&gt;Techne - translated as craftsmanship, craft, or art. It is the rational method involved in producing an object or accomplishing a goal or objective. &gt;abelard – conceptualism. scholastic manner of philosophizing, with the object of giving a formally rational expression to received ecclesiastical doctrine &gt;Comenius&apos; major contribution to instructional technology was his instructional method - used in science to analyze and improve the instructional process. He is considered the first true forrunner of instructional technology. Pestalozzi by Jean Jacques Rousseau and developed a system of instruction that focused on allowing the student to learn through multiple senses. He believed that by teaching through the objects around the learner, the learner would be able to comprehend the concepts easier than just being told the information. Froebel Should give importance to Religious instruction, Nature study, Arithmetic, Language, arts, Handicrafts. Self activity. Herbart by emphasizing a psychological and scientific, if not experimental, approach to instruction and learning. Montessori designed a structural environment in which children could choose freely from a number of developmentally appropriate activities. Thorndike reward and punishment. Dewey only scientific method could reliably increase human good. &gt;Sidney Pressey originated programmed learning, B. F. Skinner (1958) popularized it. Learners are exposed to small amounts of information and proceed from one frame or one item of information, to the next in an orderly fashion (this is what is meant by linear) Learners respond overtly so that their correct responses can be rewarded and their incorrect responses can be corrected Learners are informed immediately about whether or not their response is correct (feedback) Learners proceed at their own pace (self-pacing)
History of educational technology
II - 2 BECEd
“Technology is commonly thought
of in terms of gadgets,
instruments, machines and
devices … most (educators) will
defer to technology as
The history of “Educational technology
… can be traced back to the time when
tribal priests systemized bodies of
knowledge, and early cultures invented
pictographs or sign writing to record
and transmit information.”
(Paul Saettler, 1990)
Comenius, Pestalozzi,Comenius, Pestalozzi,
Froebel, Herbart and MontessoriFroebel, Herbart and Montessori
contributed their own concept oncontributed their own concept on
educational technology improvingeducational technology improving
educative process.educative process.
John Amos Comenius wasJohn Amos Comenius was
recognized as the pioneerrecognized as the pioneer
of modern instructionalof modern instructional
technology by reason of histechnology by reason of his
book Orbis Pictus (Thebook Orbis Pictus (The
World in Picture) whichWorld in Picture) which
was illustrated textbookswas illustrated textbooks
for children studying Latinfor children studying Latin
& Sciences.& Sciences.
Edward Thorndike and John DeweyEdward Thorndike and John Dewey
formulated scientific theory offormulated scientific theory of
learning and the scientific method,learning and the scientific method,
respectively. Thorndike gaverespectively. Thorndike gave
emphasis to the use of empiricalemphasis to the use of empirical
investigation as a basis for aninvestigation as a basis for an
organized process of learning. Onorganized process of learning. On
his part, Dewey introduced ahis part, Dewey introduced a
method of instruction in termsmethod of instruction in terms
scientific method in broad termsscientific method in broad terms
The 19The 19thth
century paved in thecentury paved in the
advent of effectiveadvent of effective
technological developmenttechnological development
including the production ofincluding the production of
textbooks, use of blackboardstextbooks, use of blackboards
and improvements in writingand improvements in writing
implements like pen and ink.implements like pen and ink.
Photography was invented,Photography was invented,
giving a way to a movementgiving a way to a movement
called “Visual Instruction”.called “Visual Instruction”.
In 1932, the first instructionalIn 1932, the first instructional
television program was aired attelevision program was aired at
the State University of Iowa.the State University of Iowa.
About the same time, the 16About the same time, the 16
mm sound motion picture wasmm sound motion picture was
developed and this served asdeveloped and this served as
the educational workhorsethe educational workhorse
during the audio-visualduring the audio-visual
movement of the time.movement of the time.
During World War II,During World War II,
the U.S. government encouragedthe U.S. government encouraged
the implementation of technologythe implementation of technology
of instruction for military trainingof instruction for military training
programs. This gave impetus to aprograms. This gave impetus to a
system approach to instruction tosystem approach to instruction to
include: micro-teaching,include: micro-teaching,
individualized instruction,individualized instruction,
Language laboratories, behavioralLanguage laboratories, behavioral
laboratories, behaviorallaboratories, behavioral
objectives, computer assistedobjectives, computer assisted
instruction and among othersinstruction and among others
History of Computers
Card DevicesCard Devices
First ElectronicFirst Electronic
Ancient Computing HistoryAncient Computing History
The AbacusThe Abacus
Mechanical aid used for
counting and making
Early Computing HistoryEarly Computing History
Invented the first mechanical
The Pascaline used cogs and
gears to solve math equations.
Mechanical CalculatorsMechanical Calculators
• First “programmable”
• Used punched cards
(binary instructions) to
automate weaving loom.
• Punched cards were a
staple of early and
Electronic Computer SystemsElectronic Computer Systems
Used vacuum tubes in
Used punch cards to input
and externally store data.
Up to 4K of memory.
Programming in machine
language and assembly
Required a compiler.
First Generation:First Generation:
World’s first electronic
Used to produce
WWII ballistic firing
tables for the U.S.
Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Calculator (ENIAC)
1956 IBM 350 RAMAC
Second Generation: 1957-1964Second Generation: 1957-1964
• Used transistors,
developed by Bell Labs.
• Up to 32K of memory.
• Programming in
such as FORTRAN and
Third Generation: 1965-1971Third Generation: 1965-1971
• Used integrated
• Up to 3 million bytes
• Lower cost, smaller
size, and increasing
• Personal computers or PCs.
• Usually cost about $2,000 or less.
• Process over 1 billion operations per
• “Stand-alone” or connected
to other computers as a
Fourth Generation: 1972-Fourth Generation: 1972-
Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was
Connecting the WorldConnecting the World
An original developer of Mosaic, the
first browser software able to read
Co-founder of Netscape
• Technologies of the
• Advanced robotics
• Smart houses
• Wearable computers
• Holodeck virtual reality
• Truly individualized
The 21The 21stst
• Only recently focused on
• Internet current primary trend.
– Communication with
– Lesson plan preparation.
– Student resources.
– Access research and best
practices for teaching.
“A combination of the processes and
tools involved in addressing educational
needs and problems, with an emphasis on
applying the most current tools:
computers and their related
(M. D. Roblyer,
Modern Educational Technology HistoryModern Educational Technology History
• First instructional
use of computers
was as a flight
simulator used to
train pilots at MIT in
Mainframe Computer Systems
First use in public
arithmetic in 1959.
Federal funds supported many large-scale projects
in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
in schools, colleges, and universities through the
middle of 1970’s.
Stanford University – first multimedia learning
station, Course writer
Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching
BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer-
Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)
Mainframe Computer Systems
Mainframe Computer Systems
Designed to support personalized
Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) -
University of Pittsburgh
Program for Learning in Accordance with
Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of
National Education Computing
•Created by mainframe programming
enthusiasts from universities nationwide.
•First conference held in1979.
•Today is the largest educational
technology conference in U.S. with
attendance of 10,000+ people.
• Introduced in late 1970’s.
• Adopted by public school systems
– Apple II
– Commodore PET
– Radio Shack TRS - 80
Microcomputers in Education
• Early courseware developed for mainframes were
– Large hardware manufacturers
– Software systems companies
– University development projects
• New microcomputer software market driven
primarily by educators.
•Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC)
-Initially largest provider of educational software.
-Funded by National Science Foundation.
-Provided courseware evaluations.
Response to educators quest for input into design of
Allowed educators to develop their own courseware.
Required extensive expertise.
Extended time commitment.
Expanded work investment.
•Originally defined as programming skills
and tools such as word processing.
•Today’s world can only agree that the
term refers to skills that are constantly
Educational theorist mentored by
Developed programming language
for young children based on
constructivist theory of education.
Raised national consciousness
about potential of technology to
change the educational system.
The Internet and the WWW
Biggest challenge for the public
educational system has been how
to prepare schools physically and
train teachers effectively for its use
in the classroom.
Four Different ViewsFour Different Views
• Audiovisual Media Communications.
• Begun in 1923.
• Initially centered on radio.
• Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and
• Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and
• “Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily
with the design and use of messages which control the learning
(Saettler, 1990, p. 9)
– Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and
• Instructional systems approach based on
• “Systematic approach to designing,
developing, and delivering instruction
matched to carefully identified needs.”
(Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino,
-Performance Improvement Journal
-Performance Improvement Quarterly
• Industry trainers and vocational teachers.
• Schools should prepare students for work
force Learning about technology as used in
the “real world” is essential.
•Includes robotics, manufacturing systems,
computer-assisted design (CAD).
-The Technology Teacher
-Technology and Children
-The Journal of Technology Education
• Primary focus encompassed both instructional and
support applications of computers.
• Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that
computers would revolutionize education.
• Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers
and systems analysts.
•National Educational Technology Standards for Students and
-Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The
-Journal of Research on Computing in Education
by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr.
Milagros L. Borabo
Thanks for Listening (^ - ^)Y