Inb220 tt week 4 ch 8 oral nonverbal


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oral and nonverbal communication

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Inb220 tt week 4 ch 8 oral nonverbal

  1. 1. Week 4 Chapter 8
  2. 2. Topics Evaluate thought patterns Understand paralanguage Appreciate attitudes toward time and use of space Understand the role that eye contact, smell, color, touch, and body language have on communication Learn how silence is used
  3. 3. What is meant by nonverbal communication? Nonword messages, such as gestures, facial expressions, interpersonal distance, touch, eye contact, smell, and silence.
  4. 4. Cultural Differences in Patterns of Thought or Processes of Reasoning and Problem Solving Deductive reasoning - going from broad categories or observations to specific examples; U.S. persons use deductive reasoning. Observations Generalizations Observations Specifics Inductive reasoning - start with observations or facts and go to generalizations; Asians use inductive reasoning.
  5. 5. Thought Patterns Include Speed of Making Decisions U. S. managers make quick decisions. The Japanese use a slower method of problem solving.
  6. 6. Paralanguage - Refers to rate, volume, and quality that affects the meaning of the message. Increased volume = anger or a desire to be heard Increased rate of speech = impatience or anger
  7. 7. Differences in loudness of speech is culture specific and gender specific: Arabs speak loudly; this is an indication of strength and sincerity. People of the Philippines and Thailand speak softly; it indicates breeding and education. Males usually speak louder than females and at a lower pitch than females. Rate of speech varies with the region of the U.S.; Northerners speak faster than Southerners.
  8. 8. Areas of Nonverbal Communication Haptics (touch) Kinesics (body language) Chromatics (color) Silence Chronemics (time) Proxemics (space) Oculesics (gaze/eye contact) Olfactics (smell)
  9. 9. Time (Chronemics) - Attitudes toward time vary from culture to culture. Countries that follow monochronic time perform only one major activity at a time (U.S., England, Switzerland, Germany). Countries that follow polychronic time work on several activities simultaneously (Latin America, the Mediterranean, the Arabs).
  10. 10. Monochronic/Polychronic Cultures Monochronic People • do one thing at a time • concentrate on the job • take time commitments seriously • are committed to the job • show respect for private property; rarely borrow or lend • are accustomed to short-term relationships Polychronic People • do many things at once • are highly distractible • consider time commitments casually • are committed to people • borrow and lend things often • tend to build lifetime relationships
  11. 11. Cultural Differences in Attitudes Toward Time U.S. persons: very time conscious and value punctuality. Late for meetings > rude, insensitive and person is not well organized. Germans and Swiss people: even more time conscious; people of Singapore and Hong Kong also value punctuality. Algeria: punctuality is not widely regarded. Latin American countries: manana attitude; Arab cultures: casual attitude
  12. 12. Space (Proxemics) People in the U.S. tend to need more space than do persons of other cultures. U.S. persons back away when people stand too close. Standing too close: Interpreted as being pushy or overbearing; may also be interpreted as unwelcomed sexual advances.
  13. 13. Space Zones in the U.S. intimate zone (<18 inches) is reserved for very close friends personal zone (18 inches to 4 feet) is for giving instructions to others or working closely with another person social zone (4 to 12 feet) is used in business situations in which people interact in a more formal, impersonal way public distance > 12 feet Hall & Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences 12 feet18 inches intimate zone personal zone public social zone The Japanese stand even farther away than do U.S. persons.
  14. 14. Elevator Proxemics Fig Leaf Position (hands/purses/ briefcases hanging down in front of the body), and positioning themselves in the corners or against the elevator walls. Everyone is supposed to look straight ahead or at the elevator buttons. Looking at people, facing people is considered “unusual” Image source:
  15. 15. The Office Environment and Nonverbal Messages U.S. persons prefer desks and chairs in a F2F arrangement or at right angles Chinese prefer the side-by-side arrangement. In the U.S. offices with windows matters; size matters; top floor has more status than the 1st floor. French top-level executives occupy the middle of an office area with subordinates around them. The Japanese do not consider private offices appropriate; only the highest ranking officers have private offices and may have desks in large work areas as well.
  16. 16. Gaze/Eye Contact (Oculesics) People in the U.S. favor direct eye contact, in other cultures, such as the Japanese, the reverse is true; they direct their gaze below the chin. In the Middle East, eye contact is more intense than U.S. people are comfortable with. A prolonged gaze or stare in the U.S. is considered rude. In most cultures, men do not stare at women as this may be interpreted as sexually suggestive.
  17. 17. Smell (Olfactics) Although people of the U.S. respond negatively to body odors, Arabs are comfortable with natural body odors. Other cultures in which smell plays an important role include the Japanese and Samoans.
  18. 18. Touch (Haptics) Touch, when used properly, may create feelings of warmth and trust; when used improperly, touch may cause annoyance and betray trust. Hierarchy is a consideration when using touch in the U.S.: people who are older or higher rank may touch those who are younger or of lower rank; equals may touch each other.
  19. 19. “Don't Touch” Cultures Japan U.S. and Canada England Scandinavia Other N. European countries Image source:
  20. 20. Middle Ground Countries Australia France China Ireland India Middle East countries Image source:
  21. 21. “Touch” Cultures Latin American countries Italy Greece Spain and Portugal Some Asian countries Russian Federation Image source:
  22. 22. Location of the Touch Is Important Appropriate touch in the U.S. is limited to shaking hands in business situations - no hugs or expressions of affection. In Thailand do not touch the head. In Thailand do not touch the head. Do not touch Asians on the shoulders or even the back of the worker's chair. Avoid touching a person with the left hand in the Middle East.
  23. 23. Body Language (Kinesics) Body language includes facial expressions, gestures, and posture and stance. To interpret facial expressions correctly, it is important to take the communication context and culture into account. People in some cultures rarely show emotion (China); Asians will smile or laugh softly when they are embarrassed.
  24. 24. Facial Expressions The face and eyes convey the most expressive types of body language, including happiness, surprise, fear, anger, interest, and determination. Facial expressions must be controlled when inappropriate to the setting (yawning during a presentation).
  25. 25. Gestures Emblems or symbols ("V" for victory) Illustrators (police officer's hand held up to stop traffic) Regulators (glancing at watch when in a hurry) Affect displays (a person's face turns red with embarrassment) Image source:
  26. 26. General Guidelines U.S. Gestures Interest is expressed by maintaining eye contact with the speaker, smiling, and nodding the head. Open-mindedness is expressed by open hands and palms turned upward. Nervousness is sometimes shown by fidgeting, failing to give the speaker eye contact, or jingling keys or money in your pocket.
  27. 27. General Guidelines U.S. Gestures Suspiciousness is indicated by glancing away or touching your nose, eyes, or ears. Defensiveness is indicated by crossing your arms over your chest, making fisted gestures, or crossing your legs. Lack of interest or boredom is indicated by glancing repeatedly at your watch or staring at the ceiling or floor or out the window when the person is speaking.
  28. 28. Additional Guidelines for Gesturing in Various Cultures The “V” for victory gesture, holding two fingers upright, with palm and fingers faced outward, is widely used in the U.S. and many other countries. In England, however, it is a crude connotation when used with the palm in.
  29. 29. The vertical horns gesture (raised fist, index finger and little finger extended) has an insulting connotation in Italy In Brazil and Venezuela it is a sign for good luck This symbol has various meanings in U.S. subcultures and should be used only when you are sure the other person understands its intended meaning Image source:
  30. 30. Thumbs Up and Head Nod… The thumbs-up gesture has been widely recognized as a positive signal meaning “everything is O.K.” or “good going.” Although well known in North America and most of Europe, in Australia and West Africa it is seen as a rude gesture. The head nod in most countries means “yes,” but in Bulgaria it means “no.” Image source:
  31. 31. OK The “O.K.” sign, is a positive gesture in the U.S., while in Brazil it is considered obscene. In Japan, this gesture means money. Image source:
  32. 32. Come here… The beckoning gesture (fingers upturned, palm facing the body) used by people in the U.S. for summoning a waiter, for example, is offensive to Filipinos, as it is used to beckon animals and prostitutes. Vietnamese and Mexicans also find it offensive. Image source:
  33. 33. Posture and Stance Posture can convey self-confidence, status, and interest. Confident people have a relaxed posture, yet stand erect and walk with assurance. Walking with stooped shoulders and a slow, hesitating gait projects negative messages of lack of confidence.
  34. 34. Posture and Stance Interest is demonstrated by leaning forward toward the person with whom you are conversing. The posture of U.S. persons is casual, including sitting in a relaxed manner and slouching when standing (considered rude in Germany). Posture when seated varies with the culture; U.S. persons often cross their legs while seated (women at the ankle and men with the ankle on the knee).
  35. 35. Follow the lead of the person of the other culture; assume the posture they assume. Most Middle Easterners would consider crossing the leg with the ankle on the knee inappropriate. Avoid showing the sole of your shoe or pointing your foot at someone in the Arab world.
  36. 36. Color (Chromatics)- has cultural variations in connotations. Black is the colour of mourning in the U.S., but white is worn to funerals by the Japanese and Indians. In the U.S. white is typically worn by brides, while in India red or yellow is worn. Purple is sometimes associated with royalty, but it is the color of death in Mexico and Brazil. Red (especially red roses) is associated with romance in some cultures including the U.S.
  37. 37. Color (Chromatics) Image source:
  38. 38. United Airlines, during its initial flights from Hong Kong handed out white carnations to the passengers to commemorate the occasion. To many Asians, it means bad luck and even death. They changed to red carnations. Image source:
  39. 39. Silence Although U.S. persons are uncomfortable with silence, people from the Middle East are quite comfortable with silence. The Japanese also like periods of silence and do not like to be hurried. Such Japanese proverbs as, “Those who know do not speak - those who speak do not know,” emphasize the value of silence over words in that culture. In Italy, Greece, and Arabian countries, on the other hand, there is very little silence.
  40. 40. 40 Homework
  41. 41. Image source: