Organization of the government


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Organization of the government

  1. 1. Organization of the Government Making and execution of laws is the primary function of a Government A democratic government can be based on Parliamentary or Presidential system Within the Parliamentary or Presidential system, the system of government can of unitary or federal form
  2. 2.  Legislature is entrusted with enactment of laws while the executive is concerned with day to day administration and execution of laws  Relationship between the legislature and the executive differentiates Parliamentary and Presidential Governments  Relationship between the centre and federating units determines the unitary or federal character of the government
  3. 3. Parliamentary/Presidential System of Government Parliamentary Government Executive is a part of legislature Executive is accountable to legislature for its actions Presidential Government President is the head of state as well as government Executive authority is concentrated in the President
  4. 4. President chalks out administrative policy and this policy does not require ratification by legislature President exercises full powers as conferred by the constitution Members of cabinet are appointed by the President and are accountable to the President Legislature works independently as well There is a clear independence of both branches from each other Both the legislature and executive are accountable to people e.g. America
  5. 5. Parliamentary System: Salient Features Head of state has only ceremonious functions. Prime Minister is the head of Government and the executive head. Head of the state acts on the advice of Prime Minister and the Cabinet. Cabinet is a part of legislature Members of cabinet are elected to legislature and chosen by Prime Minister as a team
  6. 6. There is a close coordination between executive and legislature. Both can influence each other Cabinet being a team is collectively responsible to legislature.
  7. 7. Presidential System: Salient Features The Chief Executive, the President, is elected directly or indirectly (through electoral college) by the people President has a fixed tenure and cannot be removed except through impeachment Members of presidential cabinet are not the members of legislature Ministers are directly and individually responsible to the President
  8. 8. Although independent of each other, President still has some influence on parliament (Veto Powers of US President) and parliament also has some checks on the president
  9. 9. Comparison of Parliamentary/ Presidential Systems Parliamentary System  PM and Cabinet can stay so long as they have confidence of legislature even in their fixed term of some years  Ministers are the members of legislature  Executive (Cabinet) takes part in legislation Presidential System  President has a fixed term and cannot be removed in ordinary circumstances except by impeachment  Ministers are not the members of legislature  Cabinet, not being the members of legislature, do not take part in legislation
  10. 10. Parliamentary System  Concept of joint responsibility before the parliament  Most of the legislation is done under the guidance of the executive Presidential System  Each minister is responsible to President for his/her actions  The legislation is done independently normally without the guidance of the executive
  11. 11. Unitary/Federal Forms of Government Unitary form of Government No separation of powers between national government and local governments Constitutionally, all powers rest with the central/national government Examples are UK, Italy, France Federal form of Government Constitutional division of powers between centre and federating units
  12. 12. Matters of national importance fall within the domain of central government like currency, defence, foreign affairs Matters of regional/local importance rest with the federating units/provinces like education, health, social welfare Relationship between centre and the federating units can be varied by the amendments in the constitution
  13. 13. Unitary Form: Salient Features National government holds paramount position in administration throughout country Local institutions are subordinate to national government in their function National government may grant maximum powers to local institutions like in UK but the former remains supreme
  14. 14. UK has a unitary form of Government where central government is exclusive source of authority UK Government delegates powers to local institutions and is fully authorized to withdraw them at anytime
  15. 15. Federal Government: Salient Features In the words of Hamilton, it is ‘an organization of states that gives birth to a new union’ Federal constitution specifies division of powers between centre and federating units Federation provides effective union with protection of rights of federating units
  16. 16. Federal system maintains a reasonable balance between centralism and regionalism The constitution of USA provides federal system where powers of the centre and the federating units called states are clearly demarcated
  17. 17. Comparison :Unitary and Federal Governments Unitary form of Govt.  Suitable to smaller states especially having geographical unity and political homogeneity  Regional units can exercise powers delegated to them by the centre. Constitution does not specify their powers Federal form of Govt.  Suitable to states with larger area and less geographical/political homogeneity  Clear division of powers by constitution. Federating units can legislate on the matters of regional importance
  18. 18. Unitary form of Govt.  Regional units derive their powers from the centre  It is comparatively easier for the central government to enact laws and govern as desired Federal form of Govt.  Federating units derive their powers from the constitution  To enact laws and govern, the central government has to take into account the wishes of federating units
  19. 19. Pakistan Parliamentary system of Government with Federal form Prime Minister and cabinet are the members of legislature Parliament can enact laws Cabinet is responsible to the parliament Pakistan comprises of four federating units called provinces Constitution of 1973 provides with the federal list, provincial list and concurrent list
  20. 20. Issues Provincial autonomy Critics argue that the Federal Government in Pakistan does not provide the extent of autonomy to the provinces to an ideal level Division of powers between the president and prime minister Dissolution of the National Assembly and the Cabinet Appointments to key positions like provincial governors, service chiefs