Look at the picture, what do you see? You saw a couple in an intimate love position, right?Interestingly, research has shown that young children cannot identify the intimate couple because they do not have prior memory associated with such a scenario. What they will see, however, is nine (small & black) dolphins in the picture! So, I guess weve already proven youre not a young innocent child. Now, if its hard for you to find the dolphins within 6 seconds, your mind is SO corrupted that you probably need help! OK, heres help: look at the space between her right arm and her head, the tail is on her neck, follow it up. Look at her left hip, follow the shaded part down, its another one, and on his shoulder..
Social Learning Theory and Cognitivism Navarro, Paula Juliana I. II-2 BECEd
Social Learning TheoryFocuses on the learning that occurs within a socialcontext.Emphasizes the importance of environmental orsituational determinants of behavior.Concentrates on the power of example.
Bandura is known for his 1961-1963 experiments utilizing an inflatable clownknown as a Bobo doll in order to test modeling behaviors in children. Children were divided into three groups – one of which was exposed to an aggressive adult model, one which was exposed to a passive adult model, and a control group, which was not exposed to an adult model. Once the children were given the opportunity to play, results showed that those exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to imitate what they had seen, and to behave aggressively toward the doll. a later study in 1965 showed that witnessing theIt was found that boys were four times more likely model being punished for the aggressivethan girls to display physical aggression, but levels ofverbal aggression were about the same behavior decreased the likelihood that children would imitate the behavior.
Behavior is a product of a continuousinteraction between personal andenvironmental variables.Environmental conditions shape behavior through learning,and the person’s behavior in return, shapes the environment.Bandura Calls this interaction as reciprocaldeterminism.
“Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” -Bandura The Behavior need not be performed and reinforced for learning tooccur. Modeling or observational learning occurs vicariously, even in infants,by observing the behavior of others and its consequences for them.
Models are classified as: Real life – Teachers, parents, significant others… Symbolic – oral/written symbols (e.g. books) Representational – audio-visual measures (e.g. films)
Necessary conditions for effective modeling:1. Attention/Attentional Processes Determines what we can do and attend to. In order for an individual to learn something, they must pay attention to the features of the modeled behavior. Various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. One’s characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention.2. Retention/Retentional Processes Determines how experience is encoded in the memory. Remembering what you paid attention to. In order for an individual to learn something, they must pay attention to the features of the modeled behavior.
3. Reproduction/Motor Reproduction Processes Determine what behavior can be performed. Reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction. In reproducing a behavior, an individual must organize his or her responses in accordance with the model behavior. This ability can improve with practice.4. Motivation/ Motivational & Reinforcement Processes Determine the circumstances under which learning is translated into performance. There must be an incentive or motivation driving the individual’s reproduction of the behavior. Even if all of the above factors are present, the person will not engage in the behavior without motivation. Having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as a past (i.e. traditional behaviorism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model).
Cognitivism Cognitive psychologists share withbehaviourists the belief that the study oflearning should be objective and thatlearning theories should be developed fromthe results of empirical research. However, cognitivists disagree with thebehaviourists in one critical aspect. Byobserving the responses that individualsmake to different stimulus conditions,cognitivists believe that they can drawinferences about the nature of the internalcognitive processes that produce thoseresponses.
Piaget noticed that even infants have certain skills in regard to objects intheir environment. These skills were certainly simple , sensorimotor skills, butthey directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment andso how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticatedexploratory skills. These skills he called schemas.
Assimilation – is the tendency to understand new experience in terms of existing knowledge. Whenever we come across something new, we try to make sense of it, built upon our existing cognitive structures. Accommodation – occurs when the new information is too complex to be integrated into the existing structure - this means that, cognitive structures change in response to new experiences (Spencer, K., 1991,p.,175).Assimilation and accommodation are the two sides of adaptation, Piaget’sterm for what most of us would call learning.He saw it as a fundamentally biological process. Even one’s grip has toaccommodate to a stone, while clay is assimilated into our grip. All livingthings adapt, even without a nervous system or brain.
Stages of Cognitive Development:Sensorimotor Stage (Birth – 2 years)The infant understands the environment purely through inborn reflexessuch as sucking and looking.Between one and four months, the child works on primary circularreactions – coordinating sensation and new schemas. (e.g. a child may such his or herthumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant findsthem pleasurable.)Between four and 12 months, the infant turns to secondary circularreactions, which involve an act that extends out to the environment. Theinfant becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionallyrepeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. (e.g. a childwill purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.)
They also begin to develop object permanence. This is the ability torecognize that, just because you can’t see something doesn’t mean it’s gone.Younger infants seem to function by an “out of sight, out of mind” schema.Older infants remember, and may even try to find things they can no longersee.Between 12 and 24 months, the child works on tertiary circular reactions.Children begin a period of trial-and-error experimentation. (e.g. a child may try outdifferent sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.)Around one and a half, the child is clearly developing mentalrepresentation, that is, the ability to hold an image in their mind for aperiod beyond the immediate experience. (e.g. they can engage in deferred imitation, such asthrowing a tantrum after seeing another child throw one an hour ago.) They can use mentalcombinations to solve simple problems, such as putting down a toy in orderto open a door. And they get good at pretending.
Preoperational Stage (2 – 7 years)Now that the child has mental representations and is able to pretend, it is ashort step to the use of symbols – a thing that represents something else. A drawing, a writtenword, or a spoken word, etc. – through language and creative play.There is also a clear understanding of past and future.On the other hand, the child is quite egocentric during this stage, that is,he sees things pretty much from one point of view: his own!Piaget did a study to investigate this phenomenon…
Concrete Operational Stage (7 – 11 year)*The word operations refers to logical operations or principles we use when solving problems.By six or seven, most children develop the ability to conserve number, length, andliquid volume. Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the samedespite changes in appearance.By seven or eight years old, children develop conservation of substance: If I take aball of clay and roll it into a long thin rod, or even split it into ten little pieces, thechild knows that there is still the same amount of clay. And he will know that, ifyou rolled it all back into a single ball, it would look quite the same as it did - afeature known as reversibility.By nine or ten, the last of the conservation tests is mastered: conservation of area.If you take four one-inch square blocks ("houses"), and lay them on a six-by-six clothtogether in the center, the child who conserves will know that they take up just asmuch room as the same blocks spread out in the corners, or, for that matter,anywhere at all.A child also learns classification (grouping) and seriation (arrangement or position in aseries) during this stage.
Formal Operations Stage (11+ years)During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. Skillssuch as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emergeduring this stage.Ability to think about the unseenAbility to consider a range of possibilities [Understands the concept of thepossible, as in moral dilemmas, justice, understanding of self, vocational aspirations]Approach problems systematically, as in the ability to make a prediction, revisethinking (given new evidence), and revise and improve a disconfirmed hypothesisThinks logically: Understands and uses principles of scientific thinking(e.g., inference, deduction, hypothesis-testing, ruling out alternative hypotheses)