation = Information retrieval
  23. 23. The Rippling Effect Nevid, 2009 • Semantic activation is strong where connections are strong and gradually gets weaker. • Intervention is designed to strengthen the Rippling Effect.
  24. 24. Selecting Intervention Activities • Great Therapy Materials Should: ▫ provide repetitive structure ▫ be able to be used with all ages and cultures ▫ address goals across semantics, syntax, comprehension, pragmatics, and discourse ▫ decrease preparation time ▫ be fun and interesting for students ▫ make homework programs more relevant for parents ▫ allow for programmatic collection of intervention data ▫ apply to academic needs
  25. 25. Literacy-based Intervention FACT Vocabulary Building • Pre-Reading Activities • Reading Activities • Post-Reading Activities • Building the narrative structure that is integral to communicating events and answering questions. • Function • Attribute • Category • Therapy • Building the linguistic structure that allows new words to be learned, accessed, and remembered.
  26. 26. Book Selection • Age-appropriate • Interesting and relevant • Related to goals • Simple • Good illustrations • Resources ▫ School librarians ▫ Classroom teachers ▫ Internet
  27. 27. Pre-Reading Activities Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps between a student’s current skills and the targeted skills. • Music – use songs semantically related to the material in the book. (Hoggan & Strong, 1994) • Semantic mapping/graphic organizers – the adult and students develop a list of words and concepts related to the story and then develop a visual representation or map of how the words and concepts are related to one another (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006; Hoggan & Strong, 1994).
  28. 28. Pre-Reading Activities • Illustration discussion – The student creates a story using illustrations from the selected book. Scaffolding techniques may be used to facilitate higher semantic and syntactic complexity. Several templates that can be used during this activity are included. • Pre-reading discussion – Pre-reading questions are designed to tie the students’ knowledge and ideas from the graphic organizer to the concepts in the book.
  29. 29. Reading Activities While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to engage the student and check understanding. Clinicians commonly use scaffolding techniques in order to help the student learn target skills. Scaffolding techniques • Print reference – The adult references a target from the book by pointing or commenting (e.g. The adult points to an illustration and asks, “What is happening in the picture?”) • Cloze procedures – The adult provides the first part of an utterance and the student completes the thought (e.g. A: The mouse lost his balance and ______ S: fell off).
  30. 30. Reading Activities Scaffolding techniques • Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult expands on an utterance provided by the student using the grammar and vocabulary targets (e.g. S: The mouse walking. A: Yes, the little mouse is walking on the vine.). • Binary choice – The adult offers the student two choices of responses (e.g. A: What happened to the mouse? Did he fall off or jump off the vine? S: He fell off the vine.). • Modeling – The adult models the target structure for the student (e.g. What happened to the mouse when he was crossing the river? The mouse fell into the river.) (Liboiron & Soto, 2006).
  31. 31. Post-Reading Activities • Post-reading activities create a time when the student can review and reflect on what they have learned. For students with language impairments, post-reading activities are a powerful way to allow the student to experience success that they may not often feel in the classroom. Here are general post-reading activities. • Discussion questions – The adult and student discuss the story. According to Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006), the clinician should respond to 40% to 60% of all questions with scaffolding techniques. • Syntactic activities – Students create grammatical structures through a variety of art activities and games. Suggested targets: past tense and present progressive
  32. 32. Post-Reading Activities • Semantic activities – Students add to their word books through art activities in the areas of object/function, part/whole, categories, antonyms, and synonyms. Suggested targets: comparison, categories, and action words. • Narrative retelling – use scaffolding techniques and visuals from the book to support the student while retelling the story. • Phonology/Articulation – Use images from the book as well as general images in order to target specific phonological and articulation skills. See articulation chart in the following activities.
  33. 33. Graphic organizer - ex. Bear on a Bike • Say: “We are going to read about a bear who goes on an adventure. On his adventure, he uses different types of transportation.” • Ask: ▫ What are ways we get from one place to another? ▫ How do you get to school? ▫ How do others get to school? ▫ What do you use to travel in your neighborhood? ▫ What do you use to travel in the water?
  34. 34. Graphic Organizer Pre-reading and Reading
  35. 35. Post reading activities story recall template
  36. 36. Post-reading activities sequence recall
  37. 37. Take Away Points for Storybook Intervention • Language of intervention should mirror the child’s environment • Initial therapy targets should be elements that exist in both language • Let the child and the classroom guide the topics • Use the same book across multiple groups to save planning time
  38. 38. Function, Attribute, Category Therapy • What is important to academics? ▫ Low vocabulary is often cited in referrals ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in academic testing ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in LD testing. • Do we teach vocabulary? • How does vocabulary relate to us? • The answer is that we teach the structure that allows vocabulary to be acquired
  39. 39. ( ) TEST – choose a field of 20 items from one category and ask the child to name them. TEACH – the items that were not named RE-TEST – all 20 items
  40. 40. FACT: How do I choose a category? Choose a category that relates to the student, to the classroom, AND to the home. • Animals • Body Parts • Household Objects • Clothes • Transportation • Instruments • Food You can choose subcategories but wait until the process is learned. Transportation: -Air -Land -Water
  41. 41. FACT: Animals field of 20
  42. 42. FACT: Divide into Known and Unknown
  43. 43. FACT: Teach Unknown
  44. 44. FACT: Teach Unknown • Teaching of Vocabulary Acquisition is: ▫ Systematic  The same process for each category group  We are not teaching specific vocabulary!  We are teaching the structure that allows them to learn, organize retain, and retrieve vocabulary! ▫ Multimodal 1.Description (utterance expansion) 2.Compare and Contrast 3.Video/Audio 4.Storybook on Topic 5.In Context
  45. 45. ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY NAME FACT 1: Animal Description Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  46. 46. ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY NAME Animal hair scales feathers FACT 1: Animal Description
  47. 47. ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY NAME Animal walks flies swims FACT 1: Animal Description
  48. 48. FACT 2: Compare and Contrast
  49. 49. Video/Visual Audio • Youtube • Public Library • School Library • Google • Clip Art • Google • Songs FACT 3: Video/Audio
  50. 50. • Fiction and Non-fiction FACT 4: Storybooks on Topics
  51. 51. • Relate the topic back to the real world by putting it in context. FACT 5: In Context
  52. 52. FACT: Retest the field of 20
  53. 53. Take Away Points for Functional, Attribute, Category Therapy • Don’t make any assumptions of prior knowledge • Do not teach vocabulary, teach structure • Use classroom topics and areas of interest • Use the mode (video) that the student likes best as a reward.
  54. 54. Click to visit
  55. 55. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.