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introduction to mechatronics

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introduction to mechatronics

  1. 1. ME- 435 Mechatronics Lecture # 01 Introduction to Mechatronics Department of Mechanical Engineering Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology, Peshawar
  2. 2. Introduction to Mechatronics What is Mechatronics? • The word mechatronics is composed of “mecha” from mechanical and the “tronics” from electronics. Mechanical + Electronics = Mechatronics “Mecha” + “tronics” = Mechatronics • The term “Mechatronics” was coined by Tetsuro Mori, a senior Japanese engineer at Yasakawa Company in 1969. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  3. 3. Introduction to Mechatronics • Mechatronics is synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, control engineering and computer science. • Mechatronics engineering is the design of computer- controlled electromechanical systems. • A mechatronic system is a computer controlled mechanical system. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  4. 4. Model of a Typical Mechatronic System robotics.msa@gmail.com Action Control Sensing the environment
  5. 5. Modules of a Mechatronic System 1. Sensing I. Sensors II. Signal Conditioning III. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion 2. Control I. Open Loop and Closed Loop Control 3. Action I. Drive Circuits II. Actuators III. Motors robotics.msa@gmail.com
  6. 6. Components of a Mechatronic System • Mechanical • Electronics • Sensors • Actuators • Control • Computing robotics.msa@gmail.com
  7. 7. Introduction to Mechatronics Evolution of automated systems: 1. Completely mechanical automatic systems (before and early 1900s) 2. Automatic devices with electronic components such as relays, transistors, op-amps (early 1900s to 1970s) 3. Computer controlled automatic systems (1970s–present) robotics.msa@gmail.com
  8. 8. Introduction to Mechatronics • Early automatic control systems performed their automated function solely through mechanical means. • For instance, a water level regulator for a water tank uses a float connected to a valve via a linkage. • The desired water level in the tank is set by the adjustment of the float height or the linkage arm length connecting it to the valve. • The float opens and closes the valve in order to maintain the desired water level. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  9. 9. Introduction to Mechatronics • A mechatronic system has at its core a mechanical system which needs to be commanded or controlled by a controller. • The controller needs information about the state of the system. This information is obtained from sensors. • In many cases, the signals produced by the sensors are not in a form ready to be read by the controller and need some signal conditioning operations performed on them. • The conditioned, sensed signals are then converted to a digital form by Analog-to-Digital Convertor (ADC) and are then sent to the controller. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  10. 10. Introduction to Mechatronics • The controller is the ‘mind’ of the mechatronic system, which processes user commands and sensed signals to generate command signals to be sent to the actuators in the system. Actuators are devices that can convert electrical energy to mechanical energy • The user commands are obtained from a variety of devices, including command buttons, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), touch screens, or pads. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  11. 11. Introduction to Mechatronics • In some cases, the command signals are sent to the actuators without utilizing any feedback information from the sensors. This is called open-loop system, and for it to work, this requires a good calibration between the input and output of the system. • The more common mode of operation is the closed-loop mode in which the command signals sent to the actuators utilize the feedback information from the sensors. This mode of operation does not require calibration information. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  12. 12. Open Loop System Closed-Loop System
  13. 13. Introduction to Mechatronics • Every computer controlled system has four basic functional blocks: 1. A process to be controlled 2. Sensors 3. Actuators 4. Controller robotics.msa@gmail.com
  14. 14. Introduction to Mechatronics • The analogy between a human controlled system and computer control system is shown in figure. • If a process is controlled and powered by a human operator, the operator observes the behavior of the system (i.e. using visual observation), then makes a decision regarding what action to take, then using his muscular power takes a particular control action. • One could view the outcome of the decision making process as a control or decision signal, and the action of the muscles as the actuator signal which is the amplified version of the control (or decision) signal. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  15. 15. Introduction to Mechatronics • The same functionalities of a control system can be automated by use of a digital computer as shown in the figure. • The sensors replace the eyes, the actuators replace the muscles, and the computer replaces the human brain. • Every mechatronic system has some sensors to measure the status of the process variables. • The sensors are the “eyes” of a computer controlled system. • Actuators are the “muscles” of a computer controlled system. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  16. 16. Vehicle Speed Control
  17. 17. Examples of Mechatronic Systems • Antilock Brake System (ABS) • Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) • Traction Control System (TCS) • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) • Automatic Camera • Scanner • Hard Disk Drive • Industrial Robots • Mobile Robots (Wheeled Robots, Legged Robots) robotics.msa@gmail.com
  18. 18. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Wheeled Robots
  19. 19. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Aerial Robots
  20. 20. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Legged Robots
  21. 21. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Autonomous Cars
  22. 22. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Hard Drives Underwater Robots
  23. 23. Examples of Mechatronic Systems robotics.msa@gmail.com Industrial Robots
  24. 24. Benefits of Mechatronic Systems • Enhanced features and functionality A mechanical design typically provides only one function. Designing with a microcontroller offers the flexibility of adding features like LCD displays, lighting LEDs, a user interface, programmability, safety features, speed control etc. Modern washing machines, for instance, offer many features over the mechanical designs of old. These features include a display that gives cycle information as well as providing a stain removal guide. These machines use microcontrollers to efficiently vary the speed of different cycles based on the content being washed. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  25. 25. Benefits of Mechatronic Systems • More user-friendly Mechatronic systems are more user-friendly e.g. power door locks, keyless entry, cruise control etc. • Precision control Flow rate, speed, position, and any number of other variables can be controlled precisely with a microcontroller. Cruise control in an automobile is a great example of how a mechatronic solution allows for precise control. In order to give the car a smooth acceleration to the desired speed as well as maintaining a constant velocity over varying load conditions. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  26. 26. Benefits of Mechatronic Systems • More efficient The efficiency of a system can be improved by adding intelligence to the design. Certain portions of the system can be shut-off when not in use or a microcontroller can make better use of the energy available. • Lower cost A complex mechanical solution may be simplified using a microcontroller-based approach. Design time, product size, and reliability can all be improved with a mechatronic solution. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  27. 27. Benefits of Mechatronic Systems • Flexible design (reprogrammable) Mechatronic systems are flexible and can be easily switched to perform different jobs by simply changing the robot control program. This procedure is called "reprogramming“. • More reliable Mechanical designs are prone to wear and tear over time. For example mechanical odometers use a direct drive system that consists of a flexible cable running from the transmission to the odometer gage. The solution is unreliable because the cable is prone to failure. The modern mechatronic solution consists of an optical encoder and digital display, which increases system reliability. robotics.msa@gmail.com
  28. 28. Benefits of Mechatronic Systems • Smaller size Adding a microcontroller to a system may result in space savings. • Safer Adding intelligence to a system makes it safer. Whether you add an automatic shutdown to a coffee pot or sense when a system is overheating, numerous safety checks can be easily added to a system when a microcontroller is controlling the system. robotics.msa@gmail.com

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