* EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY:
THE HISTORY IF COMPUTER STRATS FROM 1000’S OF YEAR AGO . IT MEANS THE
GRADUALLY CHANGED THE CONCEPT SING A LONG PERIOD .PEOPLE USED VARIOUS
IDEAS FOR COUNTING .THE MATERIALS ARE :
AS WE EVOLVED WITH THE TIME MORE COUNTING IDEAS WERE BROUGHT IN USE.
*SOME OF THE CALCULATING DEVICES ARE MENTIONED BELOW:
-LADY AUGUSTA ADA LOVELACE .
1) It was invented around 4000 years ago by Chinese people .
2) It was a wooden frame which has metal rods with beads moulted on them.
3) It consist of mainly two parts, they are heaven and the earth which is separated by a mid-bar.
(each string in heaven has two beads and five units for each value whereas earth have five .
beads and one unit for each value.
4) It is still in use in some country like China ,Russia and Japan.
1) It was invented by a Scotsman named john napier In 1617 AD .
2) It was based on logarithms, which allows multiplication to be performed via addition.
3) It consist of eleven bone rods . First horizontal rod start from 1 to 0 and the vertical rod starts
from 1 to 9.
4) It is based on the principle of performing multiplication by the addition of logarithms.
1) It was invented by a English mathematician , William oughtere I n 1620 AD.
2) It was based on logarithms which allows us to count the product and the quotient.
3) This is consist of two marked ruler.
a. inner ruler.
b. outer ruler.
4) The calculations were done by the proper alignment of the two scales.
5) This machine was also based on the principle of logarthms.
1) It was invented by a French scientist/mathematician Biaise pascal . It is belived that it was
the first mechanical automatic calculator invented in between 1642 – 1644.
2) It could only perform addition and subtraction .
3) It was a woolen box with a series of gears and wheel . When a wheel is rotated one
revolution, it also rotates the neighboring wheel .
4) A series of windows is given on the top of the wheel to read the total.
1) Difference engine was invented by the father of computer (Charles Babbage) in early
2) It was the mechanical computer which could perform simple calculation like addition
subtraction , product etc.
3) it was the steam driven machine designed to solve tables of number like logarithm table.
1) This calculating device was also invented by Charles Babbage (father of computer) after
the invention difference engine .Thus it was invented In1830 AD.
2) This was a first mechanical computer that used punch cards as input.
3) It was capable of solving any mathematical problem .
4) It was the first device which was capable of storing information as a permanent memory.
1) It was invented by an American statistician named Herman Hollerith in 1890 AD.
2) It was a mechanical tabulator based on punch cards .
3) It was used for storing , recording , the information .
4) It was firstly used in the census in USA in 1890 AD.
5) The inventor of the machine also established the international company which is popularly
known as International business machine (IBM) in 1924.
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
Generation of computer refers to the classification of computer into different group based on the technology
,memory devices , hardware , software used .Each generation of computer differs from each other on the basis of
size , storage, power ,etc .
The major generations of computer are mentioned below:
a) first generation computer.
b) second generation computer.
c) thirdgeneration computer.
d) fourth generation computer.
e) fifth generation computer.
FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER
The first computer were used in between 1946 – 1959.They were slow , huge , and expensive.In these computer vacuum
tubes were used as the basic component of cpu an memory . These computers were mainly depended on batch
opeaning system and punch cards. Magnetic tape and paper tape were used as output and input devices in this
generation .These computers were produced lot of heat
Some of the popular first generation compute are:
SOME OF THE FEATURES OF FIRST GENERATIO COMPUTER ARE MENTIONED BELOW
1) It uses vacuum tube
2) It is big and clumsy
3) It consume a lot of electricity
4) It require air conditioner room
5) It is very slow
6) It uses punch cards for input
Second generation computer
Second generation computer is a computer which uses transistors instead of vacuum tubes . The first generation of
electronic computers used vacuum tubes , which generated large amounts of heat , were bulky and unreliable . A
second-generation computer, through the late 1955 - 1964 featured circuit board filled with individual transistors
and magnetic core memory .
Some of the popular second generation of computer are mentioned beloe:
1) IBM 1620
2) IBM 7094
3) CDC 1604
4) CDC 3600
5) UNIVAC 1100
Some of the features of second generation of computer are mentioned below:
1) Transistors were used.
2) Faster than first generation computer.
3) First operating system was developed.
4) Programming was in machine language and assembly language.
5) Magnetic tapes and discs were used.
6) Core memory was developed.
Third generation of computer
The third generations of computer were mainly in used in between 1655 AD – 1971 AD ,these generation of
computer used integrated circuit instead of transistors .These computer were more effective than previous
generations computer.The side of the device also decreased . The main memory of the computer were 4 mb
,and secondary memory reached 100 mb
Some popular third generation of compute are mentioned below :
1) IBM-360 series
2) Honeywell-6000 series
Some of the important features of third generation compute are:
1) IC were developed
2) Power consumption was low
3) SSI AND MSI technology were used
4) High level language is used
Fourth generation computer
The period of fourth generation was from 1971-1980. Computers of fourth generation used Very Large Scale
Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements with their
associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation.
Popular computer of fourth generation of computer are :
1) DEC 10
3) PDP 11
SOME OF THE FEATURES OF FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER ARE:
1) LSI and VSI technology are used
2) Development of portable computers
3) RAID technology of data storage
4) Computer started to be used for data communication
5) Used for VR, multimedia , simulation