Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound sys...
Do you need Continuing Education or want 
to listen to this course live?
Click here to visit 
the online courses.
“The development of cultural
competence within a framework of
effective early intervention
treatment is more easily
demand...
Cultural Make-Up of Texas
• The Latino population is the fastest growing
segment in the United States.
• In Texas, the Lat...
ASHA on Cultural Competence
• Clinicians must recognize how a client’s
cultural and linguistic characteristics will
influe...
Balancing between the language
demands of different
environments.
Conceptual
L1 Lexical L2 LexicalL2 Lexical
(Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, ...
A Bilingual Approach
Decision for language of intervention is
individualized but somewhat systematic.
1. Language of inter...
A Bilingual Approach
Decision for language of intervention is
individualized but somewhat systematic.
1. Language of inter...
A Bilingual Approach
Decision for language of intervention is
individualized but somewhat systematic.
1. Language of inter...
A systematic approach to bilingualism
• Languages of intervention should mirror
languages of communication needs.
▫ Home
▫...
Initial Intervention Targets
DEVELOPMENTAL
ERRORS
SECOND-
LANGUAGE
INFLUENCE
ATYPICAL
ERRORS
Difference vs. Disorder
Linguistic Appropriateness
• Remember differences between languages when
selecting intervention targets
• Examples:
▫ Diff...
All of the documents and charts in this presentation 
can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library.
Click here to visi...
Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
Developmentally Appropriate
Linguistically Appropriate
Not errors influenced by another language
Start with problems affec...
Cumulative not Comparative
Language and Content of Intervention
 Select based on what is appropriate in each language and...
Early Language Milestones
Language  Milestones English Spanish
using gestures 9‐12mo 9‐12 mo
following simple 
commands
12...
Toddler Language Skills
Language  Milestones English Spanish
combine 2 words 1‐2yrs 1‐2yrs
point to named items in 
book/p...
Preschool Language Skills
Language  Milestones English Spanish
possessives 3‐4yr 3‐4yr
negatives 3‐4 yr 3‐4 yr
answer simp...
School-Age Language Skills
Language  Milestones English Spanish
tell and re‐tell stories in a 
logical order  using 
compl...
English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You?
( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible
The kid (is) buy a frog and t...
English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You?
( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible
And there [was] there was a
s...
Developmentally Appropriate
Linguistically Appropriate
Culturally Appropriate
Variable
Addresses the needs of the classroom
Developmentally appropriate
activities are consistent with the
way children acquire language
knowledge
• Accommodation & A...
Vocabulary and Cognitive
Equilibrium
• When we are introduced to
new vocabulary, we need to
▫ Assimilate it into a categor...
Semantic Network Model Collins & Quillian, 1969
• Interlinked concept nodes
• Activation of semantic
information during on...
The Rippling Effect Nevid, 2009
• Semantic activation is strong
where connections are strong
and gradually gets weaker.
• ...
Selecting Intervention Activities
• Great Therapy Materials Should:
▫ provide repetitive structure
▫ be able to be used wi...
Literacy-based Intervention FACT Vocabulary Building
• Pre-Reading Activities
• Reading Activities
• Post-Reading Activiti...
Storybooks
provide structure for addressing
goals
can be used with all ages and
cultures
can be used to address goals
acro...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound
sys...
Qualification
Typical Aspects of Intervention:
A. Difficulty in comprehending
communication
B. An underdeveloped sound
sys...
Book Selection
• Age-appropriate
• Interesting and
relevant
• Related to goals
• Simple
• Good illustrations
• Resources
▫...
Pre-Reading Activities
Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps
between a student’s current skills and the targe...
Graphic Organizer
Pre-reading and Reading
Pre-Reading Activities
• Illustration discussion – The student creates a
story using illustrations from the selected
book....
Reading Activities
While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to
engage the student and check understanding.
Clini...
Reading Activities
Scaffolding techniques
• Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult
expands on an utterance provided...
Examples of Scaffolding Techniques
Examples of Scaffolding Techniques
Post-Reading Activities
• Post-reading activities create a time when the student
can review and reflect on what they have ...
Post-Reading Activities
• Semantic activities – Students add to their word
books through art activities in the areas of
ob...
Graphic organizer - ex.
Bear on a Bike
• Say: “We are going to read about a bear who goes
on an adventure. On his adventur...
Graphic Organizer
Pre-reading and Reading
Post reading activities
story recall template
Post-reading activities
sequence recall
Take Away Points for Storybook
Intervention
• Language of intervention should mirror the
child’s environment
• Initial the...
Function, Attribute, Category Therapy
• What is important to academics?
▫ Low vocabulary is often sited in referrals
▫ Voc...
( ) TEST – choose a field
of 20 items from one
category and ask the
child to name them.
TEACH – the items
that were not na...
FACT: How do I choose a category?
Choose a category that relates to the
student, to the classroom, AND to the
home.
• Anim...
FACT: How do I choose a category?
Choose a category that relates to the
student, to the classroom, AND to the
home.
• Anim...
What do we know about
vocabulary acquisition?
FACT: Animals field of 20
FACT: Divide into Known and
Unknown
FACT: Teach Unknown
FACT: Teach Unknown
• Teaching of Vocabulary Acquisition is:
▫ Systematic
 The same process for each category group
 We ...
ATTRIBUTE
CATEGORY
NAME
FACT 1: Animal Description
ATTRIBUTE
CATEGORY
NAME
Animal
walks flies swims
FACT 1: Animal Description
FACT 2: Compare and Contrast
Video/Visual Audio
• Youtube
• Public Library
• School Library
• Google
• Clip Art
• Google
• Songs
FACT 3: Video/Audio
• Fiction and Non-fiction
FACT 4: Storybooks on Topics
• Relate the topic
back to the real
world by putting it
in context.
FACT 5: In Context
FACT: Retest the field of 20
Take Away Points for Functional, Attribute,
Category Therapy
• Don’t make any assumptions of prior knowledge
• Do not teac...
Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
Difference or Disorder? 
Understanding Speech and Language 
Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically 
Diverse Students
Ra...
Language Intervention Strategies for Monolingual and Bilingual Children
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Language Intervention Strategies for Monolingual and Bilingual Children

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This course includes a discussion about things to consider in selecting the language of intervention. SLPs will select of appropriate language goals for students who are bilingual and identify appropriate approaches to address the goals. Different intervention approaches, including function, attribute, category therapy and storybook intervention will be used in case studies.

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Language Intervention Strategies for Monolingual and Bilingual Children

  1. 1. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  2. 2. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  3. 3. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  4. 4. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  5. 5. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  6. 6. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  7. 7. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  8. 8. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  9. 9. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
  10. 10. “The development of cultural competence within a framework of effective early intervention treatment is more easily demanded than practiced.” R. L. Withrow (2008)
  11. 11. Cultural Make-Up of Texas • The Latino population is the fastest growing segment in the United States. • In Texas, the Latino growth is increasing more than in any other state. • Ted video
  12. 12. ASHA on Cultural Competence • Clinicians must recognize how a client’s cultural and linguistic characteristics will influence the clinical decision- making process ▫ Our first question?  How do we look at a report and determine what to focus on? • Clinicians are ethically obligated to provide culturally sensitive services to clients. ▫ Our second question?  When we intervene, what should we do in therapy that is culturally appropriate?
  13. 13. Balancing between the language demands of different environments.
  14. 14. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 LexicalL2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  15. 15. A Bilingual Approach Decision for language of intervention is individualized but somewhat systematic. 1. Language of intervention needs to match the child’s environment. 1.1.
  16. 16. A Bilingual Approach Decision for language of intervention is individualized but somewhat systematic. 1. Language of intervention needs to match the child’s environment. 2. Need for different languages in different settings (Grosjean). 1. 2. 1.
  17. 17. A Bilingual Approach Decision for language of intervention is individualized but somewhat systematic. 1. Language of intervention needs to match the child’s environment. 2. Need for different languages in different settings (Grosjean). 3. Good language models are critical. 1. 2. 3. 1.
  18. 18. A systematic approach to bilingualism • Languages of intervention should mirror languages of communication needs. ▫ Home ▫ School ▫ Other • Target goals that can generalize but may need specific instruction in each language. • Specifically teach language structures that are unique to one language or the other.
  19. 19. Initial Intervention Targets DEVELOPMENTAL ERRORS SECOND- LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ATYPICAL ERRORS Difference vs. Disorder
  20. 20. Linguistic Appropriateness • Remember differences between languages when selecting intervention targets • Examples: ▫ Differences in prepositions  More frequent in English than in Spanish ▫ Pro-drop vs. Required Pronouns  In Spanish, pronoun can be dropped
  21. 21. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  22. 22. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
  23. 23. Developmentally Appropriate Linguistically Appropriate Not errors influenced by another language Start with problems affecting both languages
  24. 24. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and  what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  e.g. Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  25. 25. Early Language Milestones Language  Milestones English Spanish using gestures 9‐12mo 9‐12 mo following simple  commands 12‐15mo 12‐15mo symbolic play 18mo 18mo episodic play 36mo 36mo recognizes familiar  objects when named 7‐12mo 7‐12mo Charts available in the Resource Library at www.SpeechPathologyCEUs.net Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  26. 26. Toddler Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish combine 2 words 1‐2yrs 1‐2yrs point to named items in  book/picture 1‐2yrs 1‐2yrs combine 2‐3 words 2‐3yr 2‐3yr follow 2‐step directive 2‐3yr 2‐3 yr present progressive verb  form 2‐3yr 2‐3yr plural use 2‐3yr 2‐3yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  27. 27. Preschool Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish possessives 3‐4yr 3‐4yr negatives 3‐4 yr 3‐4 yr answer simple WH?s 3‐4yr 3‐4yr combine 4+ words 3‐4yr 3‐4yr tells story related to topic 4‐5yr 4‐5yr use of adjective and  descriptors in sentences 4‐5yr 4‐5yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  28. 28. School-Age Language Skills Language  Milestones English Spanish tell and re‐tell stories in a  logical order  using  complete sentences 6‐7yr 6‐7yr uses more complex  sentence structures 7‐8yr 7‐8yr when not understood can  re‐clarify and explain  their ideas 7‐8yr 7‐8yr Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  29. 29. English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible The kid (is) buy a frog and the dog see the frog. Now the frog and the boy fell asleep, was sleepy. And the frog go away. [verb error] (And the) and the kid and the dog gray up. And the old one wasn’t there. And the frog is no more allí, not there. (And the, and the) and the kid [said], “Where are you, frog? Koook! (And the) and the dog pull a bucket, house, dog. And a dog fall in the window. And the kid was bad for the dog. And the kid say woooo. And some bees come. And the dog smell the bees. (And the) and the kid say, “kooook.” And there was the dog. And the dog was catching the house bees. LANGUAGE CASE STUDY
  30. 30. English Elicited Narrative Sample Frog, Where Are You? ( )=maze/revision, X = unintelligible And there [was] there was a squirt And the do g catching the bees’ house. And the bees’ house fall. And the, and he, the kid check in the tree. And he, it was (a) a cole (eagle?). And the kid fall. And the bee follow the dog. And the dog was running fast. And the eagle put, and the eagle hit the kid. (And the kid say, “kooook.” And then come a deer. (And the deer) and the deer walk. And the dog was following him. And the dog and the kid fall in the water. And the kid then said there under the water. And the dog and the kid fall in the water and he said he hears a log in the log. It was a frog. And the and the and the kid say, “Shhhh.” LANGUAGE CASE STUDY
  31. 31. Developmentally Appropriate Linguistically Appropriate Culturally Appropriate Variable Addresses the needs of the classroom
  32. 32. Developmentally appropriate activities are consistent with the way children acquire language knowledge • Accommodation & Assimilation • Semantic Network Connections • Word Association and Concept Mediation
  33. 33. Vocabulary and Cognitive Equilibrium • When we are introduced to new vocabulary, we need to ▫ Assimilate it into a category OR ▫ Accommodate by creating a new category • The FACT approach facilitates this process Piaget, 1972
  34. 34. Semantic Network Model Collins & Quillian, 1969 • Interlinked concept nodes • Activation of semantic information during online Processing • Spreading activation = Information retrieval
  35. 35. The Rippling Effect Nevid, 2009 • Semantic activation is strong where connections are strong and gradually gets weaker. • Intervention is designed to strengthen the Rippling Effect.
  36. 36. Selecting Intervention Activities • Great Therapy Materials Should: ▫ provide repetitive structure ▫ be able to be used with all ages and cultures ▫ address goals across semantics, syntax, comprehension, pragmatics, and discourse ▫ decrease preparation time ▫ be fun and interesting for students ▫ make homework programs more relevant for parents ▫ allow for programmatic collection of intervention data ▫ apply to academic needs
  37. 37. Literacy-based Intervention FACT Vocabulary Building • Pre-Reading Activities • Reading Activities • Post-Reading Activities • Building the narrative structure that is integral to communicating events and answering questions. • Function • Attribute • Category • Therapy • Building the linguistic structure that allows new words to be learned, accessed, and remembered.
  38. 38. Storybooks provide structure for addressing goals can be used with all ages and cultures can be used to address goals across semantics, syntax, comprehension, pragmatics, and discourse. can decrease preparation time are fun and interesting for students make homework programs more relevant for parents allow for programmatic collection of intervention data Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness
  39. 39. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness  Shared reading activities • Increase development in multiple areas (Doyle & Bramwell, 2006; Debaryshe, 1993; Burner, 1978) • Promote language development in children with typical development (Teale & Sulzby, 1986; Westby, 1985) and with language impairments (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006) • Promote a greater desire to read (Mason & Blanton, 1971) • Exposes student to printed materials and positive reading models (Teal, 1984)
  40. 40. Qualification Typical Aspects of Intervention: A. Difficulty in comprehending communication B. An underdeveloped sound system C. Reduced expressiveness Develop Pre-linguistic Skills • Play – Symbolic play predicts comprehension • Gestures/Signs – Bridge to producing language • Joint Attention – Gaze, pointing, showing, directing attention • Vocalizations – Diversity of sound types predicts expressive vocabulary and speech performance • Comprehension – Predicts grammatical complexity and vocabulary Watt, Wetherby & Shumway, 2006
  41. 41. Book Selection • Age-appropriate • Interesting and relevant • Related to goals • Simple • Good illustrations • Resources ▫ School librarians ▫ Classroom teachers ▫ Internet
  42. 42. Pre-Reading Activities Pre-reading activities are used to bridge any gaps between a student’s current skills and the targeted skills. • Music – use songs semantically related to the material in the book. (Hoggan & Strong, 1994) • Semantic mapping/graphic organizers – the adult and students develop a list of words and concepts related to the story and then develop a visual representation or map of how the words and concepts are related to one another (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006; Hoggan & Strong, 1994).
  43. 43. Graphic Organizer Pre-reading and Reading
  44. 44. Pre-Reading Activities • Illustration discussion – The student creates a story using illustrations from the selected book. Scaffolding techniques may be used to facilitate higher semantic and syntactic complexity. Several templates that can be used during this activity are included. • Pre-reading discussion – Pre-reading questions are designed to tie the students’ knowledge and ideas from the graphic organizer to the concepts in the book.
  45. 45. Reading Activities While reading the book, use scaffolding techniques to engage the student and check understanding. Clinicians commonly use scaffolding techniques in order to help the student learn target skills. Scaffolding techniques • Print reference – The adult references a target from the book by pointing or commenting (e.g. The adult points to an illustration and asks, “What is happening in the picture?”) • Cloze procedures – The adult provides the first part of an utterance and the student completes the thought (e.g. A: The mouse lost his balance and ______ S: fell off).
  46. 46. Reading Activities Scaffolding techniques • Syntactic and semantic expansions – The adult expands on an utterance provided by the student using the grammar and vocabulary targets (e.g. S: The mouse walking. A: Yes, the little mouse is walking on the vine.). • Binary choice – The adult offers the student two choices of responses (e.g. A: What happened to the mouse? Did he fall off or jump off the vine? S: He fell off the vine.). • Modeling – The adult models the target structure for the student (e.g. What happened to the mouse when he was crossing the river? The mouse fell into the river.) (Liboiron & Soto, 2006).
  47. 47. Examples of Scaffolding Techniques
  48. 48. Examples of Scaffolding Techniques
  49. 49. Post-Reading Activities • Post-reading activities create a time when the student can review and reflect on what they have learned. For students with language impairments, post-reading activities are a powerful way to allow the student to experience success that they may not often feel in the classroom. Here are general post-reading activities. • Discussion questions – The adult and student discuss the story. According to Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006), the clinician should respond to 40% to 60% of all questions with scaffolding techniques. • Syntactic activities – Students create grammatical structures through a variety of art activities and games. Suggested targets: past tense and present progressive
  50. 50. Post-Reading Activities • Semantic activities – Students add to their word books through art activities in the areas of object/function, part/whole, categories, antonyms, and synonyms. Suggested targets: comparison, categories, and action words. • Narrative retelling – use scaffolding techniques and visuals from the book to support the student while retelling the story. • Phonology/Articulation – Use images from the book as well as general images in order to target specific phonological and articulation skills. See articulation chart in the following activities.
  51. 51. Graphic organizer - ex. Bear on a Bike • Say: “We are going to read about a bear who goes on an adventure. On his adventure, he uses different types of transportation.” • Ask: ▫ What are ways we get from one place to another? ▫ How do you get to school? ▫ How do others get to school? ▫ What do you use to travel in your neighborhood? ▫ What do you use to travel in the water?
  52. 52. Graphic Organizer Pre-reading and Reading
  53. 53. Post reading activities story recall template
  54. 54. Post-reading activities sequence recall
  55. 55. Take Away Points for Storybook Intervention • Language of intervention should mirror the child’s environment • Initial therapy targets should be elements that exist in both language • Let the child and the classroom guide the topics • Use the same book across multiple groups to save planning time
  56. 56. Function, Attribute, Category Therapy • What is important to academics? ▫ Low vocabulary is often sited in referrals ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in academic testing ▫ Vocabulary is heavily weighted in LD testing. • Do we teach vocabulary? • How does vocabulary relate to us? • The answer is that we teach the structure that allows vocabulary to be acquired.
  57. 57. ( ) TEST – choose a field of 20 items from one category and ask the child to name them. TEACH – the items that were not named RE-TEST – all 20 items
  58. 58. FACT: How do I choose a category? Choose a category that relates to the student, to the classroom, AND to the home. • Animals • Body Parts • Household Objects • Clothes • Transportation • Instruments • Food
  59. 59. FACT: How do I choose a category? Choose a category that relates to the student, to the classroom, AND to the home. • Animals • Body Parts • Household Objects • Clothes • Transportation • Instruments • Food You can choose subcategories but wait until the process is learned. Transportation: -Air -Land -Water
  60. 60. What do we know about vocabulary acquisition?
  61. 61. FACT: Animals field of 20
  62. 62. FACT: Divide into Known and Unknown
  63. 63. FACT: Teach Unknown
  64. 64. FACT: Teach Unknown • Teaching of Vocabulary Acquisition is: ▫ Systematic  The same process for each category group  We are not teaching specific vocabulary!  We are teaching the structure that allows them to learn, organize retain, and retrieve vocabulary! ▫ Multimodal 1.Description (utterance expansion) 2.Compare and Contrast 3.Video/Audio 4.Storybook on Topic 5.In Context
  65. 65. ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY NAME FACT 1: Animal Description
  66. 66. ATTRIBUTE CATEGORY NAME Animal walks flies swims FACT 1: Animal Description
  67. 67. FACT 2: Compare and Contrast
  68. 68. Video/Visual Audio • Youtube • Public Library • School Library • Google • Clip Art • Google • Songs FACT 3: Video/Audio
  69. 69. • Fiction and Non-fiction FACT 4: Storybooks on Topics
  70. 70. • Relate the topic back to the real world by putting it in context. FACT 5: In Context
  71. 71. FACT: Retest the field of 20
  72. 72. Take Away Points for Functional, Attribute, Category Therapy • Don’t make any assumptions of prior knowledge • Do not teach vocabulary, teach structure • Use classroom topics and areas of interest • Use the mode (video) that the student likes best as a reward.
  73. 73. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
  74. 74. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.

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