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Qubit and Quantum Gate is a part of Quantum Computer.

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- 1. Qubit & Quantum Gate Present by ……… Name : Bijoy Maji Roll No. : 455 Semester : 4th Session : 2021-2023 Vidyasagar University
- 2. A. What is Qubit? B. Making Qubit by different method C. Measure and control Qubits D. Quantum gate E. Quantum State F. Different type of Quantum Gate G. Making Adder circuit H. Conclusion 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 2 Content:
- 3. [Basic unit of quantum information] 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 3 Superposition state |Ψ⟩= α∣0⟩ + β∣1⟩ Qubit means quantum bit. Just like binary bit or basic unit of classical computer. Binary bit can only represent a single value such as 0 or 1. It can be in one of two possible state. Qubit can be represent ∣0⟩ or ∣1⟩ or super position of both state. What Is Qubit? |α|2 + |β|2 = 1
- 4. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 4 Making two level quantum system. Making Qubit Non Solid State Platforms: 1. Photon Qubit 2. Trapped Ions Qubit Solid State Platforms: 1. Superconductor (Transmon) 2. NV – Center in Diamonds 3. Semiconductor Quantum Dot How to build Qubit?
- 5. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 5 Based on Polarization of photon. Photon Qubit: Polarization : It is orientation of electromagnetic field which can be vertical and horizontal. This approach not only build photonic quantum computer but also connect quantum computer and bit information between them. BACK
- 6. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 6 BACK Trapped Ions Qubit: This platform made of electric charge trapped in alternative electric field. This is done in high vacuum such that these ions are well isolated from environment and can be well controlled. The kinetic energy is low enough so there are in ground state. We can deliberately exited them using laser and read out it examined with camera. It is permissible candidate to make large system. The electric filed is shaded region and ions are small gray ball. Many trap ions
- 7. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 7 Basic Structure Implementation in Quantum Processor Superconductor Qubit:
- 8. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 8 Quantization of LC oscillator. (Act as a artificial atom) Superconductor Qubit:
- 9. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 9 Making Two level artificial atom by using Josephson Junction Superconductor Qubit:
- 10. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 10 BACK Finally on Quantum processor:
- 11. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 11 Diamond Removing Carbon atom Placing Nitrogen atom Spin of the electron or Nitrogen atom is use as qubit. NV-Center qubit is well coupled with light, they are prime candidate as local nodes for quantum communication using photon to transmit quantum information BACK NV – Center in Diamond’s spin: NV (Nitrogen Vacancy) center in Diamond’s spin qubit:
- 12. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 12 Semiconductor quantum dot qubit: In semiconductor quantum dot qubit , single electron enabling their spin to as qubit. Electron in quantum dot required to operate at absolute zero temperature in order to suppress change fluctuation in quantum dot’s state.
- 13. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 13 Measure and control of a Qubit: : Figure shows how we measure and control qubit by resonator
- 14. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 14 Quantum Gate: Quantum gates are nothing but a unitary operation. For single-qubit gates, it’s actually quite straightforward: we apply a short pulse of microwave radiation. If the frequency of the microwave exactly matches the resonant frequency of the qubit, it will cause the qubit state to flip. We can also create superposition states in the same way by adjusting how long the pulse lasts. Need Of quantum gate: Implementing arithmetic and logical operation on qubit. Fig: Operation of Quantum Gate
- 15. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 15 These three weird quantum properties enable the design of quantum algorithms which can compute in ways classical computers cannot, making quantum computers more powerful for solving certain types of problems. Quantum Theory related to quantum Gate: Superposition Entanglement Interference
- 16. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 16 Its quantum state can be written in terms of two levels, labeled and , which can be represented in the “computational basis” by two- dimensional vectors: Quantum States:
- 17. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 17 Different Quantum Gates:
- 18. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 18 X (or 𝞼x): bit-flip Work: The output would be the input vector rotated 180º about the x- axis on the Bloch sphere Some Single Qubit Quantum Gate: Symbol: Matrix Representation:
- 19. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 19 Symbol: Matrix Representation: Work: Pauli-Y gate rotates quantum states 180º about the Y-axis. Symbol: Matrix Representation: Work: Pauli-Z gate rotates quantum states 180º about the Z-axis. Pauli Y gate: Pauli Z gate:
- 20. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 20 Hadamard (H): creates a 50-50 superposition from |0⟩ and |1⟩ Hadamard (H) Gate: Symbol: Matrix Representation:
- 21. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 21 Work: if the control qubit is 0, does nothing if the control qubit is 1, flip the target qubit CNOT (controlled not): It is similar to XOR gate
- 22. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 22 Quantum Composer has a series of quantum phase-shift gates that allow us to shift this phase by the following: The general phase-shift gate: The 𝑃 𝜙 matrix is 𝑃 𝜙 = 1 0 0 𝑒𝑗𝜙 Phase Shift Gate: General Phase shift gate
- 23. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 23 Input Output 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 Fig For 1+1 circuit Making Adder Circuit: Where X gates are use to encode the input qubit.
- 24. It is a very advance, first and power technology. But is very difficult to implementation. To stabilized qubit on its quantum state we need very low temperature. This technology is too much expensive. This technology can’t replace our modern day computer but is will help to improve out Cyber security, Drug simulation, Weather prediction system. Quantum computer do two and more computation parallelly . 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 24 Conclusion:
- 25. 1. https://jonathan-hui.medium.com/qc-how-to-build-a-quantum- computer-with-superconducting-circuit-4c30b1b296cd 2. https://medium.com/qubit-factory/basic-quantum-computing- gates-using-ibm-qiskit-12e64c46a46e 3. https://quantum-computing.ibm.com/ 4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_NOT_gate 5. https://quantumai.google/research/publications 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 25 Reference:
- 26. 29 May 2023 Qubit and Quantum Gate 26