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Presentation1 computer.pptx

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Presentation1 computer.pptx

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY: Bigyan Ghimire class:- XI “m11’’
  2. 2. * EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: THE HISTORY IF COMPUTER STRATS FROM 1000’S OF YEAR AGO . IT MEANS THE GRADUALLY CHANGED THE CONCEPT SING A LONG PERIOD .PEOPLE USED VARIOUS IDEAS FOR COUNTING .THE MATERIALS ARE : -STICK -BONE -STONE. AS WE EVOLVED WITH THE TIME MORE COUNTING IDEAS WERE BROUGHT IN USE. *SOME OF THE CALCULATING DEVICES ARE MENTIONED BELOW: -ABACUS. -NAPIERS BONE. -SLIDE RULE. -PASCAL MACHINE. -LEIBNITZ WHEEL. -DIFFERENCE ENGINE. -ANALYTICAL ENGINE. -LADY AUGUSTA ADA LOVELACE . -TABULATING MACHINE.
  3. 3. ABACUS 1) It was invented around 4000 years ago by Chinese people . 2) It was a wooden frame which has metal rods with beads moulted on them. 3) It consist of mainly two parts, they are heaven and the earth which is separated by a mid-bar. (each string in heaven has two beads and five units for each value whereas earth have five . beads and one unit for each value. 4) It is still in use in some country like China ,Russia and Japan.
  4. 4. NAPIER’S BONE 1) It was invented by a Scotsman named john napier In 1617 AD . 2) It was based on logarithms, which allows multiplication to be performed via addition. 3) It consist of eleven bone rods . First horizontal rod start from 1 to 0 and the vertical rod starts from 1 to 9. 4) It is based on the principle of performing multiplication by the addition of logarithms.
  5. 5. Slide rule 1) It was invented by a English mathematician , William oughtere I n 1620 AD. 2) It was based on logarithms which allows us to count the product and the quotient. 3) This is consist of two marked ruler. a. inner ruler. b. outer ruler. 4) The calculations were done by the proper alignment of the two scales. 5) This machine was also based on the principle of logarthms.
  6. 6. pascal line 1) It was invented by a French scientist/mathematician Biaise pascal . It is belived that it was the first mechanical automatic calculator invented in between 1642 – 1644. 2) It could only perform addition and subtraction . 3) It was a woolen box with a series of gears and wheel . When a wheel is rotated one revolution, it also rotates the neighboring wheel . 4) A series of windows is given on the top of the wheel to read the total.
  7. 7. Difference engine 1) Difference engine was invented by the father of computer (Charles Babbage) in early 1820s. 2) It was the mechanical computer which could perform simple calculation like addition subtraction , product etc. 3) it was the steam driven machine designed to solve tables of number like logarithm table.
  8. 8. Analytical engine 1) This calculating device was also invented by Charles Babbage (father of computer) after the invention difference engine .Thus it was invented In1830 AD. 2) This was a first mechanical computer that used punch cards as input. 3) It was capable of solving any mathematical problem . 4) It was the first device which was capable of storing information as a permanent memory.
  9. 9. Tabulating machine 1) It was invented by an American statistician named Herman Hollerith in 1890 AD. 2) It was a mechanical tabulator based on punch cards . 3) It was used for storing , recording , the information . 4) It was firstly used in the census in USA in 1890 AD. 5) The inventor of the machine also established the international company which is popularly known as International business machine (IBM) in 1924.
  10. 10. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER Generation of computer refers to the classification of computer into different group based on the technology ,memory devices , hardware , software used .Each generation of computer differs from each other on the basis of size , storage, power ,etc . The major generations of computer are mentioned below: a) first generation computer. b) second generation computer. c) thirdgeneration computer. d) fourth generation computer. e) fifth generation computer.
  11. 11. FIRST GENERATION COMPUTER The first computer were used in between 1946 – 1959.They were slow , huge , and expensive.In these computer vacuum tubes were used as the basic component of cpu an memory . These computers were mainly depended on batch opeaning system and punch cards. Magnetic tape and paper tape were used as output and input devices in this generation .These computers were produced lot of heat Some of the popular first generation compute are: 1) ENIAC 2) EDVAC 3) UNIVAC 4) IBM-701 5) IBM-650
  12. 12. SOME OF THE FEATURES OF FIRST GENERATIO COMPUTER ARE MENTIONED BELOW 1) It uses vacuum tube 2) It is big and clumsy 3) It consume a lot of electricity 4) It require air conditioner room 5) It is very slow 6) It uses punch cards for input
  13. 13. Second generation computer Second generation computer is a computer which uses transistors instead of vacuum tubes . The first generation of electronic computers used vacuum tubes , which generated large amounts of heat , were bulky and unreliable . A second-generation computer, through the late 1955 - 1964 featured circuit board filled with individual transistors and magnetic core memory . Some of the popular second generation of computer are mentioned beloe: 1) IBM 1620 2) IBM 7094 3) CDC 1604 4) CDC 3600 5) UNIVAC 1100
  14. 14. Some of the features of second generation of computer are mentioned below: 1) Transistors were used. 2) Faster than first generation computer. 3) First operating system was developed. 4) Programming was in machine language and assembly language. 5) Magnetic tapes and discs were used. 6) Core memory was developed.
  15. 15. Third generation of computer The third generations of computer were mainly in used in between 1655 AD – 1971 AD ,these generation of computer used integrated circuit instead of transistors .These computer were more effective than previous generations computer.The side of the device also decreased . The main memory of the computer were 4 mb ,and secondary memory reached 100 mb Some popular third generation of compute are mentioned below : 1) IBM-360 series 2) Honeywell-6000 series 3) PDP 4) Ibm-370/168 5) Tdc-316
  16. 16. Some of the important features of third generation compute are: 1) IC were developed 2) Power consumption was low 3) SSI AND MSI technology were used 4) High level language is used
  17. 17. Fourth generation computer The period of fourth generation was from 1971-1980. Computers of fourth generation used Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits. VLSI circuits having about 5000 transistors and other circuit elements with their associated circuits on a single chip made it possible to have microcomputers of fourth generation. Popular computer of fourth generation of computer are : 1) DEC 10 2) STAR1000 3) PDP 11 4) CRAR-1 5) CRAY-X-MP
  18. 18. SOME OF THE FEATURES OF FOURTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER ARE: 1) LSI and VSI technology are used 2) Development of portable computers 3) RAID technology of data storage 4) Computer started to be used for data communication 5) Used for VR, multimedia , simulation

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