Title of the Presentation
MENON Network EEIG
Big Foot Final Conference, 05 & 06 June 2013, Vienna. Austria
CROSSING GENERATIONS, CROSSING MOUNTAINS
To start with ….
Intergenerational connections may be magic …
… but magic takes work!
From ‘Developing an Intergenerational Programme in Your Early Childcare and Education
Centre’ in A Guidebook for Early Childhood Practitioners (Penn State University, USA, 2003)
Towards a (Intergenerational) Learning Society
• The Knowledge (or Learning) Society is
characterised by an organic link between
the different contexts of learning:
• Individual learning;
• Community learning;
• Organisational learning;
• Territorial learning
(i.e. learning cities and regions).
• The Industrial Society was focused on
• the era of mass media was focused
on delivery of pre-packaged
• central-design, push & control;
• The Knowledge Society is focused on
• the era of knowledge media is
focused on knowledge co-
• co-design, pull & share.
• Up to 1970s Learning to work
• 70s – 80s Learning at work
• 80s – 90s Learning through work
century Learning is work
What is Intergenerational Learning
“The way that people of all ages can learn together and from each other.
IL is an important part of Lifelong Learning, where the generations
work together to gain skills, values and knowledge.
Beyond the transfer of knowledge, IL fosters reciprocal learning
relationships between different generations and helps to develop social
capital and social cohesion in our ageing societies.
IL is one way of addressing the significant demographic change we are
experiencing across Europe and is as a way of enhancing
intergenerational solidarity through intergenerational practice (IP).”
(EMIL – European Map of Intergenerational Leaning, 2013)
And what is Intergenerational Learning not?
Inter-generational learning does not:
• Merely consist of generations being together – being
together is not enough; [but based on purposeful
• Mean every learning process which involves both young
and old is necessarily a case of inter-generational
[but 80% of all learning is informal and unintentional];
• Involve just the transfer of knowledge.
[but also attitudes and values].
Source: Kolland, F. (2008): What is inter-generational learning in a higher education setting? In: Waxenegger, A. on
behalf of the Adding Quality to Life through Inter-Generational Learning via Universities (ADD LIFE) Consortium (Ed.):
The ADD LIFE European Tool Kit for Developing Inter-generational Learning in Higher Education. Graz.
Comments: Thomas Fischer (2011) on behalf of the European Map of Intergenerational Learning (EMIL) consortium.
Core Principles of Intergenerational Learning
• Mutual and Reciprocal Benefits;
• Asset Based;
• Well Planned;
• Culturally Grounded;
• Strengthens community bonds and promotes active
• Challenges Ageism;
Source: Alan Hatton-Jeo, Beth Johnson Foundation in: Almeida Pinto, T. (Ed.) (2009). Guide of Ideas for Planning and
Implementing Intergenerational Projects. Together: yesterday, today and tomorrow. MATES Consortium & Association
Top-12 Mistakes of Intergenerational Projects
1. Not preparing the groups individually and collectively;
2. Not having a mutually beneficial element for both groups;
3. Ignoring the experiences and beliefs of participants;
4. Not exploring the generational stereotypes in involved groups;
5. Trying to recruit people for boring activities;
6. Not sufficiently planning the project;
7. Not having committed and active partners;
8. Untrained and/or inexperienced staff;
9. Not considering the appropriateness of the approach to achieve the
10. Not considering the time commitment of involved partners;
11. Using a short term and one-off approach;
12. Not understanding the concerns of participants and what stage they are
at in their lifecycle.
Source: Manchester City Council (2011): Manchester’s Intergenerational Practice Toolkit. Creating Connections,
Breaking Down Barriers’; Manchester City Council: Manchester.
Fundamental Questions in the Design Phase
1. What are you going to do?
2. Why are you choosing an Intergenerational Practice approach?
3. What form(s) of Intergenerational Practice will work best and why?
4. Who will you be working with?
5. When and where will you be doing it?
6. What outcomes are you seeking?
Source: Beth Johnson Foundation (2011). A Guide to Intergenerational Practice; Beth-Johnson-Foundation (BJF):
The Big Foot Screening Questionnaire I
• Name of the experiment;
• (Location / ‘Map’ of the experiment);
• Rationale of the experiment (incl. i) aims, objectives; ii) problems/needs
addressed; iii) activities; iv) participants and their encouragement; v)
pedagogical approach; vi) learning materials & support; vii) use of ICTs; viii)
organisation of interaction; ix) role of facilitators/tutors; x) expected outcomes
• Target group(s) of the experiment (incl. i) age range; ii) numbers; iii) other
actors, stakeholders and institutions);
• Organisational arrangements for the experiment (e.g. i) start/end date; ii)
frequency of activities; iii) obstacles [initial risk and failure analysis]; iv) need
for additional expertise);
The Big Foot Screening Questionnaire II
• Location of the experiment (e.g. formal /informal setting);
• Learning activities/Fields of Learning (e.g. i) community development; ii)
E&T; iii) mentoring; iv) mediation; v) digital literacy; vi) social inclusion; vii)
employability; viii) health; ix) arts; x) environment etc).
• Knowledge Exchange/Information Flow (i.e. down-/upstream,
• Interactions between Target Groups (e.g. many-to-many; group based;
• Categories of the Learning Activity (i.e. formal/non-formal/informal);
• Competences addressed (i.e. EU Key Competences; OECD/DeSeCo);
The Big Foot Screening Questionnaire III
• Expected outcomes of the experiment;
• Evaluation / validation of the experiment;
• Web 2.0 Technologies used during the experiment;
• Link to the BIG FOOT web site;
• External resources (e.g. online, offline).
The EAGLE Handbook for Intergenerational Activities
The RCT Tool-kit for Intergenerational School Projects
1. LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS:
• Establish Partnerships
• Create Project Brief
• Early Paperwork
2. PROJECT PLANNING & RESEARCH (1)
• Research other Projects
• Research Relevant Legislation
• Consider Logistics
• Plan Budgets
2. PROJECT PLANNING & RESEARCH (2)
• Issue Plan and Contingency Plan
• Risk Assessment
• Plan Monitoring and Evaluation
3. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
• Action Liaison & Info Sessions
• Run the Project!
• Monitor & Record
• Mid-Project Review
4. CELEBRATE, CLOSE & REVIEW
• Celebrate Successes
• Present Project Outputs
• Publicise Successes
• Thank All Involved
Source: Rhondda Cynon Taf (RCT) County Borough Council (2008). Engagement – A Strategic Review of Intergenerational
School Projects within Rhondda Cynon Taf. Rhondda Cynon Taf (RCT) County Borough Council: Tonypandy.
Assessing, Evaluating & Validating the Big Foot Experiments I
Main Principles of the Big Foot Evaluation & Validation:
Triangulated: i.e. data need to be drawn from different sources,
reflecting the perspectives of different actors and their different
constructions of reality;
Multi-methodological: i.e. different types of data need to be gathered
incl. statistical data (e.g. from user profiles), secondary data (e.g.
evaluation reports) and primary data (e.g. user surveys);
Discursive: i.e. able to capture the ‘discourses’ and ‘communicative
practices’ of the learning processes;
Localised: i.e. instruments translated into national languages.
Source: (for all remaining slides) Links-up Consortium (2010). Methodology Report & Case Study Toolkit; Links-up
Consortium & Innovation in Learning Institute (ILI), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg: Erlangen.
Assessing, Evaluating & Validating the Big Foot Experiments II
Main Elements (at least three out of four):
• Step 1: Desk research based Content Analysis; overview of the
project set in its wider socio-economic context WP 5: Participatory
• Step 2: Interviews (e.g. face-to-face; focus groups; telephone /
Skype; web) with key stakeholders (i.e. programme or case
managers) top-down perspective;
• Step 3: Involvement of learners or end-users either through SAQs,
Focus Group Discussions, Participants Feedback Sheets or Rating
Scales on Intergenerational Understanding ‘real’ life worlds,
• Step 4: Observation and study visits of the actual learning in
practice incl. the collection of products and artefacts.
Assessing, Evaluating & Validating the Big Foot Experiments III
Instruments & Tools:
1. Participant Feedback Sheet;
2. Key Informant Interview Schedule;
3. User Self Administered Questionnaires (SAQ);
4. User Focus Group Guidelines;
5. Observation Guidelines;
6. Content Analysis Checklist;
7. Automated Data Collection Guidelines;
8. Behavioural Additionality Analysis;
9. Data Synthesis.
N O WAY!
U NEXPECTED EFFECTS
S OCIAL SOUND
The 9 Wor(l)ds of Big Foot and their 1,000 Meanings …
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