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  • See how many have had prior classes, training, etc. in child development. Tell about self: 8 years teaching in Montessori, getting Master’s in ILT, Director of Elem. Ed. at MSD
  • Mother died shortly after his birth Father fled country to avoid imprisonment for minor offense when he was ten Was raised by aunt and uncle Rousseau pushed for freedom in education, so as to educate the individual, not to bend the person to the will of society. (“follow the child”) Source:
  • Wrote How Gertrude Teaches her Children , one of his few books to be translated into English Felt that dignity of the child needed to be preserved There needed to be balance between educating the heart, hands, and head (Waldorf?) Source:
  • Source:
  • Wild boy not taught to talk during what MM would later define as “sensitive period” Tried to educate Victor and “normalize” him After many years, Victor showed some affection for his teachers, could follow simple commands, say a few words While he did not feel that he was successful, what was most surprising to people at that time was that he tried Most people at this time thought of mentally retarded people as being unable to be educated Source:
  • founded his own school for deficient children in Paris His particular approach was to devise a sequence of muscular exercises to bring about a change in behaviour and so educate the child through a method he described as physiological Source:
  • First two schools were for children of poor sections of town, but third was mostly middle class Quickly became known around the world The Montessori Method was in second place among non-fiction best sellers in 1912 Dewey & Kilpatricks’ views clashed w/ MM’s: man is collective, not individual; intellect can not be developed too early or damage is done; senses do not lead to intellect; definitive outcomes of materials stifle child’s creativity; materials were too strict
  • Was first to give respect to children’s way of thinking Realized that “cute” utterances were actually the child creating knowledge Children are not empty vessels to fill with knowledge, but rather must construct own knowledge based upon experiences New movement in constructivism, especially with regards to using the technology as a way to research and produce, rather than as a baby-sitter, reward after “real work” is completed, or for drill practice
  • Children will often “practice” the areas in which they need development while on the playground: clapping routines, organized games, tag & chase, balancing while walking to a class, etc.
  • Refer to Kohlberg’s theory and discussions in class Not challenging adult not always good thing; will not often clarify an unclear situation
  • Social needs will take priority over teacher lessons; teacher has to acclimate lesson to that
  • Refer to 9/11 calm; due to feeling safe from adults around them Depression & emotional ups and downs is not normal at this age! They need to feel safe in order to take risks.
  • They are starting to encounter greater peer pressure, feelings of instability as their bodies change (hence confidence being critical) 4ths look to adult for guidance, security 5 th more socially defined; much more independent and sure
  • Someone is a good person or a bad person, liar or always tells the truth Can be very unforgiving at first when someone does not make a good decision
  • Need to know “why” Begin to become adult moral self
  • Stimulus-response actions carried on by Watson’s work Do coin give-away activity?
  • Did much study with rats in grad school Noticed that how rats pressed on lever depended upon what followed: operant behavior Began working with top secret pigeon experiment in WWII; radar eventually made work obsolete “ Programmed instruction:” observed in child’s math class; children would do 20 – 30 probs before reinforcement; created system of checking at each level of solving a problem Teaching machine was ahead of his time; but was the basis for today’s computer math games Fascinating life; refer to website for more info
  • Great interest in science as a boy While in school in France, worked with Binet, who had just developed an intelligence test (Stanford-Binet) 1 st period: babies organize info by sucking, grasping, hitting. Object permanence 2 nd period: can begin pretending (one object represents another), organization not quite clear, make many assumptions, conserving 3 rd period: begin conserving, try to play with common rules, animism (life/emotion in everything), mental math 4 th period: mental actions, organization, predictions
  • Learning is an active, social process Students construct new knowledge based on past experiences: “spiral organization”
  • (footnote) The first stage, Trust vs. Mistrust, occurs from approximately birth to one year. Erikson defined trust as an essential trustfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one's own trustworthiness. He thought that an infant who gets fed when he is hungry and comforted when he needs comforting will develop trust. He also said that some mistrust is necessary to learn to discriminate between honest and dishonest persons. If mistrust wins over trust in this stage, the child will be frustrated, withdrawn, suspicious, and will lack self-confidence. The second stage, Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt, occurs between ages two and three. During this period it is important that the parents create a supportive atmosphere in which the child can develop a sense of self-control without a loss of self-esteem. Shame and doubt about the child's self-control and independence occur if basic trust was insufficiently developed or was lost such as when the child's will is broken by an over controlling parent. In this stage, Erikson said the child encounters rules, such as which areas of the house he is allowed to explore. The third stage, Initiative vs. Guilt, occurs between ages four and five. This is the stage in which the child must find out what kind of person he/she is going to be. The child develops a sense of responsibility which increases initiative during this period. If the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious then they will have uncomfortable guilt feelings. Erikson believed that most guilt is quickly compensated for by a sense of accomplishment. Erikson's fourth stage, Industry vs. Inferiority, occurs between six years and puberty. This is the period in which the child wants to enter the larger world of knowledge and work. One of the great events of this time is the child's entry into school. This is where he is exposed to the technology of his society: books, multiplication tables, arts and crafts, maps, microscopes, films, and tape recorders. However, the learning process does not only occur in the classroom according to Erikson, but also at home, friend's houses, and on the street. Erikson said that successful experiences give the child a sense of industry, a feeling of competence and mastery, while failure gives them a sense of inadequacy and inferiority, a feeling that one is a good-for-nothing. Components of Erikson's prior four stages contribute to the fifth stage, Identity vs. Identity Confusion. This occurs during adolescence. During this period the identity concern reaches climax. According to Erikson this is the time when adolescents seek their true selves. Erikson's sixth stage, Intimacy vs. Isolation, occurs during young adulthood. Intimacy with other people is possible only if a reasonably well integrated identity emerges from stage five. The main concern of Erikson's seventh stage, Generativity vs. Stagnation, is to assist the younger generation in developing and leading useful lives. When the individual feels that he has done nothing to help the next generation then they experience stagnation. The final stage, Integrity vs. Despair, occurs during late adulthood. This is the time in which the individual looks back and evaluates their life. If the previous stages have developed properly then they will experience integrity. If the previous stages have not developed in a positive way then they will feel despair.
  • Refer students to handouts of Kohlberg’s dilemmas. Shift from thinking that rules are unchangeable and are handed down from grown-ups, God, etc. to realizing that rules are simply guidelines for people to get along and can be changed if all agree
  • ZPD is cognitive distance between what child knows already and what he/she is able to comprehend if taught Believed play led to abstract thought (first simple imitate situations, then begin to invent completely new situations 1 st stage of speech, child uses to get things he/she needs. Is in no way related to thinking. (I want milk.) 2 nd stage of speech, ages 3 – 7, child uses speech to talk self through task or play, regardless of whether there is a listener. (count to self) 3 rd stage of speech, used by older children and adults. Can talk to self silently and guide self through tasks, mental operations, etc.
  • Physiological needs: food, water, sleep, certain vitamins (believed would manifest in craving certain foods), sex, rid of wastes, avoid pain, comfortable temperature and pH levels Safety needs: stability, protection, order, limits Belonging: children, friends, intimate relationship, community Esteem: Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one.  The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance.  The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom.  Note that this is the “higher” form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, it’s a lot harder to lose! Self-actualization: “be all that you can be,” will continue to grow, even if achieved
  • Influence creation of the Head Start program Found that over 95% of test questions test students at the lowest possible level Believed in mastery learning: breaking into smaller objectives that students must master before moving to next level
  • Is against standardized testing; only measures a few intelligences Feels that we should rely on more natural forms of assessment Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983)
  • 3 components of intelligence: capacity, ability, metacognition Difficult to create a culturally unbiased test (cultural intelligence: which side does moss grow? How to hunt for food? Put together furniture from diagram?) Some think IQ fixed, many think not (Gardner) IQ= mental age/chronological age x 100 Deviant IQ: difference in 7 – 11 large; 30 – 34 not significantly different Adopted children correlated more closely to birth parents than adoptive parents
  • Example: 7 + x = 10, what is 10 – x? (most will say 3)
  • All of these are very expensive to give Many teachers cramming in standards; no room for exploration, “trends” of interests, testing done in March? Then what? Colorado state assessment program (developed by teachers, curriculum specialists, parents) Csap does not test skills, only if child has met standard
  • Talk about Bloom’s taxonomy, three period lessons (fourth?) Instead of fact recall, demonstrate skills & knowledge they have acquired Show student creations Student powerpoint presentations, materials created, Environews, Amazon Math problems in practical life Service learning
  • Webquests Lessons to younger peers Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • The Absorbent Mind, Holt & Company, 1995, p. 207
  • Show Colorado history ppt and dental Offer evening of training and time to research
  • Development

    1. 1. Child Development from 6 - 12 Elizabeth Ross Hubbell Montessori Education Center of the Rockies Summer 2003
    2. 2. In this course, we will cover: <ul><li>Part I : Early pioneers in Childhood Development, including Maria Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Part II : Aspects of Development, including physical, social, emotional, cognitive/ intellectual, and moral development </li></ul><ul><li>Part III : Theories of Development and Learning and the people behind these theories </li></ul><ul><li>Part IV : Assessment and Measurement of Status and Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Part V : Student presentations </li></ul>
    3. 3. Early Pioneers in Childhood Development Studies <ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul><ul><li>Pestalozzi </li></ul><ul><li>Froebel </li></ul><ul><li>Itard </li></ul><ul><li>Seguin </li></ul><ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul>
    4. 4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) <ul><li>“ Man is born free but is everywhere in chains.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lived a rather difficult life </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are born as innocent, good beings, but are corrupted by an “artificial” society. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning moral and practical lessons should come before scholastic learning. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827) <ul><li>Picked up where Rousseau left off with the idea of freedom in education. </li></ul><ul><li>Children should be free to pursue interests and come to their own conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Actually put the theories into practice in his classrooms. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Friedrich Froebel (1782 – 1852) <ul><li>Created the first “garden of children” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stimulating voluntary activity” best for pre-school education </li></ul><ul><li>Created “gifts” or manipulatives for learning </li></ul>
    7. 7. Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard (1775 - 1838) <ul><li>Was a great influence to Seguin who later taught Montessori </li></ul><ul><li>Made many breakthroughs in education of deaf and mentally retarded </li></ul><ul><li>Taught “The Wild Boy of Aveyron” </li></ul>Entrance courtyard, Institute for the Deaf, Paris
    8. 8. Edouard Seguin (1812 – 1880) <ul><li>Student of Itard </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly influenced Montessori in her quest to help “retarded” children </li></ul><ul><li>Searched for muscular exercises to help with mental and behavioral deficiencies </li></ul>
    9. 9. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) <ul><li>Was forming his theories of psychoanalysis at the same time Montessori was working on her theories </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote letter to Montessori to comment on mutual interests in child’s psyche </li></ul>
    10. 10. Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) <ul><li>Adopted many of her ideas of the ability to educate the mentally retarded from Itard </li></ul><ul><li>Was influence by Seguin to create the “Montessori Method,” relating knowledge to the senses </li></ul>Photo courtesy of NAMTA
    11. 11. Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) <ul><li>Ideas became internationally acclaimed </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson’s daughter became secretary in a Montessori school sponsored by Alexander Graham Bell </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914, William Kilpatrick published book that criticized Montessori’s “out-dated” research and the Montessori movement temporarily died in the US </li></ul>Photo courtesy of NAMTA
    12. 12. Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) <ul><li>“ I am a constructivist. I think that knowledge is a matter of constant, new construction, by its interaction with reality, and that it is not pre-formed. There is a continuous creativity.” </li></ul>
    13. 13. Activity <ul><li>Besides Maria Montessori, who do you think had the biggest impact on the history of educating children? </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to give one or two reasons for your answer. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Break Time!
    15. 15. Aspects of Development <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive/Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Moral </li></ul>
    16. 16. Physical Development in 6 - 9 <ul><li>Progress goes from “cherubic” to “messy” to almost a pre-teen look </li></ul><ul><li>Pincer grip refines </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-eye coordination improves </li></ul><ul><li>Gait becomes smoother </li></ul><ul><li>May see some signs of adolescence by 3 rd year </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm & grace develops (clapping routines) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Physical Development in 9 - 12 <ul><li>Pre-adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills, athletic skills, and grace go through growing periods </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor skills become refined </li></ul><ul><li>Females often taller and physically more mature than males </li></ul>
    18. 18. Social Development in 6 - 9 <ul><li>“ Best Friends” </li></ul><ul><li>Often with same gender </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness very “black & white” </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings easily hurt </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely will challenge an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Social manipulation sometimes takes place </li></ul>
    19. 19. Social Development in 9 - 12 <ul><li>Peers become extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>Friendships can cross gender lines </li></ul><ul><li>Social/emotional issues will often overshadow academic agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of social values </li></ul>
    20. 20. Emotional Development in 6 - 9 <ul><li>Generally very happy </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings easily hurt in 1 st year, gradually subsides </li></ul><ul><li>Rely heavily on adults for feelings of safety </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Instilling confidence is key </li></ul>
    21. 21. Emotional Development in 9 - 12 <ul><li>Emotional lull of 3 rd – early 4 th grade begins to give way to pre-adolescence by 4 th - 5 th </li></ul><ul><li>Important that confidence has been instilled up to this point </li></ul>
    22. 22. Cognitive/Intellectual Development in 6 - 9 <ul><li>Concrete to abstract </li></ul><ul><li>C-V-C to comprehension and fluidity in reading </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to see relationships and patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of subjects not usually automatic </li></ul>
    23. 23. Cognitive/Intellectual Development in 9 - 12 <ul><li>More work is abstract than in 6 - 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Can make connections across the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is becoming a skill rather than a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Practical uses of skills and concepts learned </li></ul><ul><li>( a + b ) 2 = </li></ul><ul><li>( a + b )( a + b )= </li></ul><ul><li>a 2 + 2 a b + b 2 </li></ul>
    24. 24. Moral Development in 6 - 9 <ul><li>Few grey areas in “right” vs. “wrong” </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings and impulses still sometimes overcome knowledge of what is right </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasing adults & peers often drives actions </li></ul><ul><li>Will remind adults of rules set </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy mediating </li></ul>
    25. 25. Moral Development in 9 - 12 <ul><li>Erikson’s “Industry vs. Inferiority” stage </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s “Authority Orientation” and perhaps beginnings of “Social Contract Orientation” </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy making own rules, consequences, peer judicial situations, classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>Student council, debate teams, Model UN </li></ul>
    26. 26. Take a break!
    27. 27. Theories of Development and Learning <ul><li>Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlberg </li></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsch </li></ul>
    28. 28. Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) <ul><li>Left seminary after reading Darwin’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Famous study of feeding dogs was originally a study of digestion </li></ul><ul><li>“ Conditioned reflex” </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorist theory of psychology </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>If a child lives with... by Dorothy Law Nolte </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with criticism. . . . . . he learns to condemn. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with hostility. . . . . . he learns to fight. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with fear. . . . . . . he learns to be apprehensive. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with honesty. . . . . . he learns what truth is. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with fairness. . . . . . he learns justice. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with security. . . . . . he learns to trust in himself and others. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with jealousy. . . . . . he learns to feel guilt. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with tolerance. . . . . . he learns to be patient. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with encouragement. . . . . . he learns to be confident. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with praise. . . . . . . he learns to be appreciative. </li></ul><ul><li>If a child lives with friendliness. . . . . . he learns the world is a nice place in which to live. </li></ul>
    30. 30. B. F. Skinner (1905-1990) <ul><li>Familiarized self with Pavlov and Watson while working at bookstore </li></ul><ul><li>Operant behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to create teaching machine </li></ul>
    31. 31. Piaget (1896-1980) <ul><li>General Periods of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Period 1: Sensori-Motor Intelligence (ages 0 – 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Period 2: Preoperational Thought (ages 2 – 7) </li></ul><ul><li>Period 3: Concrete Operations (ages 7 – 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Period 4: Formal Operations (ages 11 to adulthood) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Jerome Bruner (1915 - ) <ul><li>Greatly impacted curriculum development </li></ul><ul><li>Researched cultural impact upon an individual’s growth and learning (propaganda, WW II) </li></ul><ul><li>Proponent of giving children opportunities to develop interests and hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Founded Head Start </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm interested in the various institutional forms by which culture is passed on ... My preferred method of work in both instances is the anthropological-interpretive.&quot; </li></ul>
    33. 33. Erik Erikson (1902 - 1994) <ul><li>Believed that our personalities continued to develop throughout our lives, contradicting Freud’s theory that our personalities were in tact by age five. </li></ul><ul><li>8 psychosocial stages we go through in life </li></ul>
    34. 34. Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages <ul><li>Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (ages 2 – 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 4 – 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 – puberty) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescence) </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity vs. Stagnation (adulthood) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood) </li></ul>
    35. 35. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
    36. 36. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) <ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of play in child’s development </li></ul><ul><li>Three stages of speech development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentric Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Speech </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) <ul><li>Studied under Harry Harlow, famous for work with rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Formed theory that certain needs must be met before one can focus on other things: “Hierarchy of Needs” </li></ul>
    38. 38. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Chart courtesy of Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania
    39. 39. Benjamin Bloom (1913 – 1999) <ul><li>Created Bloom’s Taxonomy, a categorized level of abstraction used by educators </li></ul> / llschult.nsf /pages/blooms
    40. 40. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
    41. 41. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
    42. 42. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
    43. 43. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to infer analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain
    44. 44. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite
    45. 45. Bloom’s Taxonomy Students are required to assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize
    46. 46. Howard Gardner (1943 - ) <ul><li>Theory of Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual / Spatial Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical/Mathematical Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. E. D. Hirsch (1928 - ) <ul><li>“ Core Knowledge” program </li></ul><ul><li>What Your Kindergartener Needs to Know </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery learning takes time away from children learning “the basics” </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting all children with the same information will promote excellence and fairness in early education </li></ul>
    48. 48. For further study: <ul><li>Due to time constraints, these individuals were not covered, but have made great contributions to the science of educating children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dewey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gesell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Werner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chomsky </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Break time!
    50. 50. Assessment and Measurement of Status and Progress <ul><li>Types of Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norm-referenced tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards-based tests including CSAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project-based or research-based assessment </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. IQ Tests <ul><li>First created by Binet (Stanford-Binet) </li></ul><ul><li>Weschler </li></ul><ul><li>IQ: fixed or malleable? </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultural ideas of intelligence </li></ul>
    52. 52. Norm Reference Tests <ul><li>Compares scores to “norm group” </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes bell curve as ideal </li></ul><ul><li>One question can throw off </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally make questions for people to miss (lower socio-economic at disadvantage, worded to trick students) </li></ul><ul><li>Test the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>ERBs, Iowa Test of Basic Skills </li></ul>
    53. 53. Standardized vs. Standards-Based Tests <ul><li>Standardized tests operate along the bell curve </li></ul><ul><li>If lowest score was 80, that receives an “F” </li></ul><ul><li>If highest score was 40, that received an “A” </li></ul><ul><li>Standards-based tests have teachers teach certain standards </li></ul><ul><li>No surprises to students </li></ul><ul><li>Grading criteria set in advanced (rubrics) </li></ul><ul><li>CSAP is standards-based </li></ul>
    54. 54. Authentic Assessment <ul><li>Students demonstrate skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Science experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Write stories </li></ul><ul><li>Make materials </li></ul><ul><li>Give presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Give lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Solve real-life problems </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul>
    55. 55. Rubrics <ul><li>Lists specific criteria for project </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered (excellent, acceptable, needs improvement) </li></ul><ul><li>Are given when project is assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Progress reports: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working on concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul>
    56. 56. Project-based or Research-based Assessment <ul><li>Children do not think of these as “tests” </li></ul><ul><li>Are culminating activities following a unit of study </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can play a large role </li></ul><ul><li>Exciting, meaningful assessment </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>&quot;An interesting piece of work, freely chosen, which has the virtue of inducing concentration rather than fatigue, adds to the child's energies and mental capacities, and leads him to self-mastery.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- Maria Montessori </li></ul>
    58. 58. Student Presentations <ul><li>One page outline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ideas of a major theorist with regard to children ages 6-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or a description of any aspect of assessment and testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List 3 published primary or secondary references which are the sources of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Present the outline to the class and provide copies for all class members. (40 pts) </li></ul>
    59. 59. PowerPoint
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62.
    63. 63. [email_address]