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WINTERTemplateHISTORY OF
EDUCATIONAL
TECHNOLOGY
Marife Garcia
Paula Navarro
Kreanne Pagdanganan
II - 2 BECEd
“Technology is commonly thought
of in terms of gadgets,
instruments, machines and
devices … most (educators) will
defer to...
The history of “Educational technology
… can be traced back to the time when
tribal priests systemized bodies of
knowledge...
Comenius, Pestalozzi,Comenius, Pestalozzi,
Froebel, Herbart and MontessoriFroebel, Herbart and Montessori
contributed thei...
History of Computers
3000 BC
1600s
1800s
1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
AbacusAbacus
PunchedPunched
Card DevicesCard ...
Ancient Computing HistoryAncient Computing History
The AbacusThe Abacus
Mechanical aid used for
counting and making
quick ...
Early Computing HistoryEarly Computing History
Invented the first mechanical
calculator.
The Pascaline used cogs and
gears...
Mechanical CalculatorsMechanical Calculators
Jacquard’s Loom
Joseph Jacquard
• First “programmable”
machine.
• Used punche...
Electronic Computer SystemsElectronic Computer Systems
 Used vacuum tubes in
electronic circuits.
 Used punch cards to i...
First Generation:First Generation:
1943-19561943-1956
World’s first electronic
digital computer.
Used to produce
WWII ball...
1956 IBM 350 RAMAC
Second Generation: 1957-1964Second Generation: 1957-1964
• Used transistors,
developed by Bell Labs.
• ...
Third Generation: 1965-1971Third Generation: 1965-1971
• Used integrated
circuits.
• Up to 3 million bytes
of memory.
• Lo...
• Personal computers or PCs.
• Usually cost about $2,000 or less.
• Process over 1 billion operations per
second.
• “Stand...
Tim Berners-Lee
 Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was
born.
1990’s1990’s
Connecting the WorldConnecting the Wo...
Marc Andreessen
 An original developer of Mosaic, the
first browser software able to read
HTML.
 Co-founder of Netscape
...
• Technologies of the
Future
• Advanced robotics
commonplace
• Smart houses
• Wearable computers
• Holodeck virtual realit...
Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue
Our Definition:
“A combination of the processes and
tools involved in addressing educational
needs and problems, with an e...
Modern Educational Technology HistoryModern Educational Technology History
• First instructional
use of computers
was as a...
 Federal funds supported many large-scale projects
in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
in schools, colleges,...
Mainframe Computer Systems
Designed to support personalized
mastery learning:
 Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) ...
National Education Computing
Conference (NECC)
•Created by mainframe programming
enthusiasts from universities nationwide....
• Introduced in late 1970’s.
• Adopted by public school systems
during 1980’s.
– Apple II
– Commodore PET
– Radio Shack TR...
Software
• Early courseware developed for mainframes were
provided by:
– Large hardware manufacturers
– Software systems c...
 Authoring systems
 Response to educators quest for input into design of
educational software.
 Allowed educators to de...
Computer Literacy
•Originally defined as programming skills
and tools such as word processing.
•Today’s world can only agr...
Seymour Papert
Educational theorist mentored by
Jean Piaget.
Developed programming language
for young children based on
co...
The Internet and the WWW
Biggest challenge for the public
educational system has been how
to prepare schools physically an...
Four Different ViewsFour Different Views
• Audiovisual Media Communications.
• Begun in 1923.
• Initially centered on radi...
2. ISPI
• Instructional systems approach based on
Behaviorist theories
• “Systematic approach to designing,
developing, an...
3. ITEA
• Industry trainers and vocational teachers.
• Schools should prepare students for work
force Learning about techn...
4. ISTE
• Primary focus encompassed both instructional and
support applications of computers.
• Begun by trainers and educ...
WINTERTemplate
References
“EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY”
by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr.
Milagros L. Borabo
http://books.google.com.p...
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History of educational technology

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History of educational technology

  1. 1. WINTERTemplateHISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Marife Garcia Paula Navarro Kreanne Pagdanganan II - 2 BECEd
  2. 2. “Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.” (Muffoletto, 1994)
  3. 3. The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.” (Paul Saettler, 1990)
  4. 4. Comenius, Pestalozzi,Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and MontessoriFroebel, Herbart and Montessori contributed their own concept oncontributed their own concept on educational technology improvingeducational technology improving educative process.educative process. John Amos Comenius wasJohn Amos Comenius was recognized as the pioneerrecognized as the pioneer of modern instructionalof modern instructional technology by reason of histechnology by reason of his book Orbis Pictus (Thebook Orbis Pictus (The World in Picture) whichWorld in Picture) which was illustrated textbookswas illustrated textbooks for children studying Latinfor children studying Latin & Sciences.& Sciences. Edward Thorndike and John DeweyEdward Thorndike and John Dewey formulated scientific theory offormulated scientific theory of learning and the scientific method,learning and the scientific method, respectively. Thorndike gaverespectively. Thorndike gave emphasis to the use of empiricalemphasis to the use of empirical investigation as a basis for aninvestigation as a basis for an organized process of learning. Onorganized process of learning. On his part, Dewey introduced ahis part, Dewey introduced a method of instruction in termsmethod of instruction in terms scientific method in broad termsscientific method in broad terms The 19The 19thth century paved in thecentury paved in the advent of effectiveadvent of effective technological developmenttechnological development including the production ofincluding the production of textbooks, use of blackboardstextbooks, use of blackboards and improvements in writingand improvements in writing implements like pen and ink.implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented,Photography was invented, giving a way to a movementgiving a way to a movement called “Visual Instruction”.called “Visual Instruction”. In 1932, the first instructionalIn 1932, the first instructional television program was aired attelevision program was aired at the State University of Iowa.the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion picture wasmm sound motion picture was developed and this served asdeveloped and this served as the educational workhorsethe educational workhorse during the audio-visualduring the audio-visual movement of the time.movement of the time. During World War II,During World War II, the U.S. government encouragedthe U.S. government encouraged the implementation of technologythe implementation of technology of instruction for military trainingof instruction for military training programs. This gave impetus to aprograms. This gave impetus to a system approach to instruction tosystem approach to instruction to include: micro-teaching,include: micro-teaching, individualized instruction,individualized instruction, Language laboratories, behavioralLanguage laboratories, behavioral laboratories, behaviorallaboratories, behavioral objectives, computer assistedobjectives, computer assisted instruction and among othersinstruction and among others
  5. 5. History of Computers 3000 BC 1600s 1800s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s AbacusAbacus PunchedPunched Card DevicesCard Devices MainframesMainframes MicrocomputersMicrocomputers InternetInternet CalculatorsCalculators First ElectronicFirst Electronic ComputersComputers MinicomputersMinicomputers MicrocomputerMicrocomputer SystemsSystems
  6. 6. Ancient Computing HistoryAncient Computing History The AbacusThe Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations. Still in use around the world.
  7. 7. Early Computing HistoryEarly Computing History Invented the first mechanical calculator. The Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math equations. Pascaline Blaise Pascal
  8. 8. Mechanical CalculatorsMechanical Calculators Jacquard’s Loom Joseph Jacquard • First “programmable” machine. • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom. • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.
  9. 9. Electronic Computer SystemsElectronic Computer Systems  Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.  Used punch cards to input and externally store data.  Up to 4K of memory.  Programming in machine language and assembly language.  Required a compiler. First Generation:1943- 1956
  10. 10. First Generation:First Generation: 1943-19561943-1956 World’s first electronic digital computer. Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC)
  11. 11. 1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Second Generation: 1957-1964Second Generation: 1957-1964 • Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs. • Up to 32K of memory. • Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.
  12. 12. Third Generation: 1965-1971Third Generation: 1965-1971 • Used integrated circuits. • Up to 3 million bytes of memory. • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
  13. 13. • Personal computers or PCs. • Usually cost about $2,000 or less. • Process over 1 billion operations per second. • “Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system. Fourth Generation: 1972-Fourth Generation: 1972- NowNow Microcomputers TEA
  14. 14. Tim Berners-Lee  Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born. 1990’s1990’s Connecting the WorldConnecting the World
  15. 15. Marc Andreessen  An original developer of Mosaic, the first browser software able to read HTML.  Co-founder of Netscape Communications.
  16. 16. • Technologies of the Future • Advanced robotics commonplace • Smart houses • Wearable computers • Holodeck virtual reality • Truly individualized education The 21The 21stst CenturyCentury • Only recently focused on computers. • Internet current primary trend. – Communication with colleagues. – Lesson plan preparation. – Student resources. – Access research and best practices for teaching.
  17. 17. Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue
  18. 18. Our Definition: “A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
  19. 19. Modern Educational Technology HistoryModern Educational Technology History • First instructional use of computers was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950. Mainframe Computer Systems  First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.
  20. 20.  Federal funds supported many large-scale projects in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.  Stanford University – first multimedia learning station, Course writer  Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO)  BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer- Controlled Information Television (TICCIT) Mainframe Computer Systems
  21. 21. Mainframe Computer Systems Designed to support personalized mastery learning:  Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh  Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research
  22. 22. National Education Computing Conference (NECC) •Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from universities nationwide. •First conference held in1979. •Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.
  23. 23. • Introduced in late 1970’s. • Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s. – Apple II – Commodore PET – Radio Shack TRS - 80 Microcomputers in Education Software!
  24. 24. Software • Early courseware developed for mainframes were provided by: – Large hardware manufacturers – Software systems companies – University development projects • New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators. •Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) -Initially largest provider of educational software. -Funded by National Science Foundation. •MicroSift, EPIE -Provided courseware evaluations.
  25. 25.  Authoring systems  Response to educators quest for input into design of educational software.  Allowed educators to develop their own courseware. Software  Authoring systems  Required extensive expertise.  Extended time commitment.  Expanded work investment.
  26. 26. Computer Literacy •Originally defined as programming skills and tools such as word processing. •Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing.
  27. 27. Seymour Papert Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget. Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education. Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system.
  28. 28. The Internet and the WWW Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom.
  29. 29. Four Different ViewsFour Different Views • Audiovisual Media Communications. • Begun in 1923. • Initially centered on radio. • Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television. • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications. 1. AECT • “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.” (Saettler, 1990, p. 9) • Publications: – TechTrends – Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology
  30. 30. 2. ISPI • Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories • “Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.” (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997) •Publications: -Performance Improvement Journal -Performance Improvement Quarterly
  31. 31. 3. ITEA • Industry trainers and vocational teachers. • Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential. •Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD). •Publications: -The Technology Teacher -Technology and Children -The Journal of Technology Education
  32. 32. 4. ISTE • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and support applications of computers. • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education. • Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts. •National Educational Technology Standards for Students and Teachers (NETS) •Publications: -Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher) -Journal of Research on Computing in Education
  33. 33. WINTERTemplate References “EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY” by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr. Milagros L. Borabo http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=rNDFZo4zHaMC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false http://www.slideshare.net/fvsandoval/history-of-educational-technology http://www.myplick.com/view/1PsTtfSckr_/HISTORY-OF-EDUCATIONAL-TECHNOLOGY-TIMELINE Thanks for Listening (^ - ^)Y

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