Lindsey Williams, M.S., CCC‐SLP Marie 
Wirka, M.S., CCC‐SLP
Webinar Series
October 4, 2013
Cultural Considerations when wo...
Outline for Today
• Importance of Culture
• Cultural Parameters
• Use of an interpreter
• Cultural competence in assessmen...
Learner Objectives
• Participants will list, identify, describe…:
▫ The importance of developing knowledge about
other cul...
Why study culture?
Demographics
• Between 1990 and 2000 the Latino population
increased by 57.9 percent.
• In 2000, 12.5 p...
• A client’s cultural beliefs will influence how
they describe their health problems, the
manner in which they communicate...
Do you need Continuing Education or want 
to listen to this course live?
Click here to visit 
the online courses.
The Nine Parameters of Cultural
Consideration
Nine Cultural Parameters
1. Individualism versus collectivism
2. Views of time and space
3. Roles of men and women
4. Conc...
Individualism vs. Collectivism
• A culture is termed individualistic when great
value is placed on individuals and their r...
View of Time and Space
• Time
▫ How strictly a culture adheres to a schedule
 Emphasis on punctuality
 Event oriented
• ...
Roles of Men and Women
• Gender roles vary across cultures and influence
many areas, including
▫ Education
▫ Ownership
▫ C...
Concepts on Class and Status
• What determines an individual’s societal
position and place of respect varies across
cultur...
Values
• A cultural group’s values are manifested in it’s
view of the relationship of man to nature and of
human beings to...
Language
• The influence that the pragmatics of a language
has on interpersonal communication.
• The amount of information...
Rituals
• Rituals or ceremonies are conventional ways of
commemorating significant historical events or
life changes and r...
Significance of Work
• This parameter refers to the importance of work
in a culture and how it is defined by the
members o...
Beliefs about Health
• Illness and disabilities are viewed differently
across cultures.
• In many cultures, someone with a...
All of the documents and charts in this presentation 
can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library.
Click here to visi...
Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
Examining the BDI
Cultural Considerations in the BDI
Receptive Communication 15 & 32
▫ Recalls events from a story presented orally.
 En la...
BDI Cultural Considerations
Expressive Communication 30
▫ Follows conventional rules of conversation.
BDI Cultural Considerations
Receptive Communication 15
▫ Donde está tu pie?/Where is your foot?
BDI Cultural Considerations
• Self Care 13, 15 & 16
▫ Child uses a spoon or other utensil to feed himself.
▫ Child feeds h...
BDI Cultural Considerations
• Self Care 22 & 25
▫ Child asks for food at the table.
▫ Child otains a drink from a tap with...
BDI Cultural Considerations
Adult Interaction 5, 15, 17
▫ Child explores adult facial features
▫ Child helps with simple h...
BDI Cultural Considerations
Reasoning and Academic Skills 4, 9 & 10
▫ Child shows interest in books
▫ Child names the colo...
BDI Cultural Considerations
Fine Motor
▫ Child fastens clothing without assistance
Accessing clients and families
through their home language.
The Top Ten Tips
• Establish and agree to ground rules
▫ How to run the session
▫ Number of sentences at a time
▫ Confirma...
The Top Ten Tips (continued)
• Familiarize them with the topic
▫ Best if your interpreter has some experience in
education...
The Top Ten Tips (continued)
• An interpreter should never translate emotions,
body language works for that
• An interpret...
How to work with an interpreter
• Talk to the family, not to the interpreter
• Sit across from client and interpreter take...
Interpreter bias
• It is human nature to want a member of your
culture to perform well
• An interpreter should:
▫ Maintain...
Types of Interpretation
• Consecutive Interpreting
▫ The interpreter listens to a
section and then the speaker
pauses to g...
How to find an interpreter
• On-line resources
▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com
• The Professional Community
▫ Nurses, h...
Debriefing and writing the report
• Debriefing
▫ Ask the interpreter their impressions of the
interaction and client after...
Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
Difference or Disorder? 
Understanding Speech and Language 
Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically 
Diverse Students
Ra...
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Cultural Considerations when working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations: Working with bilingual children and families

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This presentation reviews the importance of culture and identifies nine parameters of culture. You will learn how to facilitate culturally familiar environments to maximize success in treatment.

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  • Clients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds comprise almost 35% of speech-language pathologists’ caseloads across employment settings (ASHAsurvey, 2000). Among this group of individuals, Latinos are the fastest growing racial/ethnic minority group in the United States (Salas-Provance, Erickson, and Reed, 2002). Between 1990 and 2000 the Latino population increased by 57.9 percent, compared with an increase of 13.2 percent for the total population of the United States. In 2000, 12.5 percent of US residents were Latino and more than three-quarters lived in the West or South, with half of all Latinos in California and Texas. In the fall of 2000, approximately 16 percent of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools were Latino. Of these children, 17.3 percent were identified as having speech or language impairment during the 2000-2001 school-year.
  • Clients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds comprise almost 35% of speech-language pathologists’ caseloads across employment settings (ASHAsurvey, 2000). Among this group of individuals, Latinos are the fastest growing racial/ethnic minority group in the United States (Salas-Provance, Erickson, and Reed, 2002). Between 1990 and 2000 the Latino population increased by 57.9 percent, compared with an increase of 13.2 percent for the total population of the United States. In 2000, 12.5 percent of US residents were Latino and more than three-quarters lived in the West or South, with half of all Latinos in California and Texas. In the fall of 2000, approximately 16 percent of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools were Latino. Of these children, 17.3 percent were identified as having speech or language impairment during the 2000-2001 school-year.
  • The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) maintains that clinicians must recognize how a client’s cultural and linguistic characteristics will influence the clinical decision-making process and determine how communicative competence and impairment are evaluated (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002).
  • ASHA’s position on the importance of culture is based on the assumption A client’s cultural beliefs will influence how they describe their health problems, the manner in which they communicate their symptoms, who they seek for health care, how long they remain in care, and how they assess the care provided. Culturally familiar environments facilitate success in treatment as clients are more secure and responsive in these settings. If clients feel the security of a culturally familiar environment, these clients may be more likely to respond freely and may also be further motivated to attend therapy. For these reasons, ASHA stresses the importance of clinicians developing their intercultural knowledge and skills in order to optimize patient outcomes (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002; Mahendra et al., 2006).
  • As Latino families are most often served by non-Latino speech-language pathologists, misunderstandings may frequently occur. Knowledge of common cultural characteristics may reduce these misunderstandings. Latinos certainly identify to different degrees with the characteristics discussed in this paper so it is important to consider the individual. These are presented in order to provide parameters for the clinician to consider in the treatment of speech and language disorders when working with Latino families.
  • http://speechpathologyceus.net/courses/cultural-considerations-for-speech-therapy/These factors can profoundly influence the interactions between clinicians and their clients and, therefore, can significantly affect the practice of speech-language pathology (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). Individualism versus Collectivism.A culture is termed individualistic when great value is placed on individuals and their rights and decisions. Members of individualistic societies may tend to have more casual relationships. By comparison, a culture is collectivistic when great value is placed on the group and membership in the group.Views of time and spaceThis parameter refers to how strictly a culture adheres to a schedule. Some cultures emphasize punctuality, while others are more event-oriented. For the latter group, beginning a new event is determined by the completion of the previous event, rather than by a schedule. This parameter also refers to personal space and how much distance between conversational partners is required for individuals to feel comfortableRoles of men and womenGender roles vary across cultures and influence many areas, including education, ownership, choice of profession, and decision-making authority in the familyConcepts of class and statusWhat determines an individual’s societal position and place of respect varies across cultures (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). Wealth often plays a large part in the determination of class in Latino culture. Socioeconomic class may result in even greater group dissimilarities than country of originValuesA cultural group’s values are manifested in its view of the relationship of man to nature and of human beings to other human beings, the importance of ancestors and of the environment, and the degree of materialism (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). Values in the Latino culture include (1) “familismo,” or the ultimate importance of the family relationship; (2) “respeto,” treating authority figures such as parents, elders, and priests with respect; and (3) “personalismo,” a personal (vs. impersonal) interest in a relationshipLanguage This parameter involves the influence that the pragmatics of a language have oninterpersonal communication. One principle factor affecting communication is the degree to which context is necessary to derive meaning. The amount of information conveyed through setting or context differs among cultures, ranging from high to low context. For example, in high-context cultures, context is crucial to communicate meaning. In interacting with these cultures, a culturally competent clinician would be especially aware of nonverbal aspects of communication, such as eye contact, gestures, space, use of silence, and touch. In contrast, in low-context cultures the actual words are critical and should be the focus of communication.RitualsRituals or ceremonies are conventional ways of commemorating significant historical events or life changes and renewing commitment to shared values. Weddings, births, deaths, and religious worship are associated with rituals in most cultures and many rituals are based on religionSignificance of workThis parameter refers to the importance of work in a culture and how it is defined by the members of the culture. For example, Americans are defined by their work, but people in many other cultures are defined by the groups they are members of and their role in the community.Beliefs about healthIllness and disabilities are viewed differently across cultures. In many cultures, someone with a disability may be seen as special or holy, or they may be seen as bewitched. Illness may be thought to occur when an individual is out of harmony with nature or the universe, and a spiritualist, folk healer, herbalist, or witch doctor may be chosen over Western medical professionals to provide health care. A close relationship between religion and illness is common in Latino families.
  • Latino parents encourage positive emotions in their children, but discourage negative feelings such as anger and aggression in order to maintain the stability of the group (Torres-Matrullo, 1982, as cited in Lynch & Hanson, 2004). Because Latino families placate children and do not push achievement of developmental milestones (Roland, 1988, as cited in Lynch & Hanson, 2004), Latino families may be hesitant to seek treatment for children that exhibit disorders, believing that the child will develop speech and language in his or her own time. Furthermore, the general lack of acceptance of negative feelings in Latino families (Torres-Matrullo, 1982, as cited in Lynch & Hanson, 2004) could make it difficult to face and deal with the emotions that frequently accompany speech and language disorders. Latino children with speech and language disorders may be hesitant to acknowledge their emotions, or even deny them.
  • This parameter refers to how strictly a culture adheres to a schedule. Some cultures emphasize punctuality, while others are more event-oriented. For the latter group, beginning a new event is determined by the completion of the previous event, rather than by a schedule. This parameter also refers to personal space and how much distance between conversational partners is required for individuals to feel comfortable (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002).
  • Latinos are typically event-oriented and not overly concerned with time. Being late is not considered rude or disrespectful, but instead means that a person is giving priority to a more urgent situation. Many Latinos are less rigid with time and appointments than are European Americans (Robayo, 2003). Latinos also frequently require less personal space to feel comfortable. A European American may require two to three feet of personal space. Latinos may interpret that great of a distance as cold, unfriendly, or as a method to demonstrate superiority (Bennett, 1993).
  • In the clinical setting, this parameter influences clients’ timely arrival for scheduled appointments, their comfort with pre-specified duration of sessions, and their expectation to be accommodated if they miss or cancel a session (Moxley, Mahendra, and Vega-Barachowitz, 2004). Clinicians need to be aware that many Latinos do not consider arriving late to be rude or disrespectful. Thus, tardiness should not be taken as a personal offense nor should it be interpreted as a lack of interest in treatment. Clinicians who are more event-oriented could possibly choose to schedule their Latino clients to arrive 15 minutes earlier than the actual appointment times in order to reduce the amount of time the clinician must wait for the client (Leith, 1986). The clinician should also consider their clients’ modes of transportation and how that may affect punctuality (Robayo, 2003). Given the tight schedule of most SLPs, however, it might be necessary to outwardly discuss why promptness is important in the clinical setting.In addition, it would benefit clinicians to realize the possibility of reduced personal space with Latino clients in order to not be alarmed when family members position themselves closer to each other or to the clinician than he or she is accustomed. Typically in the Latino community, a handshake is appropriate when one is introduced to a new person, but women may choose to kiss one another on the cheek (Robayo, 2003). Therefore, it would be most appropriate for a clinician to begin by greeting their Latino clients with a handshake. However, the clinician should be aware that with increased familiarity this greeting may change.
  • In the clinical setting, this parameter influences clients’ timely arrival for scheduled appointments, their comfort with pre-specified duration of sessions, and their expectation to be accommodated if they miss or cancel a session (Moxley, Mahendra, and Vega-Barachowitz, 2004). Clinicians need to be aware that many Latinos do not consider arriving late to be rude or disrespectful. Thus, tardiness should not be taken as a personal offense nor should it be interpreted as a lack of interest in treatment. Clinicians who are more event-oriented could possibly choose to schedule their Latino clients to arrive 15 minutes earlier than the actual appointment times in order to reduce the amount of time the clinician must wait for the client (Leith, 1986). The clinician should also consider their clients’ modes of transportation and how that may affect punctuality (Robayo, 2003). Given the tight schedule of most SLPs, however, it might be necessary to outwardly discuss why promptness is important in the clinical setting.In addition, it would benefit clinicians to realize the possibility of reduced personal space with Latino clients in order to not be alarmed when family members position themselves closer to each other or to the clinician than he or she is accustomed. Typically in the Latino community, a handshake is appropriate when one is introduced to a new person, but women may choose to kiss one another on the cheek (Robayo, 2003). Therefore, it would be most appropriate for a clinician to begin by greeting their Latino clients with a handshake. However, the clinician should be aware that with increased familiarity this greeting may change.
  • What determines an individual’s societal position and place of respect varies across cultures (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). Wealth often plays a large part in the determination of class in Latino culture. Socioeconomic class may result in even greater group dissimilarities than country of origin. For example, a person from Mexico of low socioeconomic status could share more in common with a poor Peruvian farmer than a member from the Mexican middle class. Formal education and higher education degrees are also sources of respect in the Latino community (Robayo, 2003).
  • At the beginning of the year (i.e., January 6th), Latinos may celebrate Dia de los Reyes. For this holiday, children leave their shoes out to be filled with treats to commemorate the visit of the three kings, or Magi, to the Christ child shortly after His birth. Dia de los Muertos (Day of the Dead, All Souls Day for Catholics) is celebrated by Mexican-Americans and many other Latinos, and combines aspects of Indian ancestor worship with Catholic prayer rites for the deceased. Held on November 1st for all children who have died and November 2nd for all adults who have died, families may build altars to commemorate the dead on which are placed statues, pictures of the dead, food offerings, decorations of skeletons, candied skulls with the names of the deceased, candles, and so forth. On December 12th, in the Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the parish churches of Latino communities hold a mass of extensive celebration, often with parades, to commemorate the apparition of Our Lady to Juan Diego, an Indian peasant in the 1500s who lived in what is now Mexico City. Finally, on December 24th, Noche Buena, or the eve of Christ’s birth, is celebrated by preparing traditional foods, such as tamales for Mexican-Americans, and then attending midnight mass. In addition, another traditional festivity in the Latino community that may occur at any point during the year is the Quinceañera, or coming-out celebration for a 15-year-old girl (Lynch & Hanson, 2004.)
  • A close relationship between religion and illness is common in Latino families. Because of this relationship, a disability may be seen as a divine punishment for sin, and the family may believe they should not interfere with God’s will. However, many of the studies on Latino health beliefs have centered on rural and/or low socio-economic status Mexican-Americans. Thus, it is possible that the religion/illness relationship is more related to socioeconomic factors, rather than cultural (Zaldivar, 1994; Slesinger, 1981, as cited in Salas-Provance et al., 2002). For many Latinos, medical folk beliefs include mal ojo (i.e., evil eye,
  • Parents’ beliefs about the cause(s) of speech and language disorders can determine their thoughts on the extent to which their child’s developmental course can be modified by treatment, and/or their thoughts regarding which type of intervention would be most effective. How modifiable parents believe the stuttering to be influences how active a role they will take in facilitating the child’s progress. Latino parents may attribute the cause to uncontrollable factors such as those discussed in the assessment of disorders, such as mal ojo/evil eye, susto/fright, or mal puesto/evil hex, making these parents less likely to take an active role in intervention. Therefore, a parent-implemented intervention program would be an inappropriate and ineffective treatment option for this family (Rodriguez & Olswang, 2003).
  • From www.kwintessential.co.uk/translation/articles/interpreter.htmlBy way of offering some tips on working with interpreters the following guidelines may be of some use:1 - Establish and agree ground rules with an interpreter. For example, try and communicate how you want a meeting run, the number of sentences to be translated at a time, the confirmation of jargon or idioms before they are translated, when breaks will be taken and seemingly trivial matters like seating arrangements.2 - Try and brief an interpreter prior to any face to face meetings. Familiarise them with the whos, whats and whys. If there is any specific terminology to be used ask them if they understand it. If you foresee any tricky issues or tense topics, prepare them for it.3 - If you plan to give a speech or read from a script, give the interpreter a copy. The more familiar they are with the subject matter, the better a job they will do.4 - While speaking through an interpreter always engage with your counterpart directly. Even though you cannot understand what is being said, show interest, keep eye contact and remain focused. If you start to converse through an interpreter you lose any chance of building trust, rapport or confidence.5 - Try and avoid humour. Most interpreters will agree that jokes do not translate well. If you are giving a speech and plan to start it off with a joke, it is advisable to consult the interpreter first to see if they think it will work.6 - Plan your time carefully. Conversing through an interpreter makes conversations twice as long. For example, if you are making a presentation remember that anything you say will first be translated, so the likelihood is that a one hour presentation will take two. Compensate for this by either cutting down your presentation or speaking in shorter, sharper sentences.7 - Do not rush. Interpreting is a taxing job and is mentally exhausting. To alleviate the pressure as much as possible, speak slowly and clearly. If you rush the interpreter is more likely to become stressed and the quality of the translation may drop.8 - Interpersonal communication, by its nature, involves emotion. An interpreter should never translate emotions. If the speaker is annoyed this will be obvious in their body language and tone. Never involve the interpreter at a personal level in any discussions and if you see an interpreter translating your emotions, ask them to stop. The interpreter is there to purely translate what is being said.9 - Make sure the interpreter is clear that they are never to answer questions on your behalf. Even if the answer is simple, the interpreter should still convey this to you. If an interpreter starts to speak on your behalf, this can have numerous negative consequences such as undermining your position or even losing face.10 - Ask interpreters not to change or alter what you say even if they think it may cause offense. If you plan to talk about a controversial issue let the interpreter know. Before discussing it with an audience announce that what will be said is not the opinion of the interpreter but your own. This then frees the interpreter of feeling uncomfortable and nervous.
These guidelines should enable you to get the best out of your interpreter and consequently your business meeting, presentation, conference or event.
  • From www.kwintessential.co.uk/translation/articles/interpreter.html– jokes don’t translate well
  • From www.kwintessential.co.uk/translation/articles/interpreter.html
  • Bias can be avoided simply by explaining bias to an interpreter. Empower them to do a good job by explaining how common bias is to all of us. This causes a person to monitor themselves to provide the best interpreting. Bias is dramatically increased the closer the interpreter is to the client. i.e immediate family.
  • The family: The family is the most accurate source for their language and dialect. Ask for a member of the family that is not immediate to limit biasProfessional CommunityAlso, inquire as to their community. They will be the first to tell you if there is a cultural center, religious center, or a medical professional such as a nurse that they know that speaks their language. The nursing/ nursing home professional community is incredibly diverse. If the family can direct you towards a medical professional that speaks their language you have a leg up on someone that is probably familiar with translating.Cultural Centers: Some of the greater populations have cultural centersReligious Groups:Synagogues, temples, mosques, churchesOn-line resources: These tend to be pricey but in dire circumstances, there are online interpreters that you can conference in to a meeting to translate. The hospital/post trauma situations conference in interpreters. It is also common when there is a lawsuit involved.
  • Talk to the family, not to the interpreter:Maintain proper eye-contact and maintain normal cultural interactionsSit across from client and interpreter takes a mediating positionUse yes-no questions:This controls the pace of the interview. The interpreter doesn’t independently question/investigate, you do.Provide pauses for interpreterJimmy Carter example
  • Cultural Considerations when working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations: Working with bilingual children and families

    1. 1. Lindsey Williams, M.S., CCC‐SLP Marie  Wirka, M.S., CCC‐SLP Webinar Series October 4, 2013 Cultural Considerations when working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations Ellen Kester, Ph.D., CCC‐SLP August 10, 2011 ECI Webinar Series Summer 2011
    2. 2. Outline for Today • Importance of Culture • Cultural Parameters • Use of an interpreter • Cultural competence in assessment and intervention
    3. 3. Learner Objectives • Participants will list, identify, describe…: ▫ The importance of developing knowledge about other cultures to optimize client outcomes ▫ Nine parameters that can be used to characterize cultures ▫ Ways to facilitate culturally familiar environments to maximize success in treatment ▫ The influence a family's culture could have on a child's evaluation results ▫ How to effectively work with an interpreter
    4. 4. Why study culture? Demographics • Between 1990 and 2000 the Latino population increased by 57.9 percent. • In 2000, 12.5 percent of US residents were Latino and half of all Latinos in California and Texas. (Salas-Provance, Erickson, and Reed, 2002).
    5. 5. • A client’s cultural beliefs will influence how they describe their health problems, the manner in which they communicate their symptoms, who they seek for health care, how long they remain in care, and how they assess the care provided. • Culturally familiar environments facilitate success in treatment as clients are more secure and responsive in these settings. (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002; Mahendra et al., 2006). Why study culture? Improved Therapeutic Outcomes
    6. 6. Do you need Continuing Education or want  to listen to this course live? Click here to visit  the online courses.
    7. 7. The Nine Parameters of Cultural Consideration
    8. 8. Nine Cultural Parameters 1. Individualism versus collectivism 2. Views of time and space 3. Roles of men and women 4. Concepts of class and status 5. Values 6. Language 7. Rituals 8. Significance of work 9. Beliefs about health Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
    9. 9. Individualism vs. Collectivism • A culture is termed individualistic when great value is placed on individuals and their rights and decisions. ▫ Members of individualistic societies may tend to have more casual relationships. • A culture is collectivistic when great value is placed on the group and membership in the group. ▫ These societies form close ties between individuals and reinforce extended families. 1.
    10. 10. View of Time and Space • Time ▫ How strictly a culture adheres to a schedule  Emphasis on punctuality  Event oriented • Space ▫ Personal space and how much distance between conversational partners is required for individuals to feel comfortable. 2.
    11. 11. Roles of Men and Women • Gender roles vary across cultures and influence many areas, including ▫ Education ▫ Ownership ▫ Choice of profession ▫ Decision-making authority in the family. (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002) 3.
    12. 12. Concepts on Class and Status • What determines an individual’s societal position and place of respect varies across cultures (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). • Wealth often plays a large part in the determination of class. • Socioeconomic class may result in even greater group dissimilarities than country of origin. 4.
    13. 13. Values • A cultural group’s values are manifested in it’s view of the relationship of man to nature and of human beings to other human beings, the importance of ancestors and of the environment, and the degree of materialism (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). 5.
    14. 14. Language • The influence that the pragmatics of a language has on interpersonal communication. • The amount of information conveyed through setting or context differs among cultures, ranging from high to low context. ▫ High-context cultures  context is crucial to communicate meaning  a culturally competent provider would be especially aware of nonverbal aspects of communication, such as eye contact, gestures, space, use of silence, and touch. ▫ Low-context cultures  Meaning is conveyed primarily through words 6.
    15. 15. Rituals • Rituals or ceremonies are conventional ways of commemorating significant historical events or life changes and renewing commitment to shared values. ▫ Weddings ▫ Births ▫ Deaths ▫ Religious worship (Tomoeda & Bayles, 2002). • Daily rituals including meals and daily routines 7.
    16. 16. Significance of Work • This parameter refers to the importance of work in a culture and how it is defined by the members of the culture (Lynch & Hanson, 2004). 8.
    17. 17. Beliefs about Health • Illness and disabilities are viewed differently across cultures. • In many cultures, someone with a disability may be seen as special or holy, or they may be seen as bewitched. • Illness may be thought to occur when an individual is out of harmony with nature or the universe, and a spiritualist, folk healer, herbalist, or witch doctor may be chosen over Western medical professionals to provide health care. 9.
    18. 18. All of the documents and charts in this presentation  can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
    19. 19. Click for Audio‐over‐Powerpoint Presentation
    20. 20. Examining the BDI
    21. 21. Cultural Considerations in the BDI Receptive Communication 15 & 32 ▫ Recalls events from a story presented orally.  En la mesa había huevos, pan tostado y jugo de naranja. ▫ Donde está tu pie?/Where is your foot?
    22. 22. BDI Cultural Considerations Expressive Communication 30 ▫ Follows conventional rules of conversation.
    23. 23. BDI Cultural Considerations Receptive Communication 15 ▫ Donde está tu pie?/Where is your foot?
    24. 24. BDI Cultural Considerations • Self Care 13, 15 & 16 ▫ Child uses a spoon or other utensil to feed himself. ▫ Child feeds himself with a utensil without assistance. ▫ Child drinks from a cup (not sippy cup) without assistance.
    25. 25. BDI Cultural Considerations • Self Care 22 & 25 ▫ Child asks for food at the table. ▫ Child otains a drink from a tap without assistance.
    26. 26. BDI Cultural Considerations Adult Interaction 5, 15, 17 ▫ Child explores adult facial features ▫ Child helps with simple household tasks. ▫ Child greets familiar adults spontaneously
    27. 27. BDI Cultural Considerations Reasoning and Academic Skills 4, 9 & 10 ▫ Child shows interest in books ▫ Child names the colors red, green and blue ▫ Child identifies to sources of common actions  What barks?/Quién ladra?
    28. 28. BDI Cultural Considerations Fine Motor ▫ Child fastens clothing without assistance
    29. 29. Accessing clients and families through their home language.
    30. 30. The Top Ten Tips • Establish and agree to ground rules ▫ How to run the session ▫ Number of sentences at a time ▫ Confirmation of jargon/idioms – Avoid it! ▫ When to take breaks • Brief the interpreter prior to the session ▫ Who, what, why ▫ Specific terminology ▫ Format ▫ Your job and what you are looking for
    31. 31. The Top Ten Tips (continued) • Familiarize them with the topic ▫ Best if your interpreter has some experience in education, special education, speech-language ▫ Important for interpreter to know what you need • Avoid humor • Plan your time carefully (twice the time) • Do not rush, speak slowly and clearly and provide pauses for the interpreter
    32. 32. The Top Ten Tips (continued) • An interpreter should never translate emotions, body language works for that • An interpreter should never answer questions on your behalf. • Ask them their opinion after the session • An interpreter should never alter what you say.
    33. 33. How to work with an interpreter • Talk to the family, not to the interpreter • Sit across from client and interpreter takes a mediating position Note: An inexperienced interpreter may talk more or less than you do.
    34. 34. Interpreter bias • It is human nature to want a member of your culture to perform well • An interpreter should: ▫ Maintain Neutrality ▫ Translate statements verbatim ▫ Maintain confidentiality
    35. 35. Types of Interpretation • Consecutive Interpreting ▫ The interpreter listens to a section and then the speaker pauses to give time to interpret ▫ Used in one-to-one and small group meetings • Simultaneous Interpreting ▫ The interpreter attempts to relay the meaning in real time. ▫ Used more for conferences and speeches to large groups
    36. 36. How to find an interpreter • On-line resources ▫ www.professionalinterpreters.com • The Professional Community ▫ Nurses, healthcare professionals • Community Volunteers ▫ Cultural centers ▫ Religious groups • The family ▫ Extended members preferred
    37. 37. Debriefing and writing the report • Debriefing ▫ Ask the interpreter their impressions of the interaction and client after the interaction • Reporting ▫ Annotate that an interpreter was used ▫ Supplement testing with other data  Observations  Teacher/family input
    38. 38. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
    39. 39. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.

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