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1. introduction

ICT Project Management is an IOE syllabus based subject. It provides introductory information about project management, its objectives, classification of project and projectts life cycle.Provided by Project Management Sir of KU.

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1. Introduction
ICT Project ManagementUnit 1
Project
• A project is a temporary venture undertaken to create a
unique product, service, or result
– Temporary– definite beginning and end
– End– objectives have been achieved
– Terminated– objectives can not be met
Temporary does not apply to product, service or result created by
the project
• Project creates unique product, service or result although
repetitive element may be present in some deliverable but it
does not change fundamental uniqueness
Although buildings are constructed with similar materials and
same team, but each location and design is unique
Project
• Project can create
• Product, can be either a component of another item or an end
item in itself
• A capability to perform a service
• A result such as item or document( e.g. a research project )
• Some examples of project
– Developing new product or service
– Effecting a change in the structure, staffing, or style of an
organization
– Developing or acquiring a new or modified information
system
– Implementing a new business process or procedure
Additional Definitions
• A project is a unique venture with a beginning and
an end, conducted by people to meet established
goals within parameters of cost, schedule and
quality
– Buchanan & Boddy 92
• Projects are goal-oriented, involve the coordinated
undertaking of interrelated activities, are of finite
duration, and are all, to a degree unique
– Frame 95
Projects
• Examples of projects
– Split the atom
– Fast track between Kathmandu - Hetauda
– Introduce Windows 10
– Melamchi Water Project
“Projects, rather than repetitive tasks, are now
the basis for most value-added in business”
-Tom Peters

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1. introduction

  • 3. Project • A project is a temporary venture undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result – Temporary– definite beginning and end – End– objectives have been achieved – Terminated– objectives can not be met Temporary does not apply to product, service or result created by the project • Project creates unique product, service or result although repetitive element may be present in some deliverable but it does not change fundamental uniqueness Although buildings are constructed with similar materials and same team, but each location and design is unique
  • 4. Project • Project can create • Product, can be either a component of another item or an end item in itself • A capability to perform a service • A result such as item or document( e.g. a research project ) • Some examples of project – Developing new product or service – Effecting a change in the structure, staffing, or style of an organization – Developing or acquiring a new or modified information system – Implementing a new business process or procedure
  • 5. Additional Definitions • A project is a unique venture with a beginning and an end, conducted by people to meet established goals within parameters of cost, schedule and quality – Buchanan & Boddy 92 • Projects are goal-oriented, involve the coordinated undertaking of interrelated activities, are of finite duration, and are all, to a degree unique – Frame 95
  • 6. Projects • Examples of projects – Split the atom – Fast track between Kathmandu - Hetauda – Introduce Windows 10 – Melamchi Water Project “Projects, rather than repetitive tasks, are now the basis for most value-added in business” -Tom Peters
  • 7. Project Management • The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements • Comprise of several logically grouped project management processes and 5 process groups – Initiating – Planning – Executing – Monitoring and Controlling – Closing • Managing a project typically includes – Identifying the requirements – Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders as the project is planned and carried out – Balancing the competing project constraints is an iterative process and goes through progressive expansion
  • 8. Project Life Cycle • Most projects go through similar stages on the path from origin to completion. These stages are defined as the project’s life cycle • The project can be mapped in the following life cycle structure – Starting the project – Organizing and preparing – Carrying the project work – Closing the project • The pattern of slow-rapid-slow progress toward the project goal is common – This phenomena can be observed in the construction of a building
  • 10. Elements of Projects • Complex, one-time processes – Are complex because they typically require the coordinated inputs of numerous members – Exists only until its goal has been met, and is dissolved • Limited by budget, schedule, and resources • Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals – Its goals, or deliverables, define the nature of the project – Designed to yield a tangible result( product or service) • Customer-focused – Both internal as well as external
  • 11. General Project Characteristics • Unplanned activities with a clear life cycle • Building blocks in the design and execution of organizational strategies • Responsible for the newest and most improved products, services, and organizational processes • Provide a philosophy and strategy for the management of change
  • 12. General Project Characteristics • Involve crossing functional and organization boundaries • Traditional management functions of planning, organizing, motivating, directing, and controlling apply • Principal outcomes are the satisfaction of customer requirements within technical, cost, and schedule restrictions • Terminated upon successful completion
  • 13. • A project – has a unique purpose – is temporary – is developed using progressive elaboration – requires resources, often from various areas – should have a primary customer or sponsor • The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project – involves uncertainty More Project Characteristics
  • 14. Process & Project Management Process 1. Repeat process or product 2. Several objectives 3. Ongoing 4. People are homogeneous 5. Systems in place to integrate efforts 6. Performance, cost, & time known 7. Part of the line organization 8. support of established practice 9. Supports status quo Project 1. New process or product 2. One objective 3. One shot – limited life 4. More heterogeneous 5. Systems must be created to integrate efforts 6. Performance, cost & time less certain 7. Outside of line organization 8. Violates established practice 9. Upsets status quo
  • 15. Project Success Rates • Software & hardware projects fail at a 65% rate • Over half of all IT projects become runaways ( over budget and over time) • Up to 75% of all software projects are cancelled • Only 2.5% of global businesses achieve 100% project success • Average success of business-critical application development projects is 35%
  • 16. Why are Projects Important? 1. Shortened product life cycles 2. Narrow product launch windows 3. Increasingly complex and technical products 4. Emergence of global markets 5. Economic period marked by low inflation
  • 18. • A team of students creates a smart phone application and sells it online • A company develops a driverless car • A small software development team adds a new feature to an internal software application for the finance department • A college upgrades its technology infrastructure to provide wireless Internet access across the whole campus Examples of IT Projects
  • 19. The Triple Constraint of Project Management
  • 20. Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint (project scope, time, and cost goals) and also facilitate the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of project stakeholders The Triple Constraint of Project Management
  • 22. • Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities • Stakeholders include – the project sponsor – the project manager – the project team – support staff – customers – users – suppliers – opponents to the project Project Stakeholders
  • 23. • Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop • Project managers must have knowledge and skills in all 10 knowledge areas (project integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resource, communications, risk, procurement, and stakeholder management) Project Management Knowledge Areas
  • 24. • Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management • Some specific ones include – Project charter, scope statement, and WBS (scope) – Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) – Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) Project Management Tools and Techniques
  • 25. • “Super tools” are those tools that have high use and high potential for improving project success, such as: – Software for task scheduling (such as project management software) – Scope statements – Requirements analyses – Lessons-learned reports • Tools already extensively used that have been found to improve project importance include: – Progress reports – Kick-off meetings – Gantt charts – Change requests Super Tools
  • 26. • There are several ways to define project success: – The project met scope, time, and cost goals – The project satisfied the customer/sponsor – The results of the project met its main objective, such as making or saving a certain amount of money, providing a good return on investment, or simply making the sponsors happy Project Success
  • 27. • A program is “a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually” (PMBOK® Guide, Fifth Edition, 2012) • A program manager provides leadership and direction for the project managers heading the projects within the program • Examples of common programs in the IT field include infrastructure, applications development, and user support Program and Project Portfolio Management
  • 28. • As part of project portfolio management, organizations group and manage projects and programs as a portfolio of investments that contribute to the entire enterprise’s success • Portfolio managers help their organizations make wise investment decisions by helping to select and analyze projects from a strategic perspective Project Portfolio Management
  • 29. Project Management Compared to Project Portfolio Management
  • 30. • A best practice is “an optimal way recognized by industry to achieve a stated goal or objective” • Robert B. suggests that organizations need to follow basic principles of project management: – Make sure your projects are driven by your strategy. Be able to demonstrate how each project you undertake fits your business strategy, and screen out unwanted projects as soon as possible – Engage your stakeholders. Ignoring stakeholders often leads to project failure. Be sure to engage stakeholders at all stages of a project, and encourage teamwork and commitment at all times Best Practice
  • 34. • Some people argue that building the Egyptian pyramids was a project, as was building the Great Wall of China • Most people consider the Manhattan Project to be the first project to use “modern” project management History of Project Management
  • 35. Classification of Projects • Originally project management techniques tended to be applied to large construction or defense projects. • Many new style projects exist which vary in size, length and complexity. They can include installing ICT systems, office moves, testing a new product, acquiring or merging with another organization, an internal change program and a host of other areas of work • Whether in manufacturing, financial services, retail, health service or local government there is usually one person, the project leader who is in charge
  • 36. Classification of Projects According to Funding: – Private Sector project – Government sector project – Grant project – Loan Project According to the Foreign aided project: – Joint venture project – Bilateral project (KOICA, DANIDA) – Multilateral project According to Techniques: – Labor intensive technique – Capital intensive technique
  • 37. Classification of Projects • According to Function: – Disaster prevention projects – Development projects – Service sector projects – Environment friendly projects etc • According to the Orientation: – Product oriented (window 10, building, roads, bridges) – Process oriented (repair of a boiler)
  • 38. Classification of Projects According to Nature of project: – Simple – Complex – Innovative – Emergency According to time frame and speed: – Normal – Crash
  • 39. The Project Management Process – Clearly define the project objective. – Divide and subdivide the project scope into major “pieces” – Define the specific activities for each piece (work package) – Graphically portray the activities that need to be performed from each work package in order to accomplish the project objective – in the form of network diagram. – Make a time estimate for how long it will take to complete each activity – resources needed. – Make a cost estimate for each activity. – Calculate a project schedule and budget to determine whether the project can be completed within the required time, with the allotted funds, and with the available resources
  • 40. Advantages of Project Management • Better efficiency in delivering services- provides roadmap • Improved customer satisfaction- get a project done on time and under budget, the client will be happy • Enhanced effectiveness in delivering services- strategies that allowed you to successfully complete one project will serve you many times over. • Improved growth and development within a team- get respect and continue to perform more efficiently • Greater position and competitive edge
  • 41. Advantages of Project Management • Opportunities to expand services- great performance leads to more opportunities to succeed. • Better flexibility- project management allows for flexibility. It allows to map out the strategy you want to take see your project completed. • Increased risk assessment- project management provides a red flag at the right time before you start working on project completion. • Increase in quality- with enhanced effectiveness. • Increase in quantity- an increase in quantity is often the result of better efficiency
  • 42. Setting of Project Objectives • SMART – Specific – Measurable – Achievable – Realistic – Time framed
  • 43. Feasibility Study • prima facie (Latin ): at first sight