Inb220 tt week 1 ch 2 working in teams


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Inb220 tt week 1 ch 2 working in teams

  1. 1. Week 1
  2. 2. Agenda Review of Chapter 1 Ice Breaker Chapter 2
  3. 3. What are teams and groups? Does everyone use teams? Do groups and teams go through stages while they work? How do we create effective teams? How do virtual teams works? Are teams always the answer? Objectives
  4. 4. Teams • A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another. Groups • Two or more people with a common relationship. Teams vs. Groups: What’s the Difference?
  5. 5. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience better utilize employee talents can quickly assemble, deploy, refocus, and disband effective means for management to democratize their organizations and increase employee motivation
  6. 6. Exhibit 2-1 Stages of Group Development and Accompanying Issues (The Five-Stage Model)
  7. 7. Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time. Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage. Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group. Context can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stage.
  8. 8. Exhibit 2-2 The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Completion Transition First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 (High) (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time B Performance temporary groups with deadlines have their own unique sequence of action (or inaction)
  9. 9. Your Groups See Exhibit 2-3 on page 44
  10. 10. Exhibit 2-4 A Model of Team Effectiveness Team effectiveness Context • adequate resources • leadership and structure • climate of trust • performance evaluation and rewards Composition • skills • personality • roles • diversity • size • members’ flexibility • members’ preference for teamwork Work design • autonomy • skill variety • task identity • task significance Process • common purpose • specific goals • team efficacy • mental models • managed level of conflict • accountabil- ity
  11. 11. Creating Effective Teams – Context Adequate Resources Leadership and Structure Climate of Trust Performance Evaluation and Rewards
  12. 12. Creating Effective Teams – Composition Skills Personality Roles Diversity Size Member Flexibility Members’ Preference for Teamwork
  13. 13. Skills Technical expertise Problem-solving and decision-making skills Interpersonal skills
  14. 14. Personality 3 key traits (also see Exhibit 2-5 on page 50) Conscientious - good at helping others and sensing when support is needed Openness to experience - better communication and better ideas Team member agreeableness - more creative and innovative Image source:
  15. 15. Roles – expected behaviour patterns of a person in a given position in a social unit Task-oriented roles Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished. Maintenance roles Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group. Individual roles Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task.
  16. 16. Exhibit 2-6 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment
  17. 17. Exhibit 2-6 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team Source: “Team Processes,” in Managing for the Future, ed. D. Ancona, T. Kochan, M. Scully, J. Van Maanen, and D. E. Westney (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western CollegePublishing, 1996), p. 9. • Mediating conflict among other members, reconciling disagreements, relieving tensions.Harmonizing • Admitting error at times of group conflict.Compromising • Making sure all members have a chance to express their ideas and feelings and preventing members from being interrupted. Gatekeeping • Helping a group member make his/her point. Establishing a climate of acceptance in the group. Encouraging
  18. 18. Break 10 minutes
  19. 19. Group Diversity Individuals within a group can be different in functional characteristics (jobs, positions, expertise, or work experience) but also in demographic or cultural characteristics (age, race, sex, and citizenship)
  20. 20. Is building a team just from people who are friends a good idea? best for problem-solving and decision-making tasks diversity can bring added benefits to a team team member must have some common values need to be willing to share information about themselves early on 10 min sharing personal information lowers group conflict and improves creative performance if not shared initially, less likely to do so later on
  21. 21. Exhibit 2-7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Source: Adapted from N. J. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 4th ed., p. 109. Copyright © 2002. By permission of South-Western CollegePublishing, a division of International Thomson Publishing, Cincinnati, OH 45227. Advantages • Multiple perspectives • Greater openness to new ideas • Multiple interpretations • Increased creativity • Increased flexibility • Increased problem-solving skills Disadvantages • Ambiguity • Complexity • Confusion • Miscommunication • Difficulty in reaching a single agreement • Difficulty in agreeing on specific actions
  22. 22. Group Size and Social Loafing 4-5 members to have diversity of views < 10 members is ideal Social loafing: less effort when working in a group than when working individually Belief that others are not carrying their fair share – reduce your own effort No one person is responsible so relationship between input and output is not clear
  23. 23. Team Member Attributes Member Flexibility The ability of team members to complete each others’ tasks. Members’ Preference for Teamwork Team members who would prefer to work on their own threaten the team’s morale.
  24. 24. Work Design Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks. They must be more than a “team-in-name- only.”
  25. 25. Team Process Common Purpose Specific Goals Team Efficacy Managed Level of Conflict Accountability
  26. 26. Exhibit 2-8 Relationship Between Team Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity Cohesiveness Low High High productivity Moderate productivity Low productivity Moderate to low productivity PerformanceNorms High Low Performance norms: high output, quality work, cooperation with individuals outside of the group
  27. 27. 21st Century Teamwork: Virtual Teams limited social contact can led to bonding problems absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues – less social rapport and are more at risk of misunderstanding one another
  28. 28. Exhibit 2-9 An Illustration of a Virtual Workspace Source: Reprinted by permission of Shell Chemical LP.
  29. 29. Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer Teams work best when the answer is yes:  Can the work be done better by more than one person?  Does work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals?  Are members of the group interdependent?
  30. 30. Breakout Group Exercises – read p67 – POINT/COUNTERPOINT
  31. 31. Breakout Group Exercise One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. In general this group member is engaging in social loafing. What can the members of your group do to reduce social loafing?
  32. 32. 32 Homework