B787 batteries


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Dreamliner B787 Batteries Lithium Electrical

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B787 batteries

  1. 1. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. 1787 Program | Electrical System and BatteriesMike SinnettVice President & Chief Project Engineer787 ProgramFebruary 2013
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Airplane electricalsystems 787 Dreamlinerelectrical system Batteries 787 batteries Questions andanswersWelcome
  3. 3. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. The system that makes,controls and distributespower to run airplane systems: Flight deck displays Hydraulic system Lighting In-flight entertainment Many others Redundant systems and backupsprovide layers of safety.For Your InformationOn the ground, the airplane also can run on electricity from ground carts.What Is an Airplane Electrical System?
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Electricity powers more on the787 than on other Boeingairplanes: Engine start Environmental control system Wing ice protection High-capacity hydraulic pumps BrakesWhat Does More Electric Mean?4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. More efficient energycreation, distribution, use Better power control Automatic monitoring forbetter airplane availability—Airplane Health Management More fuel efficient Fewer maintenance tasks Lower maintenance costs Better reliability Less drag Less noiseMore Electric Brings More Benefits5
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Electrical System ComparisonTraditional Airplane 787 Dreamliner
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Two per engine (four total) Act as motors to turn the engineshaft and start the engine Primary sources of electricalpower when engines are running Simplest, most efficient methodto generate powerConnect directly to the gearboxGenerate power in proportion toengine speed235 volts alternating current (VAC)250 kilovolt amps (kVA)Generating PowerVariable-Frequency Starter Generators
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Two per airplane Secondary sources ofelectrical power whenAPU is running 235 VAC 225 kVA Act as motors to start theauxiliary power unit, a small,turbine engine in theairplane’s tailFor Your InformationBoeing flew a 787 test flight for 5.5 hours with one engine and five of sixgenerators turned off, demonstrating the robust capabilities of the system.Generating PowerAPU Starter Generators
  9. 9. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.On the ground: Three external powerreceptacles (115 VAC) Auxiliary power unit Main battery APU batteryIn flight:Backup power includes Main battery APU battery Ram air turbineOther Power Sources
  10. 10. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Most systems are fed byThe aft electrical equipment bay.Power distribution units around theairplane. Distribution unitsAre solid-state power controllers.Weigh less than power feeders onother models.Eliminate some wiring, therebysaving weight.Distributing Power
  11. 11. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Monitoring and Fault Protection Multifunction display System status available throughelectrical and status pages Notification, procedures fornon-normal conditions, as withany other airplane Generator control units Six total (one per VFSG; one per ASG) Regulate voltage and provide faultcurrent limiting Bus power control unit Serve as communication gatewaybetween electrical and other systems Control standby systems Manage electrical, horsepower loads
  12. 12. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Specific model needs Lessons from in-service experience Boeing design philosophy No single failure can causean accident Redundant systems Systems separation:physical and functional Standby systems Protective systems U.S. Federal Aviation RegulationsSafety Is Designed InSystems Design Requirements12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Performance in ServiceMonths After Entry Into ServiceReliability(percentage)Schedule Reliability from Entry into ServiceThrough December 2012
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. Provide power (discharge). Store energy.For Your Information:Energy vs. Power Energy is an expression ofthe quantity of work thatcan be performed. Power describes the rateof use of energy. It is similar to the difference betweendistance and speed.What Do Batteries Do?14
  15. 15. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. A battery is essentially acontainer of chemicals thatreleases electrons. Batteries have two terminals –positive and negative. When the negative and positiveterminals are connected, achemical reaction occurs thatresults in the flow of electrons. The flow of electrons is called current and is measured in amps. As more current flows through the item being powered, the batteryis delivering more power.How Do Batteries Work?15
  16. 16. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Where Are the 787 Batteries?16Auxiliary Power Unit Battery Aft electronics equipment bay;lower fuselage; near the back ofthe airplane.Main Battery Forward electronics equipmentbay; lower fuselage nearthe front of the airplane.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.What Do the 787 Batteries Do?17Auxiliary Power Unit BatteryAPU start APU provides ground power andserves as backup power in flight.Main Battery Ground maintenanceoperations: Refueling. Brake power while towing. Navigation lights whiletowing. Backup power.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Parts of the 787 Battery18InsulationCell (1 of 8)NegativeTerminal(copper)PositiveTerminal(aluminum)InsulationCurrentSensorFrameSpacerContactorBatteryMonitoringUnitConnectorTop FrameWireHarness
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Aerospace Applications of NiCd19747MD-11777
  20. 20. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved. High power capability. Lower weight. Improved chargingcharacteristics. No memory effect. Improved storage life.For Your Information: Lithium is an alkali metal with characteristicssimilar to sodium and potassium. It is the third element on the periodic table. Lithium is the lightest metallic element.Why Select a Lithium-Ion Battery?20
  21. 21. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Aerospace Applications of Li-Ion21Mars Rover702 CommercialCommunicationSatelliteImage Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
  22. 22. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Comparison of the 787 and 777 Batteries22Chemistry FeatureLithium-Ion(Lithium Cobalt Oxide)Nickel Cadmium(Fibrous)Hermetically sealed No YesVoltage (nominal) 32V (8 cells) 24.0 V (20 cells)Maximum weight 63 lb (28.6 kg) 107 lb (48.5 kg)Current provided forairplane power-up150 amps 16 amps
  23. 23. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Airplane-level Design to preclude failure andassume failure will occur. Design protections. Ensure that no single failure willcause danger to the airplane.Battery system Provide circuit protection againstovercharging and deepdischarging. Provide mechanical protection towithstand failures and protect othersystems and structure.Design Philosophies23
  24. 24. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Laboratory testing of battery system +5,000 hours – demonstrated normal operations and simulatedfailures including baking the battery to induce overheating, crushtesting and puncturing a cell with nail to induce short circuitLaboratory testing of integrated power system +25,000 hours – demonstrated interaction of various systemelements in normal operations and simulated failures in twolaboratoriesAirplane testing of integrated electrical system +10,000 hours – normal operations and simulated failureconditions including extreme weather conditions, long durationand short duration operations, low- and high-elevation operationsRigorous and Robust Testing24
  25. 25. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.787 In-Service Battery History25January 2013 APU battery fault – under investigation by the NTSB Main battery fault – under investigation by the JTSBPrior to January 2013 2.2 million cell-hours in operations (includes Boeing and airlineground and flight hours, eight cells per battery) 50,000 hours flying No battery incident events on an airplane Standard battery issues, comparable to other airplanes
  26. 26. Copyright © 2013 Boeing. All rights reserved.Questions and Answers