Inb220 tt week 3 ch 5 cultural values


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Inb220 tt week 3 ch 5 cultural values

  1. 1. Week 3 Chapter 5
  2. 2. Topics Semantic Differences Attribution and Perception Attitudes Toward Women Work Attitudes Attitudes Toward Ethics Religious Influences Individualism and Collectivism
  3. 3. What are Values? Social principles, goals, or standards accepted by persons in a culture. They are learned by contacts with the family, teachers, and religious leaders. The media also may influence one‘s value system.
  4. 4. Values Rituals Heroes Symbols Hofstede‘s ―Cultural Onion‖ Diagram Symbols - words, artifacts, pictures that carry a special meaning or significance Heroes - persons admired by the society as a whole Rituals - festivals, ways of paying respect, ‗hanging out‘ trends Values - good vs. bad, dirty vs. clean, ugly vs. beautiful, unnatural vs. natural, abnormal vs. normal, paradoxical vs. logical, irrational vs. rational
  5. 5. Cultural Contrasts in Values Image source: Americans Japanese Arabs Freedom Belonging Family security Independence Group harmony Family harmony Self-reliance Collectivism Parental guidance Equality Age/Seniority Age Individualism Group consensus Authority
  6. 6. Semantic Differences Semantics - the study of the meaning of words; involves the way behavior is influenced by words and nonverbal means of communication. Example: A U.S. American, while traveling in Bolivia, observed that drivers rarely stopped at the red octagonal sign with the word ―alto,‖ the Spanish word for ―stop.‖ A local Bolivian explained that in that country, the stop sign is more a recommendation than a traffic law.
  7. 7. Attribution and Perception Attribution - the ability to look at social behavior from another culture’s view Attribution training - involves making people aware of their own cultural context and how it differs from that of the host country Perception - the learned meaning of sensory images Uncertainty-reduction theory - “involves the creation of proactive predictions and retroactive explanations about our own and others’ behavior, beliefs, and attitudes” (Gudykunst & Ting-Toomy, 1988, p. 22).
  8. 8. Uncertainty Avoidance - the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations. Extreme uncertainty creates anxiety. Like values, feelings of uncertainty and how to deal with it are acquired and learned. Ways of coping with uncertainty are part of our cultural heritage; they are reinforced by the family, school and government. Image source:
  9. 9. Uncertainty Avoidance Countries whose anxiety level is low are said to have low or weak uncertainty avoidance. Low ranking countries are USA, India, Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, and Singapore. In weak countries people are controlled, easy-going, quiet, and do not show emotions. Since stress cannot be released, people die from coronary heart disease! The more anxious cultures are said to have strong uncertainty avoidance. Latin American, Latin European, and Mediterranean countries plus Japan and South Korea had high rankings. The more anxious cultures tend to be more expressive; they talk with their hands and show their emotions (Japan is an exception).
  10. 10. Differences Between Weak/Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Societies Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Citizen protest acceptable Citizen protest should be repressed Civil servants positive toward political process Civil servants negative toward political process Positive attitudes toward young Negative attitudes toward your people One group‘s truth should not be There is only one truth – ours imposed on others Human rights: fundamentalism and intolerance Religious, political, ideological persecuted for their beliefs Scientific opponents can be personal friends Scientific opponents cannot be personal friends
  11. 11. GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Uncertainty Avoidance Defined as tendency toward orderliness, consistency, structure, and regulation Related to societal, economic, and organizational values Higher values found with higher team orientation, humane orientation, and self- protective leadership Lower values found with lower participative and charismatic leadership values
  12. 12. Attitudes Toward Women Influenced by cultural roots--U.S. women are supposed to have the same rights as men while in Kenya women are considered subordinate to men. Gender differences in the U.S. workplace are de-emphasized - women are accepted at higher levels in government and in many corporations.
  13. 13. U.S. women have taken two-thirds of new jobs created; they are starting new businesses at twice the rate of men. In France, one- fifth of small businesses are owned by women; in Canada, the rate is one- third. The U.S. and Canada lead the world in the number of women in executive positions; Northern and Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand also have high numbers of women managers.
  14. 14. Percentage of Women in Top Management Positions Japan 6 to 8.9% United States 5.1% United Kingdom 3.6% Germany 3.0% France 2.0% Australia 1.3%
  15. 15. Work Attitudes Work ethic - hard work is applauded and rewarded; failure to work is viewed negatively. U.S. persons value work; U.S. senior- level executives work far more and take fewer vacations than those in many European countries.
  16. 16. 2002 - Weekly Hours Worked Country Weekly Working Hours China 47.9 India 47.3 South Korea 46.2 Singapore 46.0 New Zealand 44.9 Mexico 43.3 United States 42.6 Japan 42.2 England 39.6 Germany 38.7 Canada 31.9
  17. 17. Cultural Attitudes Toward Work Europeans have a relaxed attitude toward work; many businesses close during the month of August when people go on vacation. Most Europeans do not work on weekends or holidays. The French take longer vacations than any other country. Australians value free time; they have the shortest working hours of any country in the world. The Japanese work Monday through Friday, often 18 hours a day.
  18. 18. Ethical behaviour means acting with integrity, honesty, competence, respect, fairness, trust, courage, and responsibility. Ethical standards are guidelines established to convey what is perceived to be correct or incorrect behavior by most people in a society.
  19. 19. Ethics: The Four-Way Test Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it build goodwill and better friendships? Will it be beneficial to all concerned?
  20. 20. Personal vs. Societal Ethics Personal ethics • may vary from person to person • often influenced by religious beliefs, cultural backgrounds, or personal experience Societal ethics • rules of conduct shared by most people in a culture • agreed-upon standards of behavior
  21. 21. Standards of Business Ethics are Culturally Relative The Islamic standard of ethics is based on participating in religious ceremonies, adhering to codes of sexual behavior, and honoring one‘s parents. South Africans and the Chinese use ―backdoor connections‖ for conducting business. In Brazil and Spain, unorthodox accounting and taxation practices are used. The nonsanctity of legal contracts causes problems when dealing with the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese.
  22. 22. In the U.S., Australia, and Europe, lifestyle and religion are separate. In northern Africa and southern Asia, religion is a lifestyle and directly affects work. The separation of church and state is followed in the U.S. In Islamic countries religion affects all aspects of life. Religious Influences
  23. 23. Religious Influences Muslims stop work five times a day to pray. Religion is not a significant part of life in China; the ideology of communism endorses atheism. Religion affects what people eat in some countries. beef is not eaten by Hindus pork is consumed by neither Muslims nor Orthodox Jews Image source:
  24. 24. Individualism and Collectivism Individualism - attitude of valuing ourselves as separate individuals with responsibility for our own destinies and actions. Collectivism - emphasizes common interests, conformity, cooperation, and interdependence. The Hofstede and GLOBE studies Hofstede’s uses a linear scale GLOBE has multiple levels In-group collectivism Institutional collectivism
  25. 25. Power Distance Inequality within society Power, wealth, status, and social position Physical Intellectual Index measures the degree of acceptance of unequal distribution of power. Both Hofstede and GLOBE agree on this construct.
  26. 26. Gender Indices - Hofstede‘s Masculinity and Femininity Index measures assertiveness versus modesty. 'masculine' cultures, people (whether male or female) value competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions 'feminine' cultures, people (again whether male or female) value relationships and quality of life Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life
  27. 27. Gender Indices- GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) study - gender egalitarianism (equality) measures roles men and women are suited for. Denmark and New Zealand most gender egalitarian; Eastern Europe and Nordic Europe Iran and Qatar are the least gender egalitarian; Middle East, Confucian Asia, Germanic Europe
  28. 28. Long-term versus Short-term Goals—Future Orientation Long-term orientation Short-term orientation Concerned with bottom line, control systems, respecting tradition, and preserving face Fulfilling social obligations Concerned with future, perseverance, thrift, hard work, learning, openness, accountability, self- discipline Family and work are not separated
  29. 29. 30 Homework
  30. 30. Image source: