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Communication skills


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Communication skills

  1. 2. Communication <ul><li>Communication is the act of transmitting verbal and non-verbal information and understanding between people. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and non-verbal messages. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Most common ways to communicate Speaking Visual Images Writing Body Language
  3. 4. Communication Goals To change behavior To get action To ensure understanding To persuade To get and give Information Source: CGAP Direct
  4. 6. The Significance of Communication in Human Life Effective communication skills are a critical element in your career and personal lives. We all must use a variety of communication techniques to both understand and be understood.
  5. 7. The Significance of Communication in Human Life <ul><li>No field of study has more important implication for our lives in contemporary society than that which looks systematically at the process of human communication. Everything we do, from making friends to governing a nation, would be impossible if human beings were unable to communicate with speech and language. It is no exaggeration to say that communication is at the heart of human existence. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Communication <ul><li>we can also define communication as a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings . </li></ul>
  7. 9. Communication <ul><li>The definitions of communication has four important facets. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings </li></ul>
  8. 10. Systemic <ul><li>Communication takes place within systems. A system consists of interrelated parts that affect one another. </li></ul><ul><li>These systems are: </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural Systems </li></ul>
  9. 11. Process <ul><li>Communication is a process, which means that it is ongoing and always-in motion. It's hard to tell when communication starts and stops because what happened before we talk with someone may influence our interaction, and what occurs in a particular encounter may affect the future. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Symbolic <ul><li>Communication is symbolic. It relies symbols, which are abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things </li></ul>
  11. 13. Meanings <ul><li>Meanings are at the heart of communication. Meanings are the significance we bestow on phenomenon, or what they signify (point) to us. We understand meanings by experience or by the symbols they stand for. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Critical success factor for life <ul><li>The majority of your perceived ability comes from how you communicate </li></ul>70% How you communicate it 30% What you know Source: CGAP Direct
  13. 15. Listening and Speaking are used a lot…
  14. 16. … But not taught enough Amount taught
  15. 17. What if communication were not possible?
  16. 18. Frustration and Chaos!
  17. 19. Both children want the orange
  18. 20. But without good listening, neither gets what they want…
  20. 22. <ul><li>Source : </li></ul><ul><li>Why to communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>What to communicate? </li></ul><ul><li>Usefulness of the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of the Information to be communicated. </li></ul>PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) <ul><li>Encoding : </li></ul><ul><li>The process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to convey the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate sources of confusion. For e.g. cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing your audience. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Written Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Mails, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-To-Face meetings, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephones, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing. </li></ul></ul>PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…)
  22. 24. <ul><li>EFFECTIVE DECODING : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen actively, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading information carefully, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Confusion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask question for better understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The audience or individuals to whom we are sending the information. </li></ul><ul><li>THE INFLUENCE FOR RECEIVER : </li></ul><ul><li>The prior knowledge can influence the receiver’s understanding of the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Blockages in the receiver’s mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The surrounding disturbances. </li></ul>
  23. 25. The Communication Process SENDER (encodes) RECEIVER (decodes) Barrier Barrier Medium Feedback/Response
  24. 26. Barriers to communication <ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate medium </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions/Misconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Language differences </li></ul><ul><li>Poor listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions </li></ul>
  25. 27. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills <ul><li>Avoid Barriers to Communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Send Understandable Messages: Effective communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively Listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize Non-verbal Signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Give and Solicit Meaningful Feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt to Diversity of Communication Styles… try multiple channels </li></ul>
  26. 28. What causes distortion? <ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wordiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listener </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconceived notions/expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical hearing problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No active listening! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>30% of you aren’t paying attention right now! </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>&quot;silence speaks louder than words&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Posture and body orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Paralinguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul>SIX WAYS OF USING NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS EFFECTIVELY
  29. 32. <ul><li>EYE CONTACT: </li></ul><ul><li>Eye is an direct and most expressive part of our body. </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of Eye Contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Eye Contact: (Shows confidence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking downwards (Listening carefully or Guilty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single raised eyebrow (Doubting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both raised eyebrows (Admiring) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bent eyebrows (Sudden focus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tears coming out (Emotional either happy or hurt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>……… and many more </li></ul></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  30. 33. <ul><li>FACIAL EXPRESSION: </li></ul><ul><li>Smile covers the most part of facial expression: </li></ul><ul><li>Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  31. 34. <ul><li>GESTURES : </li></ul><ul><li>If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated. </li></ul><ul><li>A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening. </li></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  32. 35. <ul><li>POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION: </li></ul><ul><li>You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit. </li></ul><ul><li>Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, interpersonal closeness results when you and your students face each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your class. </li></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  33. 36. <ul><li>PROXIMITY: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with audience. </li></ul><ul><li>You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading young audience‘s space. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rocking, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leg swinging, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapping, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaze aversion, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To counteract this, move around the audience to increase interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for the audience to speak. </li></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  34. 37. <ul><li>Paralinguistic : </li></ul><ul><li>This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as: - Tone - Pitch - Rhythm - Loudness - Inflection </li></ul>SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
  35. 38. <ul><li>- You have over 630 muscles in your body. - Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day. - You have over 30 muscles in your face to help you smile or frown. It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown. SO SMILE EVERYTIME YOU SEE SOMEONE. - The strongest muscle in your body is your tongue. USE IT EFFECTIVELY. - It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech. </li></ul>FEW FACTS
  36. 40. Hearing Vs Listening Hearing – Physical process, natural, passive Listening – Physical as well as mental process, active, learned process, a skill Listening is hard. You must choose to participate in the process of listening.
  37. 41. Components Examples Meanings Communicated Image Clothing, hygiene Values, competence Facial Expressions Frown, smile, sneer Unexpressed feelings Eye Movements Looking away, staring Intentions, state of mind Posture Leaning in, slumped Attitude Gestures Handshake, wave Intentions, feelings VISUAL Touch Pat on the back Approval Gentle touch on an arm Support and concern TACTILE
  38. 42. Components Examples Meanings Communicated How things are said Loudness, pitch, rate Different meanings, e.g. Vocal intonations Rhythm, pitch, clarity Sarcasm, disapproval VOCAL SPACIAL Body closeness 0 – 2 feet Feelings of intimacy Furniture arrangement Large pieces far apart Formal and serious
  39. 43. <ul><li>Presentation Skills while appearing for an interview. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Dressing sense (Males & Females), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents needed to be carried, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your body language (while standing, while sitting, while walking), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your attitude (Soberness, Soft words, avoid western accent), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Confidence (while talking, body movements, aggression, etc). </li></ul></ul>EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS